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Singus

(122 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Σίγγος/ Síngos). City on the gulf named after it, on the isthmus of Sithonia at modern Agios Nikolaos. After its mention during the campaign of Xerxes I (Hdt. 7,122), it appears in the Athenian tribute lists, usually with two talents (ATL 1, 402 f.). In 432/1 BC the city seceded from Athens and lost the greater part of its inhabitants to Olynthus. After fighting took place in its territory (IG I3 1184), it was regained by the Athenians and in the Peace of Nicias in 421 (Peloponnesian War D.) was dec…

Lecythus

(40 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Λήκυθος; Lḗkythos). In 423 BC the Spartan commander Brasidas conquered the fort of L. - mentioned only in Thuc. 4,113-116 - in the area of the town of Torone on the Chalcidic peninsula. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)

Menelaus

(2,514 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Μενέλαος/Menélaos, Attic Μενέλεως/Menéleos; Latin Menelaus). [German version] [1] Ruler of Sparta, married to Helena A significant character in the cycle of myths about the Trojan War ( Troy: Cycle of myths). A younger brother of Agamemnon, who ruled the most significant power centre in Greek myth, Mycene, by marriage to Zeus's daughter Helen ( Helene [1]; their only child was a daughter, Hermione) M. became king of a region in the Eurotas valley with its capital Sparta and Amyclae [1], which was significant…

Stagira

(212 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War | Delian League ( Stageira; Στάγιρα/ Stágira, Στάγιρος/ Stágiros, Στάγειρα/ Stágeira, Στάγειρος/ Stágeiros). Colony of Andros, founded in the 7th cent. on the eastern coast of the Chalcidian peninsula, shown to have been to the east of modern Olympias. In the 6th cent., S. minted splendid silver coins, but as a member of the Delian League paid only 1000 drachmai (ATL 1, 412 f.). In 424 BC S. seceded to Brasidas (Thuc. 4,88,2), in 422 it was unsuccessfully assaulted by Cleon [1] (Thuc. 5…

Derris

(28 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Δέρρις; Dérris). Cape at the southern end of Sithonia opposite Cape Canastraeum on Pallene. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. Zahrnt, Olynth und die Chalkidier, 1971, 180.

Bottice

(250 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Βοττική; Bottikḗ). Region on the western coast of the Chalcidice peninsula, named after the inhabitants of the Macedonian Bottiaea, driven out of their homeland in around 600 BC, with several towns, of which only Olynthus (lost to the Chalcidicians in 479 BC) has been localized with certainty. In the Athenian League, Spartolus, as the most important town of the B., represented the tribal federation, and from 434/3 BC, further Bottiaean towns are registered in the Athenian tribute …

Phlegra

(99 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Φλέγρα; Phlégra). According to Hdt. 7,123, the Pallene [4] peninsula originally bore the name of P. In antiquity, P. was thought to be the site of the battle between Heracles [1] and the Giants (Ephorus FGrH 70 F 34; Str. 7a,1,25; 27; Apollod. 1,6,1; 2,7,1; Steph. Byz. s.v. Παλλήνη). The renaming of the peninsula as Pallene can be traced back to the Achaean Pelleneis who landed at the later town of Scione on their return from Troy (Πελληνεῖς/ Pellēneîs, Polyaenus, Strat. 7,47; cf. Thuc. 4,120,1). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography E. Oberhummer, s.v. Ph., RE 20, 264f.

Aphytis

(136 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League On the east coast of Pallene south of Potidaea. A member of the  Delian League during the 5th cent. BC, A. remained loyal to Athens even after 432 BC; A. received concessions in exchange (ATL 2,75, D 21), but as a consequence was besieged by Lysander (Plut. Lys. 20,7; Paus. 3,18,3). As a member of the Chalcidian League for a time during the 1st half of the 4th cent. (Syll.3 135), A. became part of the Macedonian realm. A. briefly re…

Ptolemaeus

(19,876 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαῖος/ Ptolemaîos). Personal name meaning 'warlike' (not 'hostile'), first recorded in Hom. Il. 4,228; the name occurred in Macedonia in the 5th and 4th cents. BC, from where it spread to Thessaly, still in the 4th cent. (IG IX 2, 598). It became prominent with the Lagid dynasty, and became common, not only in Egypt, where it may at first have indicated solidarity with the dynasty, but also elsewhere. It underwent many deformations and transmutations. Ptolemies Famous persons: P. [1] I Soter, P. [6] III Euergetes; P. [22], the son of Caesar; the scientist Claudius P. [65]. Ameling, Wa…

Potidaea

(785 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Diadochi and Epigoni | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Ποτείδαια/ Poteídaia). The Corinthian colony of P. was founded c. 600 BC on the Pallene [4] isthmus (western part of the Chalcidian peninsula) allegedly by a son of the tyrant Periander (Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 59). It began minting coins still in the 6th cent. and built a…

Aeacides

(161 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Αἰακίδης; Aiakídēs). [German version] [1] Patronym for mythical descendents of Aeacus, the Molossian king Patronym for mythical and historical figures, who traced their lineage back to Aeacus: Peleus, Achilles, Neoptolemus, the Molossian kings [1]. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography 1 P. R. Franke, Die ant. Mz. von Epirus, 1961, 270.42 (literature). [German version] [2] Molossian king Son of the Molossian king  Arybbas and father of   Pyrrhus (Plut. Pyrrhus 1,5 ff.; Paus. 1,11,1; Diod. Sic. 16,72,1); after the death of Alexander [6] he succ…

Olophyxus

(130 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Ὀλόφυξος; Olóphyxos). City of unknown location on the eastern coast of the Acte peninsula (modern Athos), according to Thuc. 4,109,3f. inhabited by a mixed language population. In the Athenian tribute lists it is listed  from 454/3 BC on with an amount of 2000 drachmai; it remained in the Delian League after 432 and went over to the Spartans only in the winter of 424/3, but could soon be won back. Copper coins are known from the first half of the 4th century, but …

Stolus

(232 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] [1] From Cyrene, c. 100 BC (Στόλος; Stólos). Son of Theon, probably from Cyrene, later honoured with Athenian citizenship; archedéatros in Cyrene in 108 BC, later admiral of Ptolemaeus [15] IX on Cyprus between 107 and 104. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography R. S. Bagnall, S. the Admiral, in: Phoenix 26, 1972, 358-368  H. Hauben, Was S. a Cyrenaean?, in: ZPE 25, 1977, 221-226  J. Pouilloux, Salaminiens de Chypre à Delos, in: BCH Suppl. 1, 1973, 406-411. [German version] [2] City This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Στῶλος; Stōlos). Inland cit…

Canastraeum

(47 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Καναστραῖον; Kanastraîon). Cape C., the modern Cape Paliuri, formed the south-eastern tip of the  Pallene peninsula, and is frequently mentioned as a notable coastal landmark by authors and poets, beginning with Herodotus (Hdt. 7,123). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography E. Oberhummer, s.v. K., RE 10, 1955f.

Galaei

(104 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Γαλαῖοι; Galaîoi). The G., who appear in the Athenian tribute lists from 436/435 BC, were the citizens of a town on the western coast of Sithonia, close to the modern Neos Marmaras, referred to by Herodotus (Hdt. 7,122), probably erroneously, as Galepsos in his description of Xerxes' campaign. In 432, the G. seceded from Athens and resettled in the enlarged city of Olynthus, but their town was recaptured by Athens before 425, and declared independent in the peace of Nicias of 421. After that, the sources no longer mention it. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. Zahrnt,…

Zopyrion

(198 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Ζωπυρίων; Zōpyríōn). [German version] [1] From Macedonia, governor of Thrace, second half of the 4th cent. BC Macedonian of unknown origin, who as governor of Thrace allegedly undertook a campaign with 30,000 men across the Danube c. 325 BC, advanced as far as the Borysthenes (modern Dnieper), besieged Olbia [1], but as his army was severely worn down by bad weather, was defeated by the Scythae and killed (Curt. 10,1,43-45; Iust. Epit. 2,3,4; 12,1,4; 12,2,16f. with incorrect dating; 37,3,2; Macr. Sat. 1,11,33). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography Berve, vol. 2, Nr. 340  A. B. Boswort…

Pausanias

(3,302 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Et al.
(Παυσανίας; Pausanías). [German version] [1] Spartiate from the house of the Agiads Spartiate from the house of the Agiads, son of Cleombrotus [1], after whose death (480/479 BC) he became guardian for his cousin Pleistarchus [1] and 'regent' (Hdt. 9,10; Thuc. 1,132,1; Paus. 3,4,9), father of the later king Pleistoanax (Thuc. 1,107,2). In 479, P. led the contingent of the Hellenic confederacy of 481 to victory over the Persians at Plataeae (Persian Wars), where at first the Greeks almost suffered a catastro…

Anthemous

(112 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Ἀνθεμοῦς; Anthemoûs). Region with both a river (modern Vasilikiotikos) and town (near the modern Galatista) of the same name in the north of the  Chalcidice peninsula. It was Macedonian in the 5th cent. BC (Thuc. 2,99,6), and, in the 4th cent. BC, left for a time to the Chalcidian Confederacy (Xen. Hell. 5,2,13); it supplied a cavalry unit to Alexander's army (Arr. An. 2,9,3). According to inscriptions, the town continued to exist into the imperial age. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. B. Hatzopoulos, L. D. Loukopoulou, Recherches sur les marches orient…

Dion

(1,970 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Et al.
[English version] I. Personen (Δίων) Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [English version] [I 1] Freund Platons, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Sohn des Hipparinos, Schwager und Schwiegersohn Dionysios' I. von Syrakus, * 409 v.Chr., seit Platons erstem Aufenthalt 388 in Syrakus dessen enger Freund und Verfechter seiner Philosophie. Unter Dionysios I. kam er als dessen Vertrauter und Ratgeber zu Ansehen und Reichtum und blieb auch unter Dionysios II. einflußreich. Er vermittelte 366 den Frieden mit Karthago und rief Platon nach Syrakus, um …

Polemocrates

(89 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Πολεμοκράτης/ Polemokrátēs). [German version] [1] Granted lands in Chalcidice by Philip II Under Philip [4] II P. received estates in the newly conquered region in the west of the Chalcidian peninsula; this estate as well as the one which his son Coenus [1], the future general of Alexander [4] the Great, had received from Philip, was later ratified by king Cassander and declared free from tax (Syll.3 332). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. B. Hatzopoulos, Une donation du roi Lysimaque, 1988. [German version] [2] see Alexanor; Machaon see Alexanor; Machaon
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