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Ḥürriyet We Iʾtilāf Fi̊rḳasi̊

(856 words)

Author(s): Ahmad, F. | Rustow, D.A.
(“Freedom and Accord Party”), also known as Entente Libérale (“Liberal Union”), Ottoman political party, formed on 21 November 1911. It succeeded a number of other liberal-conservative political parties formed after the 1908 revolution in opposition to the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) [see ittiḥād we teraḳḳī d̲j̲emʿiyeti ], including the ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ Aḥrār Fi̊rḳasi̊ (1908), the Muʿtedil Ḥürriyetperverān Fi̊rḳasi̊ (1909), the Ahālī Fi̊rḳasi̊ (1910), and the Ḥizb-i D̲j̲edīd (1911). It advocated a policy of administrative decentraliz…

D̲j̲emāl Pas̲h̲a

(1,132 words)

Author(s): Rustow, D.A.
(Cemal Paṣa), Young Turk soldier and statesman. Aḥmed D̲j̲emāl was born in Istanbul in 1872. He graduated from the erkān-i̊ ḥarbiyye mektebi in 1895, was commissioned as a captain in the general staff, and posted to the Third Army in Salonika. There he joined the Macedonian nucleus of the Young Turk conspiracy, the ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ Ittiḥād we Teraḳḳi Ḏj̲emʿiyyeti (known in Europe as the Committee of Union and Progress), using his assignment as inspector of railways in Macedonia to help spread and consolidate the Committee’s organizat…


(9,663 words)

Author(s): Hourani, A.H. | Rustow, D.A. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Demeerseman, A. | Ahmad, Aziz
This term, commonly used in modern Arabic to mean a “society” or “association”, is derived from the root D̲J̲ - M - ʿ, meaning “to collect, join together, etc.”. In its modern sense it appears to have come into use quite recently, and was perhaps first used to refer to the organized monastic communities or congregations which appeared in the eastern Uniate Churches in Syria and Lebanon at the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth centuries ( e.g., D̲j̲amʿiyyat al-Muk̲h̲alliṣ , the Salvatorians, a Greek Catholic order founded c. 1708). In …

Čerkes Edhem

(433 words)

Author(s): Rustow, D.A.
, Čerkes Res̲h̲īd, and Čerkes Meḥmed Tewfīḳ, Turkish guerrilla leaders, sons of a Circassian farmer in Emre near Karacabey ( wilāyet of Bursa). Res̲h̲īd, the oldest, was born in 1869 (or 1877?—see T.B.M.M . 25ci yıldönümünü anıs [1945], 63), Edhem, the youngest, in 1883-4. Res̲h̲īd fought with the Ottoman forces in Libya and the Balkans, where he was "Deputy Commander in Chief" for the provisional government of Western Thrace (September 1913), and sat for Saruhan in ¶ the last Ottoman Chamber and the Ankara National Assembly. All three brothers took leading parts in the…


(785 words)

Author(s): Rustow, D.A.
, (< Ar. ḥarbiyya ) the Ottoman and Turkish war college. Ottoman reforms in the 12th/18th century included some innovations in military training, notably the opening of the Hendesek̲h̲āne by the Comte de Bonneval in 1734 and the opening of the Mühendisk̲h̲āne-i Berrī-i Hümayūn in 1791-95 A number of military training centres for Maḥmūd II’s new army were set up in various parts of Istanbul in the 1830’s, including the Alay Mekteb-i Ḥarbiyesi (Rami, 1832), the Mekteb-i Fünūn-i Ḥ…

Dāmād Ferīd Pas̲h̲a

(275 words)

Author(s): Rustow, D.A.
, one of the last Grand Vezirs of the Ottoman Empire. Meḥmed Ferīd, son of Ḥasan ʿIzzet, a member of the Council of State (S̲h̲ūrā-yi Dewlet), was born in Istanbul in 1853, served in minor diplomatic posts, and, upon his marriage (1886) to ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II’s sister Medīḥa, was made member of the Council of State and senator, and given the rank of Pas̲h̲a. In 1911 he became co-founder and chairman of the Ḥürriyet we Iʾtilāf Fi̊rḳasi̊ [ q.v.]. After the Ottoman defeat he served his brother-in-law Meḥmed VI as Grand Vezir (4 March to 2 October 1919 and 5 April to 21 October …

ʿIzzet Pas̲h̲a

(2,521 words)

Author(s): Rustow, D.A. | Swanson, G.W.
(Aḥmed ʿIzzet Furgaç 1864-1937) Ottoman soldier and statesman. Aḥmed ʿIzzet was born in the Macedonian hamlet of Naslič, near Görid̲j̲e (today Korcë in southeastern Albania) in the wilāyet of Manasti̊r (today Bitola in southern Yugoslavia). The family were Ottoman-Muslim notables of the region; there is some dispute whether they were of Turkish or Albanian origin (see Inal, p. 2020, quoting General ʿAlī Fuʾād [Erdem], and Klinghardt, p. 12). Under the Turkish “Family Name Law” of 1934 he took the name of Furgaç. ʿIzzet’s father, Ḥaydar, had entered the O…


(23,851 words)

Author(s): Kedourie, E. | Rustow, D.A. | Banani, A. | Kazemzadeh, F. | Spuler, B. | Et al.
, ‘political party’. The use of the word ḥizb in the sense of a political party is a recent one, dating from the beginning of the twentieth century or thereabouts, but this modern usage was in a way a natural and legitimate extension of the traditional and classical one (see preceding article). This traditional sense is the one found in the nineteenth-century dictionaries. Thus Kazimirski’s Dictionnaire (1860) defined ḥizb as a ‘troupe d’hommes’; Lane’s Lexicon (1863 et seq.) as a ‘party or company of men, assembling themselves on account of an event that has befallen them’; Bustānī’s Muḥīṭ…

Enwer Pas̲h̲a

(4,737 words)

Author(s): Rustow, D.A.
Young Turk soldier and statesman (1881-1922). Enwer was born in the Dīwānyolu quarter of Istanbul, on 22 November 1881, the eldest of six children of Aḥmed bey, then a minor civil servant, and his wife ʿĀʾis̲h̲e. The family was from Manastir (Bitolj) in Macedonia, and moved there again when Enwer was a boy. After completing his secondary schooling there, Enwer entered the military academy (Mekteb-i Ḥarbiyye) in Istanbul, completing both the regular officers’ training course and the advanced general staff course. He graduated second in his class on 5 ¶ December 1902 (the first was hi…