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South Asian states

(9,301 words)

Author(s): Mann, Michael
1. Introduction 1.1. Historical formationsHistoriography on South Asia sees the great unified state encompassing the entire subcontinent as the political ideal, but this seldom reflected historical realities. The Maurya (c. 320-73 bce) and Gupta Empires (c. 320-500), the Mughal Empire (1525-1858), and British Raj (1858-1947) are the exceptions proving the rule – though even these never achieved consistent control across the board (see below, 3.2.2.). Resisting notions of this kind, the following presentation distinguishes hi…
Date: 2022-08-17

Indirect rule

(1,573 words)

Author(s): Mann, Michael
1. DefinitionThis term for a special form of colonial authority is well established in the discipline of history (History [intellectual discipline]). It goes back to the British civil servant Frederick Lugard (1858-1945). After his military career in British India and Egypt, he served as high commissioner in northern Nigeria from 1900 to 1906. Here he developed the politics of indirect rule by putting government of the protectorate in the hands of the leaders who had just been subjugated by the B…
Date: 2019-10-14

Voyages of discovery

(3,081 words)

Author(s): Rinke, Stefan | Rüther, Kirsten | Mann, Michael | Wendt, Reinhard
1. IntroductionThe European voyages of discovery undertaken for various reasons between the 15th and 19th centuries are a defining feature of the history of the early modern period. Traditional historiography saw them as a key element of European expansionism and the beginning of the “Europeanization of the world.” The discovery in 1492 of what to Europeans was a New World in the Americas (America, discovery of) has often been (and still is) portrayed as a historical watershed (Epoch) se…
Date: 2023-11-14