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Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Elmās

(625 words)

Author(s): Groot, A. H. de
(1071-1109/1662-97), Ottoman Grand Vizier. He was born in Hoşalay (formerly Mesed, to the east of Kerempe Burnu) (Kastamonu), the son of a shipmaster. As a young man (reputedly beautiful, hence his surname Elmas “Diamond”), he was taken ¶ into the service of the state by a chief inspector of the Sultan’s treasury ( Bas̲h̲ Bāḳī Ḳulu ), Divrigili Meḥmed Ag̲h̲a, who was appointed governor of Tripoli in Syria in 1089/1677-8. From the service of the treasury, Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a Elmās was soon promoted to the palace service, to the Ḵh̲āṣṣ Oda [ q.v.] from where he made quick career as Riḳābdār , Si̊lāḥdā…

Patrona K̲h̲alīl

(807 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ottoman rebel (d. 14 D̲j̲umādā I 1143/25 November 1730). Of Albanian origin, he belonged to the protégés of the Ḳapudān-Pas̲h̲a Muṣṭafā and ʿAbdī Pas̲h̲a ( ca. 1680-5 and later). He was born at K̲h̲urpis̲h̲te (Khroupista, now Argos Orestikon, to the south of Kastoria, Greece). He served as a Lewend [ q.v.] on board the flagship of the Ottoman vice-admiral, the Patrona (for this term, see riyala) whence probably his name. Transferred from naval service, he was able to join the Seventeenth Orta of the Janissary Corps in which he served till the peace set…

Murād III

(2,378 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, twelfth Ottoman Sultan (ruled 982-1003/1574-95). He was born on 5 D̲j̲umāda I 953/4 July 1546 in the princely summer camp at Bozdaǧ Yayla near Manisa [ q.v.] where his father, the later Sultan Selīm II [ q.v.], resided as sand̲j̲aḳ-begi . His mother was the Venetian-born k̲h̲āṣṣekī Nūr Bānū [ q.v.]. His ceremonial circumcision took place at Manisa in April 1557. At the time, prince Selīm was appointed sand̲j̲aḳ-begi of Ḳaramān [ q.v.] in 1558 and Sultan Süleymān I [ q.v.] made his grandson sand̲j̲aḳ-begi of Aḳs̲h̲ehir. In 1561 Murād stayed with his grandfather in Istanbul, and…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Rūm

(722 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
or Rūmī (d. 883/1478), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Being of ḳul status, his origins, whether Greek or Albanian, are obscure. Sultan Meḥemmed II [ q.v.] admitted him into his intimate circle after the unsuccessful Albanian campaign of 870/1466 during which Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a became Second Vizier. In 1468/872 he joined the campaign against Ḳaramān [see ḳaramān-og̲h̲ullari̊ ], during which he manifested his rivalry with the Grand Vizier Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Instead of him, Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a was charged with the deportation of selected members of the populations of the cities of Ḳaramān, Ḳonya [ q.v…

Ṣari̊ Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(801 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Baḳḳāl-zāde , Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ī , S̲h̲ehrī , Defterdār (?-1129/1717), Ottoman statesman, born in Istanbul (hence: S̲h̲ehrī), a son of a Muslim Turkish grocer. He styled himself El-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Meḥmed ed-Defterī in the preface to his chronicle. He made his career in the financial department of the Porte [see māliyye ]. In 1081/1671 he was employed in the office of the rūznāmd̲j̲e-yi ewwel ḳalemi [ q.v.]. He won the patronage of the defterdār Ḳi̊li̊č ʿAlī Efendi, bas̲h̲defterdār (in function 1102/1691-2) and was promoted to mektūbd̲j̲u (= mektūbī ), head of the secretariat of the principal deft…

Red̲j̲eb Pas̲h̲a

(459 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
Topal (d. 1041/1632), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Murād IV [ q.v.]. Of Bosnian origin, he began his career in the bostand̲j̲i̊ corps and attained the high office of Bostand̲j̲i̊-bas̲h̲i̊ [ q.v.] in the reign of Aḥmed I [ q.v.]. Although slightly invalid (a sufferer from gout, hence topal ), he continued his career: a vizier since 1031/1622, he was appointed commander-in-chief in the Black Sea. With his squadron he defeated a Cossack fleet of 600 s̲h̲ayḳas . Red̲j̲eb Pas̲h̲a was Ḳapudān-pas̲h̲a 1032-5/1623-26. Commanding the fleet in Rad̲j̲ab-Ramaḍ…

Ḳoylu Ḥiṣār

(371 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
( Ḳoyunlu Ḥiṣār ), modern Koyulhisar, centre of an ilçe of the province ( il) of Sivas in the valley of the Kelkit River along the old route from Niksar to S̲h̲ābīn Ḳaraḥiṣār and Erzurum in the so-called “left wing” ( sol ḳol ) of Anatolia within the framework of the Ottoman road and postal system. The site has changed a few times because of earthquakes (most recently in 1939). Before ca. 1850 the township probably lay on the site of the actual Yukari Kale. The town and fortress were lost by the Byzantines after the battle of Manzikert (Malazgirt). After direct Sald̲j̲ūḳid rule,…

Ḳod̲j̲a Eli

(577 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, modern Turkish Kocaeli: a region between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara, covering a part of ancient Bithynia with its centre Izmīd [ q.v.] (ancient Nicomedia), and the name of a sand̲j̲aḳ of the Ottoman empire. Nowadays it is the name of a province ( il) of Turkey (population 385,408 in 1970), with Izmit as its capital. In 1954 the eastern part of the province Kocaeli was separated to form the Sakarya (Saḳārya) province with its capital Adapazari. Since this administrative reform, Kocaeli has comprised the ilces (formerly ḳaḍāʾs ) of (Izmit-) Merkez, Gebze…

Ḳoč Ḥiṣār

(1,087 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, a name of several towns and villages in Asia Minor, derived from Ḳod̲j̲a-Ḥiṣar; compare such names as Ḳoč Ḥiṣāri̊, Ḳoyun Ḥiṣāri̊, Ḳoyul Ḥiṣāri̊, Keči Ḥiṣārī and Ṭoḳlu Ḥiṣāri̊ Confusion is often prevented by the addition of the name of the nearby provincial capital or of another word, e.g. Čanki̊ri̊ Ḳoč-Ḥiṣāri̊, S̲h̲erefli Koč Ḥiṣār. For the same reason, the toponyms of places with this name have been changed in recent times. I. S̲h̲erefli Ḳoč Ḥiṣāri̊ (in modern usage Şerefli Koçhisarı , centre of an ilçe (previously ḳaḍāʾ ) formerly called Esb-kes̲h̲ān, in …

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, ʿIwaḍ

(620 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ī ( el-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ ) (1085 or 1086-1156/1675-1743), Ottoman Grand Vizier. He was the son of a descendant of the Ewlād-i Fātiḥān , one Naṣr Allāh, a tīmār holder at Jagodina. Educated for state service (hence ʿiwaḍ ), he served with high-placed officials at Belgrade (1100/1689) and at Ḏj̲udda (1107-8/1696), during which period he made the pilgrimage to Mecca. Having returned to Istanbul just before the Patrona Ḵh̲alīl rebellion of 1730, he acted as Gümrük Emīni , Commissioner of the Istanbul customs house, on behalf of Yegen Meḥmed Efendi…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Sulṭān-Zāde

(597 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ḏj̲iwān Ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊-bas̲h̲i̊ , Semīn (1010-56/1602-46), Ottoman Grand Vizier. He was born in Istanbul as the son of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Bey (himself a son of Semīz Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Grand Vizier 887-8/1579-80, by origin an Albanian dews̲h̲irme boy) and of Hümās̲h̲āh ʿĀʾis̲h̲e Ḵh̲ani̊m Sulṭān, a daughter of Čig̲h̲ala-zāde Sinān Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], thus being a grandson of Princess Mihr-i Māh ¶ Sulṭān [ q.v.], hence his surname Sulṭān-zāde (cf. A.D. Alderson, The structure of the Ottoman dynasty, Oxford 1956, Table XXX, no. 2128). Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a was educated in the imperial harem and the Khāṣṣ Od…

Sand̲j̲aḳ-i S̲h̲erīf

(1,360 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
Liwāʾ-i Sherīf or ʿAlem-i Nebewī , in Ottoman Turkish usage the sacred standard of the Prophet Muḥammad which is ¶ kept in the palace of Ṭopḳapi̊ at Istanbul (see ṭopḳapi̊ sarayi̊ ) together with the other holy relics of Islam ( Emānāt-i Mübāreke or Muḳaddese ) such as the Holy Mantle (the Burda” ) [see k̲h̲irḳa-yi s̲h̲erīf ], Holy Footstep and Beard of the Prophet (see ḳadam s̲h̲arīf and liḥya-yi s̲h̲arīf ]. According to a tradition recorded by Mouradgea D’Ohsson ( Tableau général de l’Empire Othoman , Paris 1788-1824, ii, 378) and the Ottoman historian Fi̊ndi̊ḳli̊li̊ Meḥmed Ag̲h̲a ( Silāḥda…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Lālā

(1,198 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, S̲h̲āhīnog̲h̲lu , Bosnali̊ (d. 1015/1606, Ottoman Grand Vizier. Born in Jajce as a descendant of the Bosnian S̲h̲āhinog̲h̲ullari̊ family, he was related to Ṣoḳollu Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Taken into Ottoman service as a dews̲h̲irme [ q.v.] boy, he was educated in the so-called Palace School [see enderūn ]. During those years he was probably engaged in giving lessons in fighting to one or more Ottoman princes, hence his surname of Lālā “tutor”. Lālā Meḥmed successively held the court functions of Pes̲h̲kīr ag̲h̲asi̊ , Küčük Mīr Āk̲h̲ūr and Büyük Mīr Āk̲h̲ūr and …

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Melek

(428 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Dāmād (1131-1216/1719-1802), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Selīm III [ q.v.]. He was the son of Bosnali̊ Ḵh̲od̲j̲a Süleymān Pas̲h̲a, Vizier and Ḳapudān-i̊ dervā in 1126/1714 and 1130/1718 till his death in 1133/1721. Born in Istanbul, he followed his father’s footsteps in a naval career, becoming commander ( Deryā begi) in 1736, Tersāne ketk̲h̲üdāsi̊ and Ḳapudān-i̊ deryā himself (1165-8/1752-5). Sultan Muṣṭafā III (1171-87/1757-74) appointed him Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ , and married him to the Princess Zeyneb ʿĀṣi̊ma Sulṭān, a daughter of Aḥmed III (1757) (cf. A.D. Alderson, The str…

Süleymān Pas̲h̲a, Malaṭyali̊

(850 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Dāmād , Silāḥdār , Ḳod̲j̲a , ( ca. 1016-98/1607-87), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Meḥemmed IV [ q.v.]. Born in Malaṭya [ q.v.] of non-Muslim parents, possibly Armenians, he was educated in the dews̲h̲irme [ q.v.] establishment of the Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a palace at Istanbul upon the instigation of his relative, the Ḳapu Ag̲h̲asi̊ [ q.v.] Ismāʿīl Ag̲h̲a, and made his career in the palace service (see enderūn ). From being Dülbend ag̲h̲a , he became Miftāḥ s̲h̲āgirdi in the Seferli odasi̊ and the K̲h̲āṣṣ oda [ q.v.], and in 1050/1640 became Silāḥdār [ q.v.] to the sultan. Six months later…


(8,885 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, modern Turkish Kıbrıs, Greek Kúpros (etymologically derived probably from the word for “copper”), in western languages Cyprus, is the largest island in the Eastern Mediterranean, with a surface area of 9,251 km2. The nearest distance to the mainland is from Cape Kormakiti in the north to Anamur on the southern coast of Turkey, 71 km. The distance to the Syrian coast between Cape Andreas and Raʾs ibn K̲h̲ān north of al-Lād̲h̲ikiyya [ q.v.] is 98 km. The distance to Crete (Arabic Iḳrīṭis̲h̲ [ q.v.] is about 553 km. The island consists of two mountain ranges, Kyrenia-Karpass ris…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Gürd̲j̲ü

(797 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ḵh̲ādi̊m (I) (d. 1035/1626), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Of Georgian origin, he served among the white eunuchs of the imperial harem under Sultan Meḥemmed III [ q.v.] (1003-12/1595-1603). He was appointed Ḵh̲āṣṣ-Oda Bas̲h̲i̊ by Sultan Aḥmed I shortly after his accession (2 S̲h̲aʿbān 1012/4 January 1604). Around Rabīʿ II 1013/September 1604, Ḵh̲ādi̊m Meḥmed Ag̲h̲a was given the rank of Third Vizier in the Dīwān , but already on the 27 Rabīʿ II/22 September was appointed beglerbegi of Egypt. He was able to restore order in that province and punished the rebels among the Ottoman regular troops ( ḳ…

Ḳoyul Hiṣār

(116 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(Ḳoyunlu Ḥiṣār), more properly Ḳoyun Ḥiṣār , the name for two Byzantine fortresses: 1. identical with Baphaeon, to the north-east of Izmīd, the site of the first battle won by ʿOt̲h̲mān I against the Byzantines in 1301; 2. a fortress on the Saḳārya river [ q.v.] to the north-east of Bursa near Dinboz, taken by Ork̲h̲ān during a campaign in 1324-5. (A.H. de Groot) Bibliography ʿĀs̲h̲i̊ḳpas̲h̲azāde, Taʾrīk̲h̲, tr. R. F. Kreutel, Graz, etc. 1959, 43, 63, map I H. İnalcik, The Ottoman empirethe classical age 1300-1600, London 1973, 6, 55 D. E. Pitcher, An historical geography of the Ottoma…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Čerkes

(385 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(d. 1034/1625), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Educated in the palace school or Enderūn [ q.v.], he reached the rank of silāḥdār and left the palace with the appointment of Beglerbegi of Damascus. In 1621 he is mentioned as the fifth Ḳubbe Wezīri̊ (Nāʿīmā, Taʾrīk̲h̲ , Istanbul 1280, ii, 208). Upon the execution of the Grand Vizier Kemānkes̲h̲ ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] (14 Ḏj̲umādā II 1033/3 April 1624), Murād IV [ q.v.] forced him to accept the appointment of himself as successor. Čerkes Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a thus became commander-in-chief of the army sent to suppress the revolt of Abāzā Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a [see abāzā…

Muṣṭafā K̲h̲ayrī Efendi

(1,058 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ürgüplü (1283-1339/1867-1921), S̲h̲eyk̲h̲ ül-Islām of the Ottoman Empire. A member of an old established local ʿulamāʾ family, he was born at Ürgüp as a son of ʿAbd Allāh ʿAwnī Efendi. Members of the family were the administrator of the waḳf of the town’s principal mosque complex, the ulu d̲j̲āmiʿ founded by Ḳaramānog̲h̲lu Ibrāhīm Bey [see ḳaramānog̲h̲ullari̊ ], K̲h̲ayrī received his early education locally inter alia in Arabic, Persian and Turkish classical literature and calligraphy. His elder brother, an Inspector of Justice in the wilāyet of Sivas [ q.v.], supervised his cont…
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