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Pastoral Theology

(2,492 words)

Author(s): Rau, Gerhard | Schmalzle, Udo Friedrich
[German Version] I. Terminology Since the 18th century, the term pastoral theology has been used for theological reflection (in an academic context) on pastoral practice. In the Catholic tradition, it is synonymous with the academic discipline of practical theology; in Protestant theology, the term – since the establishment of practical theology as a theological discipline by F.D.E. Schleiermacher – has meant only a ¶ subsidiary area or a particular style of practical theology. Since the discipline of pastoral theology, theoretically considered, deals fundam…


(881 words)

Author(s): Stroh, Ralf | Greger, Reinhard | Schmälzle, Udo Friedrich
[German Version] I. Social Ethics – II. Law – III. Practical Theology and Education I. Social Ethics Mediation (Lat. mediatio) strives for nonjudicial conflict resolution between disputing parties through the reconciling work of neutral third parties, who, in the course of their moderating and de-escalating activity, seek to activate the potentials for conflict resolution that are present but hidden in the disputing parties. Mediation aims at agreement as the satisfactory conclusion of a conflict in contrast to…


(1,896 words)

Author(s): Otto, Eckart | Schmälzle, Udo Friedrich | Oberlies, Thomas
[German Version] I. Bible Hebrew Bible uses violence (חָמָס/ ḥāmās; שׂד/ šōd) to denote the illegal use of physical force (Gen 49:5), false ¶ testimony in court (Exod 23:1; Deut 19:16), economic exploitation (Amos 3:10; Zeph 1:9), especially of the poor (Jer 22:3), and assault on God (Job 21:27) or his laws (Ezek 22:26). All violence against human beings is also violence against God (Gen 6:11, 13). Law (Law and jurisprudence: III) with its fundamental function of settling conflicts and preventing the transgression of norms that provokes violence is the primary …


(577 words)

Author(s): Schmälzle, Udo Friedrich | May, Gerhard | Maxson, Rachel E.
[German Version] I. History – II. Canon Law – III. Meaning in the English-speaking World I. History (Middle Lat.: capellanus; Ger: Kaplan), cleric at the Carolingian royal court (Carolingians) (first attested 741) with wide-ranging rights (accompanying the king on campaigns, capacity of registrar, diplomatic service, pastoral care at the capella regis); reduced after the ¶ Investiture Controversy following the papal decretal, Ad Audientiam of Alexander III, to clerical functions (responsibility for enforcing attendance at services and distribution o…

Violence and the Use of Force

(2,190 words)

Author(s): Lienemann, Wolfgang | Kersting, Wolfgang | Sieckmann, Jan-R. | Schmälzle, Udo Friedrich
[German Version] I. Anthropology Violence as the power of some to intimidate others against their will by threat or exercise of physical coercion or force them to (or not to) behave or act in a particular way is a phenomenon of all ages, cultures and societies. It is a constant of the human capacity for being; its exercise, encouragement, restraint, and restriction depend on many social variables. A historically differentiated anthropology will inquire into the factors determining various forms of violence. The causes of human violence have been defined variously. In his dri…