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K̲h̲āṣī

(8,470 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Orhonlu, Cengiz
(a.), pl. k̲h̲iṣyān “castrated man, eunuch”. I.—In the central Islamic lands. From the 4th/10th century especially, several euphemisms were applied to eunuchs, who were numerous in the palaces and frequently invested with important functions: notably k̲h̲ādim (coll. k̲h̲adam , pl. k̲h̲uddām ), muʿallim , s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ , ustād̲h̲ (see M. Canard, Ak̲h̲bâr ar-Râdî ..., i, 210-1, note), later on ṭawās̲h̲ī (which, according to al-Maḳrīzī, Hist , des Sultans Mamlouks , tr. Quatremère, 1/2 (1849), 132, comes from the Turkish ṭābūs̲h̲ī = Osmanli̊ tapug̲h̲či̊

S̲h̲īrāz

(7,628 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, which has the title dār al-ʿilm , the capital of the province of Fārs, is an Islamic foundation, on a continually inhabited site, which may go back to Sāsānid, or possibly earlier, times. It was probably founded, or restored, by Muḥammad the brother of Had̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ b. Yūsuf, or by his cousin Muḥammad b. al-Ḳāsim, in 74/693 (A.J. Arberry, Shiraz , Persian city of saints and poets, Norman, Okla. 1960, 31). It is situated at 5,000 ft. above sea level in 29° 36′ N. and 52° 32′ E. at the western ¶ end of a large basin some 80 miles long and up to 15 miles wide, though less in the vici…

Ḥisba

(8,785 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Talbi, M. | Mantran, R. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, non-Ḳurʾānic term which is used to mean on the one hand the duty of every Muslim to “promote good and forbid evil” and, on the other, the function of the person who is effectively entrusted in a town with the application of this rule in the supervision of moral behaviour and more particularly of the markets; this person entrusted with the ḥisba was called the muḥtasib . There seems to exist ¶ no text which states explicitly either the reason for the choice of this term or how the meanings mentioned above have arisen from the idea of “calculation” or “sufficiency” which is expressed by the root. i.—G…

Soyūrg̲h̲āl

(2,819 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, a term with the primitive meaning in Mongolian of “favour” or “reward granted by the ruler to someone, sometimes of a hereditary nature” (Doerfer, Türkische und mongolische Elemente in Neupersischen , i, 351 no. 228). Soyūrg̲h̲āl kardan is used synonymously with soyurg̲h̲amis̲h̲ kardan “to grant a favour”. The plural ( soyūrg̲h̲ālāt ) is often associated with such words as ʿawāṭif tas̲h̲rīfāt and inʿāmāt , “favours”, “presents” (see e.g. Muḥammad b. Hindūs̲h̲āh Nak̲h̲d̲j̲iwānī, Dastūr al-kātib , ed. A.A. Alizade, Moscow, i, 1964, i/2, 1971, ii, …

K̲h̲arād̲j̲

(31,524 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Orhonlu, Cengiz | Subhan, Abdus
, a word derived, via Syriac, from Greek χορηϒία, but attached by the Arabs to the native root k̲h̲ . r. d̲j̲ . Contrary to its original meaning, the word seems, in the current usage of the Near East, to have denoted “tax” in general, and is in fact found with reference to various specific taxes, thus causing considerable confusion [see d̲j̲izya ]. Arabic technical and legal literature uses it more specifically, at least in the period before the formation of Turkish states, in the sense of land tax, and it is this sense which is exclusively discussed in the present article. For other taxes, see bayt…

Kirmān

(22,159 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, the name of a Persian province and of its present capital. The name goes back to the form Carmania, which is found in Strabo (xv, 2, 14), and which is said to be derived from the name of an ancient capital, Carmana (Ptolemy, Geography , vi, 8; Ammanianus Marcellinus, xxiii, 6, 48. See further Marquart, Ērānšahr , 30, on the name Carmania, and Browne, Lit. Hist. of Persia , i, 145, for the later popular etymology of the name). The Province. The province of Kirmān is situated to the south-west of the great central desert of Persia, the Das̲h̲t-i Lūt, which narrows to some 100…

Ḳanāt

(5,080 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S. | Ed.
(a.), pl. ḳanawāt , ḳanā , ḳunī , aḳniya , “canal, irrigation system, water-pipe”. Used also for a baton, a lance, etc., the term originally meant “reed” [see ḳaṣab ] and it is with this meaning and that of “rush” that the word ḳanū is known in Akkadian (cf. Zimmern, Akkad. Fremdwörter , Leipzig 1915, 56); becoming ḳanä in Hebrew and ḳanyā in Aramaic, it passed into Arabic and was also borrowed in Greek and Latin in the forms χάννα χάννη (χάνη), canna ; by an evolution parallel to that of ḳanāt , the Latin word canalis “in the shape of a reed”, acquired the meaning of “pipe, canal”. In Persian ḳanāt is u…

Dārūg̲h̲a

(1,028 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
The word is derived from the Mongol daru-, ‘to press, to seal’ and was used to denote a chief in the Mongol feudal hierarchy (K. H. Menges, Glossar zu den Volkskundlichen Texten aus Ost. Turkistan , ii, Wiesbaden 1955, 714 s.v. dor γ a; B. Vladimirtsov, Le régime social des Mongols , Paris 1948, 181, 209, 214; P. Pelliot, Notes sur l’histoire de la Horde d’or , Paris 1950,73). In 617-8/1221 there was a Mongol dārūk̲h̲ačī , or representative of the head of the empire, in Almālīg̲h̲ beside the native ruler. The duties laid upon him included the makin…

D̲j̲amʿiyya

(9,663 words)

Author(s): Hourani, A.H. | Rustow, D.A. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Demeerseman, A. | Ahmad, Aziz
This term, commonly used in modern Arabic to mean a “society” or “association”, is derived from the root D̲J̲ - M - ʿ, meaning “to collect, join together, etc.”. In its modern sense it appears to have come into use quite recently, and was perhaps first used to refer to the organized monastic communities or congregations which appeared in the eastern Uniate Churches in Syria and Lebanon at the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth centuries ( e.g., D̲j̲amʿiyyat al-Muk̲h̲alliṣ , the Salvatorians, a Greek Catholic order founded c. 1708). In …

K̲h̲udāwand

(344 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
(p), God, lord, master. There is no established etymology for this word and no Middle or Old Persian antecedent. It is used in G̲h̲aznawid times in the sense of lord or master (cf. Abu ’l-Faḍl Muḥammad b. Ḥusayn Bayhaḳī, Tārīk̲h̲-i Bayhaḳī , ed. ʿAlī Akbar Fayyāḍ, Mas̲h̲had 1971, 23, 435, and passim ). In documents and letters belonging to the Sald̲j̲ūḳs and K̲h̲wārazms̲h̲āhs it is used as a term of address to the sultan, usually with some qualifying word or phrase such as k̲h̲udāwand-i ʿālam “lord of the world” (cf. Muntad̲j̲ab al-Dīn al-Ḏj̲uwaynī, ʿAtabat al-kataba, ed. Muḥammad Ḳazwīn…

K̲h̲alīfa

(19,029 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Jong, F. de | Holt, P.M.
(i) The history of the institution of the caliphate A study of the caliphate, its institution and subsequent developments, has never been attempted in its entirety until the present. The principal reason is that it has not seemed possible to conduct such a survey independently of historical studies relating to different reigns, which are still in most cases insufficient, or even non-existent, whereas studies of doctrine, while more advanced, have not been developed to the same extent with regard to the v…

K̲h̲āliṣa

(8,539 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
(pl. k̲h̲āliṣad̲j̲āt ) as a term signifying crown lands comes into general use in Persian sources in the middle ages. It is also applied to lesser rivers, ḳanāts [ q.v.] and wells belonging to the crown. In early Islamic times the term ṣawāfī [ q.v.] is used to denote crown lands in general, while the terms ḍiyāʿ al-k̲h̲āṣṣa , ḍiyāʿ al-sulṭān and ḍiyāʿ al-k̲h̲ulafāʾ are applied to the private estates of the caliph. Under the early semi-independent dynasties which arose in Persia on the fragmentation of the caliphate, the terms k̲h̲āṣṣ and k̲h̲āṣṣa are used of the …

Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh

(931 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, the second ruler of the Ḳād̲j̲ār [ q.v.] dynasty, was born in 1185/1771 and bore the name Bābā K̲h̲ān. He was made governor of Fārs, Kirmān, and Yazd by his uncle, Āḳā Muḥammad K̲h̲ān, and heir apparent in 1211/1796-7. He succeeded to the throne in 1212/1797. He died in 1250/18 34 and was buried at Ḳumm. Much of his reign of 38 years and 5 months was spent in military expeditions against internal rebels and external foes. On the assassination of Aḳā Muḥammad K̲h̲ān in 1212/1797 Bābā K̲h̲ān hastened fr…

Iran

(85,490 words)

Author(s): McLachlan, K.S. | Coon, C.S. | Mokri, M. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Savory, R.M. | Et al.
i.—Geography The geological background: The alignments of Iran’s principal topographie features, represented by the Kūhhā-yi Alburz and the Zagros Chain, are west to east and north-west to south-east, respectively. In broad context, the Alburz is a continuation of the European Alpine structures, while the Zagros chain has been linked through Cyprus with the Dinaric Alps (Fisher, 1956). The structure of the mountain rim of the country has been influenced strongly by tectonic movements which have n…

Mawākib

(21,397 words)

Author(s): Sanders, P. | Chalmeta, P. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Nutku, Özdemir | Burton-Page, J.
(a., sing, mawkib ), processions. 1. Under the ʿAbbāsids and Fāṭimids The basic meaning of procession (mounted or unmounted), cortège, is found in ḥadīt̲h̲ (al-Buk̲h̲ārī. Badʾ al-k̲h̲alḳ , 6; Ibn Ḥanbal, iii, 213; al-Dārimī, 2695). This is the precise sense given in the dictionaries, and that used by the Umayyads, ʿAbbāsids and Fāṭimids, often to describe the cortège of an amīr , wazīr , or other official (see, e.g., al-Ṭabarī, ii, 1731; Hilāl al-Ṣābī, Rusūm dār al-k̲h̲ilāfa , 9-10, 12, 14ff.). By the 4th/10th century, it had acquired the broader meaning of audience as well …

Baladiyya

(9,924 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B. | Hill, R.L. | Samaran, Ch. | Adam, A. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Et al.
, municipality, the term used in Turkish ( belediye ), Arabic, and other Islamic languages, to denote modern municipal institutions of European type, as against earlier Islamic forms of urban organisation [see madīna ]. The term, like so many modern Islamic neologisms and the innovations they express, first appeared in Turkey, where Western-style municipal institutions and services were introduced as part of the general reform programme of the Tanẓīmāt [ q.v.]. (1) turkey. The first approaches towards modern municipal administration seems to have been made by Sultan …

Dustūr

(44,385 words)

Author(s): Ed. | Lewis, B. | Khadduri, M. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Caldwell, J.A.M. | Et al.
, in modern Arabic constitution. A word of Persian origin, it seems originally to have meant a person exercising authority, whether religious or political, and was later specialized to designate members of the Zoroastrian priesthood. It occurs in Kalīla wa-Dimna in the sense of “counsellor”, and recurs with the same sense, at a much later date, in the phrase Dustūr-i mükerrem , one of the honorific titles of the Grand Vizier in the Ottoman Empire. More commonly, dustūr was used in the sense of “rule” or “regulation”, and in particular the code of ru…

Kalāntar

(2,966 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
(Pers. kalān , “big, great”) is used in the 8th/14th and 9th/15th centuries to mean “leader” (cf. Ḥāfiẓ Abrū, Cinq opuscules de Ḥāfiẓ-i Abrū concernant l’histoire de l’Iran au temps de Tamerlan , ed. F. Tauer, Prague 1959, 7; Muʿīn al-Dīn Natanzī, Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲-i muʿīnī , ed. J. Aubin, Tehran 1957, 257, 258, 261), and occurs especially with reference to the tribal and military classes. The phrase īl va ulūs va kalāntarān va sar k̲h̲aylān va aʿrāb va aḥs̲h̲ām va farīḳ-i Balūč is found in a document dated 874/1470 issued by Uzun Ḥasan for the ¶ government of K̲h̲urāsān and Trans…

Ḥukūma

(18,623 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B. | Ahmad, F. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Vatikiotis, P.J. | Tourneau, R. le | Et al.
, in modern Arabic “government”. Like many political neologisms in Islamic languages, the word seems to have been first used in its modern sense in 19th century Turkey, and to have passed from Turkish into Arabic and other languages. Ḥukūma comes from the Arabic root ḥ.k.m , with the meaning “to judge, adjudicate” (cf. the related meaning, dominant in Hebrew and other Semitic languages, of wisdom. See ḥikma ). In classical usage the verbal noun ḥukūma means the act or office of adjudication, of dispensing justice, whether by a sovereign, a judge, …

Pīs̲h̲kas̲h̲

(834 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
(p.) as a general term designates a present, usually from an inferior to a superior. As a technical term it denotes a “regular” tax ( pīs̲h̲kas̲h̲-i mustamarrī ) and an ad hoc tax levied by rulers on provincial governors and others, and an ad hoc impost laid by governors and officials in positions of power on the population under their control. The offering of presents to rulers and others was known from early times (cf. Abu ’l-Faḍl Bayhaḳī, Tārīk̲h̲-i Bayhaḳī , ed. A.A. Fayyāḍ, Mas̲h̲had 1350 s̲h̲ /1971, 655, 679, 705, 734-5, 789, 815). With the proliferatio…
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