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Chabon

(65 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] (Χάβον; Chábon). Scythian fortress ‘in the middle of the land of the Scythians’ (IOSPE 12, 352,13; 29), built by Scilurus and his sons (Str. 7,4,3); served as a base against Mithridates VI; one of his generals, Diophantus, forced the Scythians to surrender C. (Str. 7,4,4). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 309.

Arrechi

(76 words)

Author(s): Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] (Ἀρρηχοί; Arrhēchoí). According to Str. 11,2,11 a tribe of the  Maiotae. Named as Ἀρριχοί ( Arrhichoí) in Strabo MSS (cf. Ptol. 5,8,17 Ἄριχοι); this emendation is based on Steph. Byz. s.v. A., who cites Strabo. Amm. Marc. 22,8,33 (Arinchi) erroneously transposes the A. to the Crimea, as a tribe of the Tauri. Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg) Bibliography S. Tokhtas'ev, Scythica v trudakh II Vsesojuznogo simpoziuma po drevnej istorii Pričernomorja, in: VDI 1984, 3, 136f.

Chersonesus

(1,017 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
(Χερσόνησος; Chersónēsos). [German version] [1] Modern Peninsula Gallipoli The peninsula nowadays called Gallipoli (more than 900 km2); traces of prehistoric settlement, a strategically favourable position, and fertile. First mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,844f., as homeland of the Thracians Acamas and Peirous. Aeolian colonization in the 7th cent. BC (Alopekonnesos, Madytus, Sestus); Ionian (Cardia, Limnae by Miletus and Clazomenae, Elaeus by Teos) somewhat later. The powerful Thracian tribes (Apsinthi, Dolonci) lon…

Agari

(66 words)

Author(s): Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] (Ἀγαροι; Ágaroi) According to App. Mith. 400 a tribe of the  Scythians. Agarian physicians who treated wounds with snake venom healed  Mithridates VI in 68/67 BC. A derivation of the name of the country (Ἀγαρία τῆς Σαρματίας; Agaría tḗs Sarmatías) is probably ἀγαρικόν ( agarikón), the Greek term for tree agaric (Dioscorides 3,1 f. [1. 122]). Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg) Bibliography 1 R. Strömberg, Griech. Pflanzennamen, 1940.

Avares

(187 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] Turkish tribe partly in the wake of the Huns and driven from central Asia by the Turks, that moved westwards in the 6th cent. AD (Sync. 5,15f.). In 558/59 the A. lay north of the Caucasus with c. 20,000 warriors. Constantinople turned them down, whilst under their leader Khagan Baian they embarked on a triumphal march through the southern Russian steppes. Their petition for areas to settle south of the Danube was rejected by Constantinople (Theophanes Byzantius FHG 4, 270b). Between 562 and 566 they attacked the  Fra…

Achilleos Dromos

(136 words)

Author(s): Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] (Ἀχιλλέως δρόμος; Achilléōs Drómos). Also known as Ἠϊόνες ( Ēïónes; Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 31), sandy spit between the mouth of the  Borysthenes and the Karkinit Bay (modern length c. 65 km, width up to 1.8 km), connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus (Ptol. 3,5,25). The western end was called Ἱερὸν ἄλσος τῆς Ἑκάτης ( Hieròn álsos tês Hekátēs; Menippus per. p. 13r 155 Diller), modern Tendra, the eastern end Ταμυράκη ( Tamyrákē) or Ταμθριάκη ( Tamthriákē; Str. 7,3,19; Menippus loc. cit.; Anon. per. p. E. 58) or Μυσαρίς ( Mysarís), modern Dzarylgac. Remains of the  Ach…

Alazones

(85 words)

Author(s): Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] (Ἀλαζῶνες; Alazṓnes). People in northern  Scythia (Ἀλαζόνες, Ἀλιζῶνες; Alazónes, Alizṓnes, cf. Hom. Il. 2,856; FGrH 70 Ephoros fr. 114), who pursued agriculture, where the  Tyras and  Hypanis come the closest to each other (somewhere near Podolia) and where the bitter spring Exampaios was to be found (Hdt. 4,17; 52). The ethnic affiliation has not been clarified. Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg) Bibliography A. I. Dovatur et al., Narody naŝej strany v ‘Istorii’ Gerodota, 1982, 226 B. Hemmerdinger, Eliminatio codicum Herodoteum, in: CQ 2, 1952, 97 ff.

Bastarnae, Basternae

(289 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] Germanic tribal group (Plin. HN 4,81; Str. 7,3,17) originally from the upper Vistula (face urns). Since c. 233 BC, they have been found in the area between Olbia and the Danube delta (IOSPE 12 32; Pomp. Trog. 28). In the period before the change from BC to AD, the B. were one of the largest south-east Germanic tribes. The B. who settled in the Carpathian Basin until late antiquity were known under the name of Peucini. In 182 BC, Philip V required the B. to move into the area of the Dardani. In 179, they attacked …

Achaeans, Achaea

(2,944 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
(Ἀχαιοί, Ἀχαία; Achaioí, Achaía). [1] Greek region [German version] A. Definition The historical region of A. covered the northern coast of the  Peloponnese from Capa Avgo in the east to Cape Araxos in the west; it can be divided into three large and geographically distinct areas [1. 164-198]. The central area of A. is dominated by the Panachaikon massif, a mountain range running from north to south, with summits of nearly 2000 m; despite its simple form, its sheer mass is impressive, towering over the who…

Melanchlaeni

(108 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] (Μελάγχλαινοι; Melánchlainoi). Greek designation (‘those dressed in black’) of a tribe whose region of settlement was 20 days' journey from the Pontos Euxeinos (Hdt. 4,101), bordering to the south the ‘royal’ Scythians (Hdt. 4,20), to the west the Androphagi (Hdt. 4,100) and to the east the Geloni and Budini. North of them there were said to be only swamps and lakes. Although they were supposedly not Scythians (Hdt. 4,20, contra Hecat. FGrH 1 F 185), they are said to have lived according to Scythian customs (Hdt. 4,108). No more precise localisation or ethnicity is known. v…

Bosporus

(736 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
(Βόσπορος; Bósporos). [German version] [1] Early link between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean In Turkish, İstanbul Boğazi or Boğaziçi. There is debate over the B.'s geological genesis: the lack of marine fossils argues for it to have originated from a valley floor, while marine biological evidence suggests an early link between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean (Izmit -- Sapanca Gölü -- Sakarya), from which the masses of water were pushed back, by the silt build-up, to the depression of the B. The B. is the source of saltwater for the Black Sea (average influx per annum 193 km3); 31.7 k…

Apatouron

(85 words)

Author(s): Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] (Ἀπάτουρον; Apátouron). Sanctuary of  Aphrodite Urania (Ἀπάτούρου μεδέουσα; Apatoúrou medéousa: CIRB 1111, 4th cent. BC; Ἀπάτουρος; Apátouros: Str. 11,2,10); perhaps on the bay of the same name (Ἀπάτουρος κόλπος; Apátouros kólpos: FGrH 1 Hecataeus fr. 211) on the Asian side of the Cimmerian Bosporus near  Hermonassa. A settlement near this sanctuary is still attested in AD 576 (Menander Protector fr. 43). Not investigated archaeologically. Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg) Bibliography S. R. Tokhtas'ev, Apatur. Istorija bosporskogo svjatilišča …

Alopecia

(74 words)

Author(s): Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] (Ἀλωπεκία; Alōpekía). Island with settlement in the delta of Tanais, c. 18 km distant from the city Tanais with a Greek-Barbarian population (Str. 11. 2. 3); for the period between 475 and 280 BC documented archaeologically near Elizavetovka [1. 69-75]. Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg) Bibliography 1 D. B. Šelov, Tanais i Nižnij Don v III-I vv. do n. e., 1970. I. B. Brašinsky, K. K. Marčenko, Elizavetovskoje, 1984 K. K. Marčenko, Die Siedlung von Elizavetovka, in: Klio 68, 1986, 377-398.

Budini

(72 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] (Βουδῖνοι; Boudînoi). A tribe, probably Iranian, who live east of the Tanais river, north of the Sauromates, and west of the Thyssagetae (Hdt. 4,21f.). Their capital was Gelonus: mixed Budinian and Greek population, temple of Greek deities, regular feasts in honour of Dionysus (Hdt. 4,108). The B. joined the Scythian coalition against the Persians (Hdt. 4,102; 120; 122; 136). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)

Achilleion Kome

(58 words)

Author(s): Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] (Ἀχίλλειον κώμη; Achílleion kṓmē). Settlement with an  Achilles sanctuary (Str. 11,2,6), on the westernmost edge of the modern Taman peninsula, at the narrowest point of the road from Kerch (Str. 7,4,5; 11,2,8; Ptol. 5,9,5; Steph. Byz. s. v. A.). Archaeologically little investigated. Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg) Bibliography V. F. Gaidukevic, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 218 f.

Abii

(154 words)

Author(s): Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] (Ἄβιοι; Ábioi). According to Hom. Il. 13,5 f. a tribe in northern  Thrace who, with the Glactophagi and Hippemolgi were the justest of mankind. Identical with Aeschylus' Γάβιοι ( Gábioi) ( Prometheus Lyomenos fr. 196,3, TGF 3). In later literature, they became the subject of etymological and idealizing speculations (e.g. FGrH Ephoros 70 fr. 42). Together with the Hippemolgi (as early as Ps.-Hesiod, Katalogos Gynaikon fr. 150,15 f. M.-W.) and Glactophagi (cf. loc. cit. fr. 151), they were identified as  Scythian…

Antae

(306 words)

Author(s): Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] (Ἄνται; Ántai). The numerous tribes of the A. (Procop. Goth. 4,4,9) inhabited the area north-west of the  Ister to the  Borysthenes (Iord. Get. 35; Procop. Goth. 1,27,2). The earliest references to the A. (4th cent. AD) present them as subjects of Hermenericus, and, about 20 years on, as subjugated by the Gothic king Winitharius (Iord. Get. 119; 247). From then on, they never formed a political entity, but united only in case of war (Menander Protector fr. 6; Mauricius Strategikon …

Androphagi

(148 words)

Author(s): Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] (Ἀνδροφάγοι; Androphágoi). Tribe who lived north of  Scythia (Hdt. 4,100,2), still further north, there was allegedly only wilderness, east of which lived the  Neuri (Hdt. 4,102,2; 119,1; 125,3; 5) and the  Melanchlaeni (Hdt. 4,100,2; 125,5). In revenge for the A.'s refusal to support them against  Darius I, the  Scythians invaded their land (Hdt. 4,125,3). It is impossible to localize them or the assign them to an ethnic group -- they were described as ‘an independent, definitely …

Lycus

(2,142 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Λύκος; Lýkos). Mythology and religion: L. [1-9], historical persons: L. [10-13], rivers: L. [14-19]. [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno [1] (Ps.-Eratosth. Katasterismoi 23), only Apollod. 3,111 mentions his translation to the Islands of the Blessed, possibly to differentiate him from L. [6], with whom he is connected by Hyg. Fab. 31, 76 and 157 in spite of the descent from Poseidon. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of Prometheus and Celaeno Son of Prometheus and Celaeno [1], on whose tomb in th…

Chersonesos

(925 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
(Χερσόνησος). [English version] [1] h. Halbinsel Gallipoli Die h. Halbinsel Gallipoli (über 900 km2); mit vorgesch. Siedlungsspuren, strategisch günstig gelegen und fruchtbar. Erstmals bei Hom. Il. 2,844f. als Heimat der Thraker Akamas und Peiroos erwähnt. Aiol. Kolonisation im 7.Jh. v.Chr (Alopekonnesos, Madytos, Sestos), die ion. (Kardia, Limnai von Miletos und Klazomenai, Elaius von Teos) etwas später. Die starken thrak. Stämme (Apsinthoi, Dolonkoi) blieben noch lange feindlich. Um die Ch. zu schützen, l…
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