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(586 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E. | Flynn, William
[German Version] 1. Franz Joseph (Mar 31, 1732, Rohrau, Austria – May 31, 1809, Vienna) was an Austrian composer of great importance for the history of music, who strongly influenced the mellow classical style and the form of the symphony, the string quartet, and the piano sonata. In addition, he composed 14 masses (IV), six oratorios and secular songs, church songs, chamber music, as well as various instrumental works. He received his musical education from the age of six, attending the choir school…

Asian-American Music in Christian Worship

(275 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] Asian-American church music results from the exchange with Asian Christians from missionary churches who have been emigrating to the United States since the beginning of the late 19th century. Asian Christians represent a wide range of languages and cultures. Their church music reflects these differences in musical form, melodic line, and text…


(569 words)

Author(s): Stolz, Fritz | Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] I. Comparative Religion – II. Liturgy I. Comparative Religion Individual cultures perceive colors and assign religious values to them in very different ways. A distinction is often made between colors and “non-colors”: white and black represent non-life (death, transitions in general), and are therefore regarded as the colors of mourning, but also of weddings and feasts, and this not only in Europe. Red is often associated with blood, and accordingly also with…

Aaronic Blessing

(431 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Jacobs, Martin | Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Early Judaism – III. Liturgy I. Old Testament The priestly Blessing, transmitted within the framework of the so-called Priestly Source (Pentateuch) in Num 6:23-26, which is also attested in some inscriptions (e.g. in Ketef Hinnom near Jerusalem), consist of traditional blessing formulae, linked together in three stair-stepped lines. …

Schumann, Robert

(371 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] (Jun 8, 1810, Zwickau – Jul 29, 1856, Endenich), prolific German composer and musical journalist, a major figure in musical Romanticism, with major contributions to piano, lieder, chamber music, as well as to symphonic and dramatic choral works. He was called by some a “herald of a new poetic age,” combining musical and literary sensibility in new ways in his compositional style. Schumann’s ability as an essayist and critic achieved some notoriety in his writing as a music critic between 1831 and 1844, wel…


(369 words)

Author(s): Heininger, Bernhard | Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. Liturgy I. New Testament Zechariah's song (Luke 1:68–79), consisting of two parts: vv. 68–75 sing the praise of God's acts for his people in the form of a hymn, which is similar to the OT (Psalms) and early Jewish texts (1QM XIV, 4–7; Pss. Sol. 2.33–37); vv. 76–79 display an early form of the Hellenist genethliacon and predict John the Baptist as an eschatological mediator of salvation. Both parts may be of Jewish origin. L…

Dix, Dom Gregory

(114 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] (George Eglinton Alston; Oct 3, 1901, Woolwich, England – May 12, 1952, Nashdom Abbey) was an Anglican Benedictine monk and liturgical scholar, who was a major contributor to the revival of liturgical studies in the Church of England (Anglican Church), in which he was ordained priest in 1925. The Shape of the Liturgy, the chief scholarly book on the Eucharist (1945; 1982 with notes by Paul ¶ V. Marshall) and Treatise on the Apostolic Tradition of St. Hippolytus of Rome (1937) continue to influence Roman Catholic and Protestant studies in Christian worship. Don E. Saliers Bi…

Reproaches (Improperia)

(179 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] chanted during the Good Friday liturgy, in which the crucified Christ pronounces reproaches (Lat. impropria) against the assembled congregation, identified with the people of God, for the injustices suffered in the Passion. The Reproaches go back to the lamentation of Christ and to corresponding passages in the Old Testament. In the medieval Roman Catholic tradition they were sung by two choirs during the Veneration of the Cross. They consist of twelve verses which ask questions about Christ’s …

Te Deum

(316 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] The Te Deum is a liturgical chant comprising 29 lines of prose; in the Middle Ages, it was ascribed initially to Ambrose and Augustine of Hippo, later to Nicetas of Remesiana, although his authorship is still disputed. In vv.1–10, the church and the hosts of heaven extol God the Father, with the Sanctus being quoted in vv. 5–6. Verses 11–13, a later addition, praise the Trinity. Verses 14–23 extol Christ’s sovereignty and work of redemption (vv. 22f. from Ps 28:9). The concluding se…

Julian, John

(93 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] (Jan 27, 1839, Cornwall – Jan 22, 1913, Topcliffe, Yorkshire) was a British hymnologist, ordained as an Anglican priest (1867), and served parishes in northern England (canon in York, 1901). From his lifelong study of hymns he published Concerning Hymns (1874), various pamphlets, and his monumental Dictionary of Hymnology (1892, revised 1907), which he edited and to which he contributed major articles. Through subsequent editions it remains the standard reference work in English. Don E. Saliers Bibliography M. Frost, ed., Historical Companion to Hymns, Ancien…

Schubert, Franz Peter

(363 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] (Jan 31, 1797, Vienna – Nov 19, 1828, Vienna). Schubert’s work made enduring contributions to lieder, chamber and orchestral music, keyboard music, as well as to sacred music, including six Mass settings. His crowning achievement was in revolutionizing German lieder, about which Joseph v. Spaun declared him “unexcelled” – his hymn composition was superb in the ensemble of lyrical voicecommand, poetic text, and keyboard accompaniment, especially influenced by the idea of exposition and thematic development of the Vienna…

Kümmerle, Salomon

(84 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] (Feb 8, 1832, Malmsheim, Württemberg, Germany – Aug 28, 1896, Samaden, Canton Graubünden, Switzerland) was a music editor and essayist, organist, and teacher in various German towns, and in Nice (1861–1866) and Samaden (1874–1890). He is best known for collecting and publishing Protestant Church music, notably the four-volume Encyklopädie der evangelischen Kirchenmusik (1888–1895) and editions including Musica sacra, Grabgesänge, Zionsharfe, the Choralbuch für evangelische Kirchenchöre, and Aus dem älteren Württembergischen Choralschatz. Don E. Salie…

Celebrant's Prayer/Chant

(352 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E. | Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Music I. Liturgy Historically, the German term Altargesang relates to texts that are sung only by the priest during the mass (celebrant's prayer), and in a broader sense to all sung parts of the liturgy that are led by a celebrant: collects, verses, litanies, Gospel and Epistle readings, responses between choir and congregation, blessings as well as the intoning of the Kyrie, the Gloria and the Creed. The churches of ¶ the Reformation added new compositions for the choir and the congregation. Luther's Deutsche Messe (1526) as a psalm or a hymn as I…

Ambrosian Liturgy

(309 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] The ordo (and its hymns), which is characteristic for the diocese of Milan, usually attributed to Ambrose of Milan, is one of the non-Roman western rites, which are collectively described as “Gallic family.” The influence of the Ambrosian liturgy spread to neighboring regions in Italy and to Bohemia. Nowadays it is …

Bortnyansky, Dmitry Stepanovich

(111 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] (1751, Glukhov/Hlukhiv, Ukraine – Sept 28/Oct 10, 1825, St. Petersburg) studied in Italy from 1769 to 1779, when he was appointed Kapellmeister to the Russian imperial court chapel choir. He composed a large number of sacred pieces for the Orthodox liturgy (VI), influenced by Italian musical lyricism and counter-point, as well as operas, piano sonatas, and chamber music. His sacred works inf…


(118 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] Jubilus, in Hilary of Poitiers and Augustine of Hippo (Commentary on the Psalms), is an extraliturgical improvised wordless song expressing pure joy of the soul. Amalarius of Metz extended this definition to textless note sequences ( longissimae melodiae) in the liturgical chants of the time. The term jubilus has been commonly used for the “ia” melisms in the Alleluia in the mass only since Martin Gerbert (1774). In the Middle Ages, in the repetition of the Alleluia antiphon the melism was extended and also provided …

Klauser, Theodor

(152 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] (Feb 25, 1894, Ahaus, Westphalia – Jul 27, 1984, Bonn) was professor of church history, Christian archaeology, and liturgical history at the University of Bonn. Klauser entered the Benedictine monastery of Gerleve in 1912, was ordained a priest in 1918, and served in the diocese of Paderborn. Klauser was promoted to professor in 1931, was not a member of the NSDAP, and became an ordinary in 1945. He was principal of the University of Bonn from 1948 to 1950. Klauser published numerous monographs as well as the Kleine Abendländische Liturgiegeschichte (1965; ET: A Short Hi…

Pratt, Waldo Selden

(141 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] (Nov 10, 1857, Philadelphia, PA – Jul 29, 1939, Hartford, CT), American musical scholar, church musician, teacher, and hymnologist. M.A. (1881) William College, Williamstown, MA, and ¶ Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. Pratt was professor of ecclesiastical music and hymnology at Hartford Theological Seminary (1882–1925), while also teaching at the Institute of Musical Art, New York. He was president of the Music Teachers National Association (1906–1908) and of the International Musical Association (1911–1916). Among his books are The History of Music (…


(20,376 words)

Author(s): Dondelinger, Patrick | Auffarth, Christoph | Braulik, Georg | Reif, Stefan C. | Johnson, Luke T. | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology The German word Gottesdienst (“worship,” lit. “service of God”) is attested since the 13th/14th century as a German translation of Latin cultus (Cult/Worship). It came into common use in the 16th century, especially in Luther’s works. Starting with an ethical understanding of the word, Luther himself used it as a technical term for the common celebration of the Word of God, as it evolved from the evangelical reform of the Catholic sacrifice (IV) of the mass. For centuries the term Gottesdienst remained limited to this specific form of worship of …


(711 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E. | Rivuzumwami, Carmen
[German Version] I. Musical Performance A musical performer is always an interpreter of a musical score or oral piece as well as a received manner of performing. Thus a musical performance involves knowledge of notation, the human voice or instruments used, and of specific techniques for realizing the possibilities of sound. Variability in tempo, dynamic level, phrasing, ¶ tone color (timbre) as well as improvisation permit considerable freedom in performance practices. In antiquity or in traditional cultures, musical forms are often within rituals involving commun…
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