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(1,731 words)

Author(s): Welker, Michael
Relativism or Conformism 1. Immanuel Kant, following Christian Wolff, offers the first definition of ‘pluralism’ worthy of discussion: by contrast with the ‘egoist,’ the ‘citizen of the world’ tests his judgments and his practical goals against the judgments and goals of other persons. Kant is thus a ‘pluralist.’ But he cannot show what protects these pluralists or this pluralism from becoming either a reservoir of chronic hesitators, waverers, and relativists, or else developing into a collective …


(1,149 words)

Author(s): Welker, Michael
1. Meaning From antiquity onward, across various cultures, the concept of heaven unites and distinguishes several notions and systems of reference. 1.1. Heaven is what people see above the earth, marking it off or securing it (i.e., the firmament). It is sometimes regarded as a material half-globe or a disk arching over the earth. 1.2. Heaven is also a syndrome of powers and uncontrollable forces. We cannot directly measure or manipulate it. It has a decisive impact on life on earth by granting or withholding life and water, also by sending storms, hail, and so forth. 1.3. Heaven is the pl…

Biblical Theology

(5,039 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd | Welker, Michael
[German Version] I. Exegesis – II. Fundamental theology I. Exegesis 1. “Biblical Theology” (BT) is not an unambiguous term. It means either “the theology contained in the Bible” or “theology in accordance with the Bible, with ¶ scripture” (Ebeling 69–70). In the first sense, BT is a historical concept; in the second, a normative concept. In the first instance, it concerns a particular theological discipline; in the second, the nature of theology…