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(187 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Balkans, languages (Στόβοι/ Stóboi). City in Paeonia (Paeones, Paeonia) with an Illyrian/Thracian/Macedonian population, on the route through the valley of the Axios from Thessalonica to the Ister [1] (Danube), at the mouth of the Erigonus (Str. 8,8,5). Macedonian probably since Antigonus [3], who re-established S. as Antigoneia (Plin. HN 4,34). After the Roman peace of 168 BC the city belonged to the 2nd merís ('region') of Macedonia, …


(168 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (ᾈανή; Aianḗ). Macedonian town in  Elimea, 23 km south of the modern Kozani on the left bank of the  Haliacmon. Excavations have pointed to a prosperous settlement of the late Bronze Age to the 1st cent. BC, still verifiable for AD 100 [4. 15]. It was an important town in the classical and Hellenistic periods (myth of its foundation: Steph. Byz. s. v. A.), probably a royal seat with two stoas, and columned buildings with finds of imported Attic ceramics of the 5th cent. BC. Probably seat of the   koinon of the Elimiotae [1. 35, 36]. Resettled and re…


(874 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
(Πέτρα/ Pétra, 'rock') [German version] [1] Capital of the Nabataean Empire This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Theatre | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | India, trade with | Limes | Rome | Rome | Egypt Capital of the Nabataean kingdom (Nabataei) in Edom, about 80 km to the south of the Dead Sea in the Wādı̄ Mūsā (in modern Jordan). The city is first mentioned by Diodorus [18] under the name Pétra (Diod. Sic. 19, 95-98) as the Nabataei's place of refuge and assembly ('High place, rock'). The inscriptionally documented Semitic name of P. is Raqmu. Although the surrounding are…


(76 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Ἐορδαία, Ἐορδία; Eordaía, Eordía). Macedonian landscape east of Lyncus, west of Bermion, northeast of the watershed of the Haliacmon. Cities of E. were Arnisa, Cellis, Boceria. In 167 BC E. was annexed to Macedonia IV (Liv. 45,30,6). The via Egnatia led through E., in the Roman Imperial period apparently a civitas. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography N. G. L. Hammond, A History of Macedonia I, 1972, 106-110 F. Papazoglou, Les villes de Macédoine, 1988, 159-169.


(48 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Ἁλιάκμων; Haliákmōn). Largest southern Macedonian river, flows through the lands of Orestis, Elimea and Pieria and empties into the Thermaic Gulf. An important route to Thessaly ran through the lower H. valley. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. H. (2), RE Suppl. 11, 674f.


(54 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] Fortress in Dassaretia near Antigonea (modern Berat); captured in 200 BC by L. Apustius (Liv. 31,27,2). Probably identical to Gerus (Γεροῦς; Geroûs), that was conquered by Philip V in 217 BC (Pol. 5,108,8). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography N. G. L. Hammond, Illyris, Rome and Macedon in 229-205 B.C., in: JRS 58, 1968, 16.


(45 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Δάτον, Δάτος; Dáton, Dátos). Thracian region north-east of the Pangaeum mountains; here we find the Thasian mining colony of Crenides which was conquered c. 356 BC by Philip II and was absorbed into the newly founded Philippi. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)


(57 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Βαφύρας; Baphýras). River in Pieria, rising at Mount Olympus, then named Helicon, and discharging into the Aegean east of Dion. After an underground run of about 5 km, it continued above ground, and was navigable from Dion (Paus. 9,30,8). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography N. G. L. Hammond, A History of Macedonia 1, 1972, 125.


(91 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Ἄζωρος; Ázōros). City belonging to the tripolis of the  Perrhaebi (Str. 7,7,9), near the present-day city of Vuvala, by the Sarandaporos. Although first mentioned as a Macedonian fort in 317 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,52,6), A. appears to date from much earlier. Probably as a member of the Perrhaebi alliance in the 2nd cent. BC, A. managed to settle a border dispute with  Mondaea (Syll3 638). Disputed territory in the 3rd Macedonian War (Pol. 28,13; Liv. 42,53,6; 44,2,8). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924…


(156 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Λείβεθρα; Leíbethra). Macedonian city between Dion [II 2] and Heracleon [2] near modern Leptokarya (cf. Str. 7, fr. 18); its territorium bordered on Gonni [1. no. 2]. In the 3rd cent. BC, L. was considered to be autonomous as it received Delphian theōroí (‘envoys’) [2. 17 l. 52], but it obviously became merged with the Roman colony of Dion [II 2] (CIL III 591). According to Str. 9,2,25, L. was sacred to the Muses; Pausanias heard in Larisa the story that Orpheus had been buried in L. but after a severe flood his bones h…


(79 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Δράβησκος; Drábēskos). City of the Edones near Zdravik c. 12 km north of  Amphipolis, where the Athenians were defeated by the Thracians in c. 465 BC (Thuc. 1,100,4). Traces of settlement are existing up into the Roman Imperial period, when D. was a station on the via Egnatia (Tab. Peut.: Daravescos). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography F. Papazoglou, Les villes de Macédoine, 1988, 391f. TIR K 35,1, 25.


(184 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Περραιβοί; Perrhaiboí). Tribe on the western slopes of Olympus [1] on the border between Thessalia and Macedonia. Still independent in Homer (Hom. Il. 2,749) , in the 5th cent. BC they were dependent on the Thessali, particularly on Larisa [3], as tributary períoikoi (Thuc. 4,78,6; Str. 9,5,19). From the period of their independence they retained two votes in the Delphic Amphictyonic Council  ( Amphiktyonía ), until Philip [4] II took one vote from them (346 BC). With Thessalia, the P. belonged to the Macedonian Kingdom unt…


(86 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Μόρρυλος/ Mόrrylos). City in Macedonian Crestonia (Macedonia) near modern Ano Apostoloi, known from inscriptions no earlier than the Hellenistic period, later also mentioned in Plin. HN 4,35 and Ptol. 3,13,38. M. had city status in the 3rd cent. BC and received theoroí (‘festival envoys’) from Delphi [1. 18 Z. 84]. M. sustained a significant cult of Asclepius. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography 1 A. Plassart, Liste delphique des théorodoques, in: BCH 45, 1921, 1-85. M.B. Chatzopoulos, L.D. Loukopoulou, M. Cité de la Crestonie (Meletem…

Paeones, Paeonia

(200 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Παίονες/ Paíones, Παιονία/ Paionía). Large tribe under its own king, inhabiting the north of the area later known as Macedonia, particularly in the valley of the Axius and the surrounding mountain regions as far as the Strymon (Thuc. 2,98,2; Str. 7,5,1). Hom. Il. 848-50 knew of the P. as friends of the Trojans; in c. 500 BC, the P. around Lake Prasias were temporarily deported to Phrygia by the Persian Megabazus (Hdt. 5,16) [1]. In 359 BC, P. attacked the Macedonians, but they were defeated and subjugated by Philip [4] II (Diod. Sic…

Gonnus, Gonni

(151 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Γόννος; Gónnos, Γόννοι; Gónnoi). Town of the  Perrhaebi, located on three hills to the north of the Peneius at the western entry to the Tempe valley. Evidence of settlement dates back to the Neolithic. In historical times, after initial domination by Larissa, the town gained in strategic importance in the course of the 4th cent. BC, following Philip II's conquest of Thessalia. It became a Macedonian fortress with a garrison and influx of Macedonian population, and experienced a peri…


(207 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Λητή; Lētḗ). Strategically located city in Macedonia/Mygdonia near modern Liti, minted coins already before the city became Macedonian in the 5th cent. BC [1. 67-72]. In the 4th cent. BC recognized as a city within Macedonia (SEG 36,331 l. 19), L. kept a cult site for Demeter [2. 44 no. 123]. As an autonomous Macedonian city L. received Delphian theōroí (‘envoys’) in the 3rd cent. [3. 18 l. 73], as part of the Roman province Macedonia, L. honoured the quaestor M. Annius in 117 BC because of his aid against marauding Celts (Syll.3 700), but was obviously still threatened…


(1,970 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Et al.
[English version] I. Personen (Δίων) Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [English version] [I 1] Freund Platons, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Sohn des Hipparinos, Schwager und Schwiegersohn Dionysios' I. von Syrakus, * 409 v.Chr., seit Platons erstem Aufenthalt 388 in Syrakus dessen enger Freund und Verfechter seiner Philosophie. Unter Dionysios I. kam er als dessen Vertrauter und Ratgeber zu Ansehen und Reichtum und blieb auch unter Dionysios II. einflußreich. Er vermittelte 366 den Frieden mit Karthago und rief Platon nach Syrakus, um …


(60 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[English version] (Βυλάζωρα, Βυλάζωρ, -ωρος). Größte Stadt in Paionia (Pol. 5,97), von Philippos V. als Bollwerk gegen die Dardani eingenommen (vgl. Liv. 44,26,8 für 168 v.Chr.). Allg. im Tal des Axios bei Veles lokalisiert; doch sind bislang keine für eine sichere Identifizierung ausreichende Funde gemacht worden. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography F. Papazoglou, Les villes de Macédoine, 1988, 308.


(663 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
(Πέλλα). [English version] [1] Stadt beim h. Palea Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Alexandros | Balkanhalbinsel, Sprachen | Bildung | Coloniae | Diadochen und Epigonen | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Makedonia, Makedones | Makedonia, Makedones | Peloponnesischer Krieg | Perserkriege | Punische Kriege | Straßen Seit ca. 400 v.Chr. unter Archelaos [1] Residenzstadt der maked. Könige beim h. Palea P., in ant. Zeit vom Meer aus über den Lydias zu Schiff erreichbar. Schon im 4. Jh.v.Chr. größte maked. Stadt (Xen. hell. 5,2,13) mi…


(182 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[English version] (Ἐλίμεια). Urspr. zu Epeiros gehörige Landschaft (Strab. 9,5,11) im Osten des Pindos-Gebirges am Oberlauf des Haliakmon südl. der Orestis und Eordaia; seit dem 5. Jh.v.Chr. führt der Volksstamm der Elimiotai in Ober-Makedonia nach der E. seinen Namen (Thuk. 2,99). Die Lage der gleichnamigen Stadt ist unsicher (Kozani, Palaiogratsiano?). Städte der hell. und röm. Zeit sind Aiane und Kaisareia (Bischofssitz: Hierokles Synekdemos 642,11). E. behält trotz Abhängigkeit vom Makedonenkö…
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