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(1,044 words)

Author(s): Wansbrough, J.
, al-Malik al-Nāṣir Zayn al-Dīn Abu ’l-Saʿādāt , 26th Mamlūk Sultan of Egypt and second of the Circassians [see čerkes ii and burd̲j̲iyya ]. The son of Sultan Barḳūḳ [ q.v.] and a Greek mother, S̲h̲īrīn. Farad̲j̲ was born in Cairo in 791/1389 and succeeded to the Sultanate upon the death of his father on 15 S̲h̲awwāl 801/20 June 1399. Owing to his youth Farad̲j̲ began his reign under the guardianship of two of his father’s amīrs : Tag̲h̲rī Birdī al-Bas̲h̲bug̲h̲āwī (father of the historian) and Aytimis̲h̲ al-Bad̲j̲asī, but disagreements among the amīr s and their fa…


(744 words)

Author(s): Wansbrough, J.
, al-Malik al-Nāṣir Nāṣir al-Dīn abu ’l-Maʿalī , 19th Mamlūk Sultan of Egypt, in the line known to contemporary chroniclers as Dawlat al-Turk . He was the most prominent of eight sons of the Sultan al-Malik al-Nāṣir Muḥammad b. Ḳalāʾūn who ruled in turn during the years 741/1340-763/1362 and who are frequently designated in European documents of the period as “Ḥasan and his brothers” ( e.g., BSOAS, xxviii (1965), 492: “Nasser Hassan et suo fradeli”), see Zambaur, Manuel , i, 103, 106; and Wiet, in Mém . Inst . Egypte , xix, genealogical tree p. 279). Owing to th…


(19,300 words)

Author(s): Wansbrough, J. | İnalcık, Halil | Lambton, A.K.S. | Baer, G.
, commercial privileges, capitulations. i. The earliest documentary evidence for commercial privileges emanating from Muslim chanceries in the Mediterranean world dates from the 6th/12th century. While it is unlikely that these documents represent the earliest manifestation of that diplomatic and commercial activity between rulers of Islam and Christendom which culminated in the Ottoman Capitulations, it is probably useless to speculate upon either the form or the language of chancery instruments bef…


(8,430 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F. | Bosworth, C.E. | Wansbrough, J. | Colin, G.S. | Busse, H. | Et al.
, one of many Arabic words used to express the concept of “gift”, and the preferred legal term for it, see following article. The giving of gifts, that is, the voluntary transfer of property, serves material and psychological purposes. In the pre-history of man, it probably antedates the contractual payment for goods and services. In Islam, it has retained its inherited functions as an important component of the social fabric and has exercised a considerable influence on political life. Literature (in the narrow sense…