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Jacobi, Friedrich Heinrich

(560 words)

Author(s): Sandkaulen, Birgit
[German Version] (Jan 25, 1743, Düsseldorf – Mar 10, 1819, Munich), philosopher and novelist. He was one of the most outstanding personalities of classical German philosophy, their “gray eminence.” He called himself a “privileged heretic,” aptly characterizing his epoch-making double role. Owing to his thorough problem analyses, which were initially devoted to B. Spinoza's metaphysics (which only really became known through Jacobi) and to I. Kant's just published transcendental philosophy, Jacobi …

Unbedingte, das

(688 words)

Author(s): Danz, Christian | Sandkaulen, Birgit
[English Version] I. Religionsphilosophisch Das dt. Wort »das U.« begegnet in den philos. Texten erst im letzten Drittel des 18.Jh. als Übers. des lat. »absolutum«. Seine spezifische, die weitere Theol. und Religionsphilos. nachhaltig bestimmende Prägung erhielt der Begriff durch I. Kant (s.u. II.). Das U. ist das letzte Prinzip, welches seinerseits durch nichts anderes bedingt ist und in dem das Mannigfaltige seine begründete Einheit findet. In dieser methodischen Begründungsfunktion bildet die Idee des U. den Kern des philos. Gottesg…

Absolute Necessity

(881 words)

Author(s): Danz, Christian | Sandkaulen, Birgit
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion – II. Philosophy I. Philosophy of Religion The German word das Unbedingte (lit. “the unconditional”) is first found in philosophical texts from the last third of the 18th century, as a translation of the Latin absolutum. It was I. Kant (see II below) who gave this concept its specific connotation, which had a long-lasting influence on subsequent theology and the philosophy of religion. The absolute necessity is the ultimate principle, which is not conditioned by any…