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Nahḍa

(3,956 words)

Author(s): Tomiche, N.
(a.), a term derived from the Arabic root n-h-ḍ which signifies “to rise”, “to stand up”, with an active perspective, the connotation “to be fit”, “to be ready for”, which is to be found explicidy in the definition given by the LA: al-nahḍa = al-ṭāḳa wa ’l-ḳuwwa ( nahḍa = power and force). The substantive Nahḍa is used to designate the rebirth of Arabic literature and thought under Western influence since the second half of the 19th century. It has often been translated by “Renaissance”, a problematic translation since it refer…

Marrās̲h̲

(1,035 words)

Author(s): Tomiche, N.
, Fransīs b. Fatḥ Allāh b. Naṣr , Syrian scholar and publicist of the Nahḍa (1835-74 according to M. ʿAbbūd and S. al-Kayyālī, or 1836-73 according to Brockelmann, Dāg̲h̲ir and al-Ziriklī). He was born and died at Aleppo, coming from a Melkite Christian family of literary men (Brockelmann, S II, 755), and in the opening stages of the modern Arabic literary renaissance, the Nahḍa [ q.v.], tried to introduce “critical reasoning” into a sphere at that time in a state of cultural effervescence. For this, he employed pseudo-scientific terms in order to prove, in h…

al-Marʾa

(28,871 words)

Author(s): Tomiche, N. | Chelhod, J. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Afshar, Haleh | Ansari, Ghaus
(a) Woman. 1. In the Arab world. For a long time, the problem of woman has been avoided or dealt with only partially or in a biased way, but now a general twinge of conscience has brought it to the focus of our attention. Not just one but many different problems confront the Arab woman and affect how she is seen by society. There is the legal aspect, defining the precise relationship between divine and human law; there is the collection of “distorted pictures” (the expression used by Etiemble ¶ with which literature in particular presents the “myth” of woman; and there is feminine b…

Muṣṭafā ʿAbd al-Rāziḳ

(657 words)

Author(s): Tomiche, N.
, Egyptian journalist who became Rector of al-Azhar [ q.v.]. ¶ Born in Egypt in 1882 (according to Y.A. Dāg̲h̲ir, Maṣādir ) or in 1885 (al-Ziriklī, Aʿlām ) and dying in 1946 or 1947, he belonged to a rich and aristocratic family. He was the son of Ḥasan Pas̲h̲a ʿAbd al-Rāziḳ and the brother of ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Rāziḳ, his junior by several years and famed for the “scandal” raised by his book al-Islām wa-uṣūl al-ḥukm in 1925, a little before the one which Ṭāhā Ḥusayn provoked with his al-S̲h̲iʿr al-d̲j̲āhilī . Despite being on a very different social level, Muṣṭafā ʿA…