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(491 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(II) bi’llāh , Abu ’l-Faḍl al-ʿAbbās, tenth ʿAbbāsid “shadow’’ caliph in Egypt, son of al-Mutawakkil (I) Muḥammad by a Turkish concubine, Bay K̲h̲ātūn. He succeeded his father on 1 S̲h̲aʿbān 808/22 January 1406. Accompanying the sultan al-Nāṣir Farad̲j̲ [ q.v.] on his expedition against the rebel amīr s, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Maḥmūdī (governor of Aleppo) and Nawrūz al-Ḥāfiẓī (governor of Tripoli), he fell into their hands when the sultan was defeated at al-Lad̲j̲d̲j̲ūn on 13 Muḥarram 815/25 April 1412. There was virtual anarchy…


(1,327 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(usual Ar. form, Bud̲j̲a), nomadic tribes, living between the Nile and Red Sea, from the Ḳina-Ḳuṣayr route to the angle formed by the ʿAṭbarā and the hills of the Eritrean-Sudanese frontier. The principal modern tribes are the ʿAbābda [ q.v.], Bis̲h̲ārīn [ q.v.], Ummarār, Hadanduwa and Banī ʿĀmir. The ʿAbābda now speak Arabic; the others (except the Tigre-speaking sections of B. ʿĀmir) speak tu-Beḍawiye, a Hamitic language. The Bed̲j̲a subsist mainly on their herds of camels, cattle, sheep and goats. Since grazing is sparse, they move u…


(748 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(Barbar):(1) Tribal territory. The name originally signified the territory of the Mīrafāb (Mayrafāb), an Arabic-speaking tribe claiming kinship with the Ḏj̲aʿliyīn. It extended on both banks of the Nile from the Fifth Cataract (lat. 18° 23′ N.) to the river ʿAṭbarā. The Mīrafāb included both riverain cultivators and semi-nomads. The ruler ( makk ) was a vassal of the Fund̲j̲ sultan of Sinnār. On the death of a makk, the sultan nominated his successor from the ruling family of Timsāḥ. He also levied, at intervals of four or five years, a tribute of gold, horses a…


(480 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
Arabic-speaking nomads of the Sūdān, occupying territories from Lake Chad to the White Nile between 9° and 13° N. Their livelihood is the herding of cattle ( baḳar ), whence their name. The dry season is spent in the southern river-lands. With the rains, they move northwards to the seasonal grasslands. Grain sown on this journey is harvested on the return. Baḳḳāra origins are obscure; the genealogies reflect existing groupings rather than give evidence of descent. They are probably connected with the …


(1,517 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(variant, Kasalā; conventional spelling, Kassala), a town and province in the east of the republic of the Sudan, extending from the frontier of Egypt to that of, Ethiopia. Geographically, the province contains five distinct types of country. (1) A rough triangle in the south, bounded by the railway, the river Rahad and the Ethiopian frontier, where al-Ḳallābāt (Gallabat) is the principal town, is a westward extension of the central clay plains of the Sudan. (2) North of This is the Buṭāna, a pla…


(19,029 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Jong, F. de | Holt, P.M.
(i) The history of the institution of the caliphate A study of the caliphate, its institution and subsequent developments, has never been attempted in its entirety until the present. The principal reason is that it has not seemed possible to conduct such a survey independently of historical studies relating to different reigns, which are still in most cases insufficient, or even non-existent, whereas studies of doctrine, while more advanced, have not been developed to the same extent with regard to the v…


(5,385 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T. | Holt, P.M.
(also Huwwāra; now Howwāra or Hewwāra), name of a Berber people. Disregarding the legends which give them a Yemenī origin, we must remember that ancient Arabic authors do not agree about their place in the Berber family. The Muslim geographer al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī (340/951) regards them as members of the Butr branch of the Berbers, whereas most Berber and Arabic genealogists, whose ¶ opinions are given in the History of the Berbers of Ibn K̲h̲aldūn (8th/14th century), regard them as a tribe forming part of the al-Barānis branch, believing them to be…


(420 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
6. Early Arabic Presses in The Netherlands and England The principal centre of Arabic printing in Protestant Europe was originally Leiden, where the scholar-printer Franciscus Raphelengius cut an Arabic fount and printed specimens in his Specimen characterum Arabicorum officinae Plantinianae Raphelengii (1595). The characters were modelled on the Medicean fount but were of inferior elegance. After being used for the posthumous ¶ printing of his Arabic-Latin lexicon (1613) and other works, the Raphelengian equipment was bought by the pioneer English Arabis…

Muḥammad Abu ’l-D̲h̲ahab

(557 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, a Mamlūk bey of the Ḳāzdug̲h̲liyya [ q.v.] group. ¶ He had entered the household of Buluṭ Ḳāpān ʿAlī Bey al-Kabīr [ q.v.] by 1174/1760-1, and quickly became his treasurer ( k̲h̲āzindār ). In 1178/1764-5, after returning from Pilgrimage with his master (when he was emancipated), he was elevated to the beylicate, and obtained his nickname from scattering a largesse of gold coins on his appointment. His subsequent career falls into two periods: (1) Until 1185/1771 he was ʿAlī Bey’s principal lieutenant, and…

S̲h̲āfiʿ b. ʿAlī

(314 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
al-ʿAsḳalānī , Nāṣir al-Dīn, historian of Mamlūk Egypt (born D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 649/February-March 1252, died 24 S̲h̲aʿbān 730/12 June 1330). The son of a sister of the chancery clerk Ibn ʿAbd al-Ẓāhir [ q.v.], he served as clerk first Baraka K̲h̲ān b. Baybars, then Ḳalāwūn [ q.v.]. His official career ended when he was blinded by an arrow at the battle of Ḥimṣ (680/1281) [ q.v.], although he claimed to have ¶ played a significant part in the abrogation of the truce with the Latin kingdom (689/1290). He spent his long retirement as a littérateur and bibliophile. …


(836 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
( umm durmān ), a t own on the west bank of the Nile at the confluence of the Blue and White Niles (lat. 15°38′ N., long. 32°30′ E.), now linked with Khartoum ( al-k̲h̲urṭūm [ q.v.]) and Khartoum North as the principal conurbation of the Republic of the Sudan. The etymology of the name is unknown, although several fanciful explanations have been given. Omdurman is first mentioned as the village of a holy man, Ḥamad b. Muḥammad al-Mas̲h̲yak̲h̲ī, known as Wad (i.e. Walad) Umm Maryūm (1055-1142/1645-6 to 1729-30) (see Ibn Ḍayf Allāh, Kitāb al-Ṭabaḳāt , ed. Yūsuf Faḍl Ḥasan, 2Khartoum 1974, 174-82…


(4,558 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Holt, P.M. | Chalmeta, P. | Andrews, P.A. | Burton-Page, J.
(a.), lit. “an instrument or apparatus for providing shade, ẓill ,” apparently synonymous with the s̲h̲amsa , s̲h̲amsiyya , lit. “an instrument or apparatus for providing shelter from the sun”, probably therefore referring to the sunshade or parasol born on ceremonial occasions and processions [see mawākib ] over early Islamic rulers. 1. In the ʿAbbāsid and Fāṭimid caliphates. The historical sources provide a few references on practice in the ʿAbbāsid caliphate.…


(2,746 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, the regnal title of five Mamlūk sultans: 1. al-Nāṣir Muḥammad b. Ḳalāwūn, regn . 693/1293-4, 698-708/1299-1309, 709-41/1310-41. 2. al-Nāṣir Aḥmad b. al-Nāṣir Muḥammad, regn. 742-3/1342. 3. al-Nāṣir Ḥasan b. al-Nāṣir Muḥammad, regn. 748-52/1347-51, 755-62/1354-61. 4. al-Nāṣir Farad̲j̲ b. Barḳūḳ, regn. 801-8/1399-1405, 808-15/1405-12. See farad̲j̲ . 5. al-Nāṣir Muḥammad b. Ḳāʾitbāy, regn. 901-4/1496-8. 1. al-Nāṣir Muḥammad b. Ḳalāwūn (684-741/1285-1341). His mother, As̲h̲lūn K̲h̲ātūn, was the daughter of a Mongol notable, S̲h̲aktāy, who migrated from …


(5,885 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, a movement in the Egyptian Sudan, launched in 1881 by Muḥammad Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh (Muḥammad al-Mahdī) for the reform of Islam. It had from the outset a political and revolutionary character, being directed against the Turco-Egyptian régime ( al-Turkiyya ), which it overthrew, establishing a territorial state. Under the Mahdī’s successsor, the K̲h̲alīfa ʿAbd Allāh [see ʿabd Allāh b. Muḥammad al-Taʿāʾis̲h̲ī , and K̲h̲alīfa. iv], this developed essentially into a traditional Islamic monarchy until its existence was …


(201 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, a region of the upper Blue Nile, within the modern Republic of the Sudan, and near to the Ethiopian border. Its historical importance is solely due to the presence of alluvial gold. The ruler ( makk ) of Fāzūg̲h̲lī was a vassal of the Fund̲j̲ [ q.v.] sultan of Sinnār, and wore the horned cap ( taḳiyya umm ḳarnayn ) as his insignia of office. This usage long survived the downfall of the Fund̲j̲ sultanate (see A. W. M. Disney, The coronation of the Fung


(215 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
Aḥmad , Egyptian historian of the 12th/18th century. Nothing is known of his life beyond the fact that he held the post of katk̲h̲udā of the ʿAzabān regiment in Cairo, but he may have been a relative of the rūznāmed̲j̲i Ḥasan Efendi a…
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