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Tembris

(57 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Τέμβρις/ Témbris, also Témbros, Thýmbris, Tembrógius; modern River Porsuk). Left bank tributary of the Sangarius (Liv. 38,18,8; Plin. HN 6,4; HN 681). It rises in the Dindymum to the south of modern Kütahya, flows first to the north and then turns eastwards past Dorylaeum. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 232  W. Ruge, s. v. T., RE 5 A, 433.

Kerkenes Dağı

(219 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] Mountain massif south of Sorgun, in the Hittite period probably the cult mountain Daḫa near Zippalanda (Kuşaklı Höyük). After 600 BC building of the city of Pteria, the largest prehistoric city of Anatolia ( c. 2.5 km2 densely built up): layout to plan with grand administrative and military complexes, later condensing of the existing area; clay brick superstructure of the city wall ( c. 7.5 km long) probably not completed for political reasons; numerous tumuli. New centre of the Phrygian empire - that was restricted because of the Lydian expa…

Melaina Akra

(35 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Μέλαινα Ἄκρα/ Mélaina Akra). Bithynian foothills to the east of the northern end of the Bosporus, modern Kara Burun. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. Melaina Akra (2), RE 15, 387.

Mons Magaba

(83 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] Mountain massif near Ancyra, onto which the Tectosages and Trocmi retreated from the Romans in 189 BC; the Galatae were defeated with their Paphlagonian and Cappadocian allies in the foothills (Liv. 38,24-27); today a lush outcrop (Kale/Doğandere Tepe) of the Elma Dağı-Massif (incorrect [1. 53f.]; reference to the mons Modiacus west of Ancyra at Fest. 11 cannot be correct). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 Mitchell 1. W. Ruge, s.v. M., RE 14, 287  K. Strobel, Die Galater 2, 1999  Belke, 207.

Faustinupolis

(105 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Φαυστινούπολις; Phaustinoúpolis, colonia Faustinopolitanorum). Originally the village of Halala, 24 km south-east of Tyana; the modern Başmakcı. Here died in AD 176  Faustina the Younger [3] (SHA Aur. 26,4; 9), for which M. Aurelius elevated F. to the status of colonia. Attested since 431 as a bishopric. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography M. H. Ballance, Derbe and F., in: AS 14, 1964, 139-145 R. P. Harper, s.v. F., PE, 326 Hild/Restle, 258f. T. Drew-Bear, Inscriptions de Cappadoce, in: J. DesCourtils (…

Mnizus

(47 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Μνίζος/ Mnízos). Way station, later a town, on the road from Nicaea to Ancyra (Cod. Theod. 9,40,16; 9,45,3), 8 km to the west of modern-day Ayaş. It was a suffragan bishopric from AD 451 until sometime in the 12th cent. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 207.

Cales

(225 words)

Author(s): Garozzo, Bruno (Pisa) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] [2] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Theatre | Tribus | Coloniae | Coloniae Main centre of the Ausones in Campania (Καλησία; Kalēsía: Steph. Byz. s.v.; Calenum: Plin. HN 3,63; Cale), on an elevated plain, enclosed on three sides by the Rio de' Lauzi and the Rio di Pezzasecca, modern Calvi Risorta. For its foundation myth cf. Verg. Aen. 7,728 (Aurunca), Sil. Pun. 8,512; 12,525 (Calais), Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,32,37 (Volsci). Conquered by the Romans in 334 BC (Liv. 8,16; Vell. Pat. 1,14,3), municipium, seat of the quaestor for Campania (Tac. An…

Claudioupolis

(334 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
(Κλαυδιούπολις; Klaudioúpolis). [German version] [1] Settlement in the Salo region This item can be found on the following maps: Celts | Asia Minor Old settlement in the Salo region (Abant Gölü, Bolu basin and surrounding alpine pastures), today known as Bolu (Str. 12,4,7). It was a suburb of the free  Mariandyni, conquered by  Zipoetes in 281/0 BC, and Galatian from c. 275/4 to 179 (the residential fortress of the north-western Tolistobogian tetrarchy is located south of Bolu at the spa of Karacasu, already ancient at that time). Newly founded as the po…

Astacus

(425 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἀστακός; Astakós, ‘lobster town’). [German version] [1] Town on the eastern end of the Gulf of A. or of  Nicomedia This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Delian League Town on the eastern end of the Gulf of A. or of  Nicomedia, in an unhealthy region; its exact location is unknown. Its foundation in 712/11 BC was initiated by  Megara (Memnon, FGrH 434 F 12; Str. 12,4,2), and it was presumably a member of the  Delian League from 478/7 BC[1]; in 435/4 BC, it was colonized by Athens. In about 405 BC, under D…

Calpe

(257 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] [1] Rock of Gibraltar The rock of Gibraltar ( Pylae Gadeirides). The derivation of the name from the Greek κάλπη ( kálpē) = κάλπις/ kálpis ‘jug’ (already found in Avien. 348) is founded on popular etymology, based on the cavity in the eastern face of the rock (Mela 2,95), which nowadays is largely taken up by fill and the town of Gibraltar itself [1]. Maybe the Greeks transferred this name -- of unknown origin -- from the Bithynian C. (modern Kirpe) to the Spanish peninsula [2]. C. was one of the two ‘P…

Ancyra

(470 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Theatre | Byzantium | Zenobia | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Limes | Pergamum | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Patricius | Rome | Rome (Ἄνκυρα; Ánkyra). City and fortress in  Galatia, modern Ankara. Anchors feature in legends, explaining the origin of the name (Paus. 1,4,5; Steph. Byz. s. v. A.; anchor as the city's symbol). Its origins lay in the prehistoric/ Hittite period; a Phrygian centre from the 8th to the 6th cents. BC (foundation myth: Paus…

Cappadocia, I.

(1,327 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Καππαδοκία; Kappadokía). Region and kingdom in Asia Minor [German version] A. Geography and population C. (Str. 12,1f.) extends from the Taurus to the Black Sea coast; its western border to Paphlagonia and Phrygia, later also to Galatia, is at the Halys (and Lake Tatta); in the south-west, it borders on Lycaonia, in the east on Colchis, Lesser Armenia, and the upper reaches of the Euphrates, in the south on Cilicia and Commagene. The entire region is seen as an ethnic-linguistic entity, part of the Luwian-sp…

Diocaesarea

(118 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Διοκαισάρεια; Diokaisáreia). [German version] [1] Temple settlement Temple settlement around the Zeus sanctuary of Olba in Cilicia Tracheia, which became an independent town under Tiberius and later a diocese (suffragan of Seleucia on the Calycadnus). Archaeological finds: generous extension of the settlement with city walls, colonnade street, aqueduct, theatre, temple of Tyche; during the early Byzantine period the temple of Zeus was converted into a three-aisled colonnaded basilica. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography Hild/Hellenkemper, s.v. D. [German version] [2] …

Comana

(251 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
This item can be found on the following maps: Hellenistic states [German version] [1] City in Cataonia This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Coloniae | Education / Culture (Κόμανα; Kómana). City in  Cataonia (Str. 12,2,3), Hittite Kummanni; temple state of the goddess Ma-Enyo (Artemis Tauropolios;  Enyo; Roman  Bellona). Bishopric as early as the Severian period (2nd/3rd cents AD); today's Şar. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. Komana, RE 11, 1127f. Hild/Restle, 208f. [German version] [2] C. Pontica This item can be found on the foll…

Bithynia et Pontus

(1,011 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
[German version] A. Roman period Roman double province (after Diocletian, 284-305, only Bithynia) with  Nicomedia as its capital. In 74 BC the death of Nicomedes IV [2;7]; M. Iunius Iuncus, proconsul Asiae, is given the task of securing the kingdom as a Roman province; in the autumn of 74 the province of Bithynia is conferred upon the incumbent consul M.  Aurelius Cotta and Asia and B. established as a unitary customs zone (SEG 39, 1180 = AE 1989, 681 [1;4]). The 3rd Mithridatic war began in early 73 [2; 4; 7; 8]; Mithridate…

Prusias

(948 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Προυσίας/ Prousías). [German version] [1] P. I, the Lame King of Bithynia from 230 BC Son of Ziaelas and king of Bithynia c. 230-182 BC. P. gave support to Rhodes after the earthquake of 227 (Pol. 5,90,1) and in alliance with it fought Byzantium, but was unable to keep his conquest (Pol. 4,47-52). In 216 he destroyed the Celtic Aegosages (Pol. 5,111; [1. 43]). Characteristics of his policy were friendship with Macedonia and enmity with Pergamum. In the first of the Macedonian Wars [A] he fought by agreement with Phi…

Nicomedia

(1,111 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Byzantium | Christianity | | Coloniae | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Limes | Natural catastrophes | Pergamum | Pompeius | Patricius | Rome | Rome (Νικομήδεια/ Nikomḗdeia, Latin Nicomedia). [German version] I. From the foundation to the death of Nicomedes IV Town at the northeast end of the gulf of Astacus or N., modern İzmit or Kocaeli. Founded and named by Nicomedes [2] I in 264/3 BC as the capital of the Bithynian kingdom (Memnon FGrH 434 F 12; Arr. FGr…

Argaeus

(103 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] [1] Son of Ptolemy I (Ἀργαῖος; Argaîos). Son of Ptolemy I (and of Eurydice?); murdered by Ptolemy II (because of a conspiracy?) after 282 BC. PP 6, 14489. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography C. Habicht, Argaeus, Ptolemy II. and Alexander's corpse, AHB 2,4, 1988, 88-89. [German version] [2] Volcanic massif in Cappadocia (Ἀργαῖος, also Ἀργαῖον ὄρος; Argaîon oros). Erciyes Daǧı, highest volcanic massif in  Cappadocia (3917 m) south of Kayseri. Volcanic peak of the same name (modern Hasan Daǧı) in south-west Cappadocia (3268 m). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography…

Gallus

(209 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[I] (Γάλλος; Gállos). [German version] [1] River in Bithynia River in Bithynia, modern Mudurnu Çayı, rises near Modrene (modern Mudurnu) in Phrygia Epictetus (Str. 12,3,7; [2], differently [1]) and flows into the lower course of the  Sangarius. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) [German version] [2] Small river through Pessinus Small river that originally flowed through  Pessinus to the  Sangarius [3]. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 W. Ruge, s.v. G., RE 7, 674 2 S. Şahin, Stud. über die Probleme der histor. Geogr. Kleinasiens, in: EA 7, 1986, 125-151 3 Belke, 165f. …

Calchedon

(726 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Byzantium | Christianity | Diadochi and Epigoni | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Oracles | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Delian League (Καλχηδών; Kalchēdṓn, also Chalkedon; Lat. Calchedon, Calcedon, Chalcedon). [German version] I. Prehistory to Roman Period Prehistorical settlement area on the south-eastern entrance into the  Bosporus (map); in c. 685 BC, the harbour town was founded as a Megarian colony; modern Kadıköy. Its territory extended along the e…
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