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(3,284 words)

Author(s): Raymond, A. | Floor, W. | Nutku, Özdemir
(a.), pl. aṣnāf , a term denoting “profession” (synonyms ḥirfa , pl. ḥiraf , and kār , pl. kārāt ), and not “corporation”. 1. In the Arab world. In Cairo, in the Ottoman period, ṣinf is not used in this sense, except by the Turkish traveller Ewliyā Čelebi, in his renowned description of professional corporations ( Seyāḥat-nāme , x, 358-86). There is no word in Arabic specifically denoting the professional corporation: texts frequently use the word ṭāʾifa , pl. ṭawāʾif , which has the much more general connotation of “group”, “community”. It is only in the expression arbāb al-ḥiraf wa ’l-ṣan…


(21,397 words)

Author(s): Sanders, P. | Chalmeta, P. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Nutku, Özdemir | Burton-Page, J.
(a., sing, mawkib ), processions. 1. Under the ʿAbbāsids and Fāṭimids The basic meaning of procession (mounted or unmounted), cortège, is found in ḥadīt̲h̲ (al-Buk̲h̲ārī. Badʾ al-k̲h̲alḳ , 6; Ibn Ḥanbal, iii, 213; al-Dārimī, 2695). This is the precise sense given in the dictionaries, and that used by the Umayyads, ʿAbbāsids and Fāṭimids, often to describe the cortège of an amīr , wazīr , or other official (see, e.g., al-Ṭabarī, ii, 1731; Hilāl al-Ṣābī, Rusūm dār al-k̲h̲ilāfa , 9-10, 12, 14ff.). By the 4th/10th century, it had acquired the broader meaning of audience as well …