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Celts

(6,582 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] I. Name The name C. is first used by the Greek authors of the 5th cent. BC (Hdt. 4,49: Κελτοί; Keltoí; Scyl. 18). Their settlement area was called Keltikḗ (Κελτική). In around 270 BC, the term ‘Galatians’ (Γαλάται; Galátai) is found in Timaeus, the name exclusively applied to the C. in the east. The Greeks clearly distinguished between C. and Galatians. Confusion arose from the translation of Galli as Galatai by the Romans (Caes. B Gall. 1,1,1). Galatai as an alternative term for C. is surely connected with a second wave of Celtic immigration into Gaul in…

Malus

(294 words)

Author(s): von Stuckrad, Kocku (Erfurt) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Son of Amphictyon (Μᾶλος; Mâlos). Son of Amphictyon, eponym of the Malieis and of their city Malieus (Androtion in Steph. Byz. s.v. Μαλιεύς; Malieús). In the poems of Isyllus of Epidaurus (CollAlex 132-135 = [1. 380-383 no. 40]) M. is an Epidaurian king who introduces the cult of Apollo Maleatas. Therefore, M. is probably an Epidaurian etymology to explain the name Maleatas. In Isyllus, M. - through the mediation of Zeus - marries the Muse Erato and becomes the father of Cleophema, hence the grandfather of Aegle [5] and the great-grandfather of Asclepius. von Stuckrad,…

Nora

(375 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] [1] Town on the Capo di Pula on the south coast of Sardinia This item can be found on the following maps: Sardinia et Corsica | Theatre | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni (Νώρα; Nṓra). Town on the Capo di Pula on the south coast of Sardinia, approx. 20 km south of Cagliari. N. is regarded as the oldest town on the island (Paus. 10,17,5; Solin. 4,1; on its location cf. Itin. Anton. 85,2f.; Tab. Peut. 4,1). After a pre-colonial phase (cf. Phoenician inscriptions CIS I 144 c. 800 BC; [1. 1]), N. was founded by the Phoenicians in the mid 7th cent. BC. The Phoenician …

Apamea

(592 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon) | Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig)
(Ἀπάμεια; Apámeia). [German version] [1] City in  Bithynia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Pergamum | Education / Culture City in  Bithynia, 1 km south-east of present-day Mudanya on the Sea of Marmara; founded by Colophon; originally Brylleion; from shortly after 330 BC Myrleia. From 433/32 BC attested as belonging to the  Delian League; at the end of the 4th cent. BC under the rule of Mithridates II of Cius; for a time in the 3rd cent. BC a member of the koinon of Athena Ilias. In 202 BC conquered by Philip V and delivered to Prusias I; newly founded as A…

Caesarea

(992 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] Main town of Cappadocia, modern Kayseri This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Syria | Byzantium | Christianity | Zenobia | | Alexander | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Limes | Limes | Pompeius | Rome | Rome (Καισάρεια; Kaisáreia, Iranian or cuneiform Mazaka). Main town of  Cappadocia (Str. 12,2,7-9), modern Kayseri. [German version] I. Early History to Roman Times C. succeeded the nearby ancient centre of Kaniš (Kültepe;  Asia Minor), although that was still of importance in Hellenistic and Roman time…

Zama

(397 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Z. Regia City in Africa Proconsularis This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Punic Wars City in Africa proconsularis, probably modern Seba Biar [1. 416 f.; 2. 321-326; 3. 325 f.; 4; 5. 251 f.; 6. 42 f.]. It was near Z. - at Naraggara - that the decisive battle between Hannibal [4] and P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio was fought in 202 BC [1. 417-420] (Punic Wars II). In the war with Iugurtha (111-105 BC), Z. was attacked by Q. Caecilius [I 30] Metellus (Sall. Iug. 56 f.). No later tha…

Neocaesarea

(605 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
(Νεοκαισάρεια/ Neokaisáreia, Lat. Neocaesarea). [German version] [1] Town in Pontos This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Syria | Byzantium | Christianity | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Limes | Rome | Rome A town in Pontus at the southern foot of the Paryadres near present-day Niksar, at the junction of the east-west route from the Amnias valley and up the Lycus valley via the Comana Pontica [2]-Polemonium road [4; 5; 6.Vol. 1, 17-57]; it is mentioned for the first time in Plin. HN. 6,8. N.'s history is traceable vi…

Hadrianopolis

(637 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Belke, Klaus (Vienna) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
(Ἁδριανόπολις; Hadrianópolis). [German version] [1] City in Paphlagonia Caesarea (Καισάρεια; Kaisáreia). City in Paphlagonia in the basin of Eskipazar (formerly Viranşehir), close to the fortress of Semail, the centre of the Paphlagonian region of Sanisene [2]. In 6/5 BC this, together with Potamia and Marmolitis, became a regio attributa [1. 116ff.] of the Paphlagonian eparchía of the province of Galatia, which was soon organized as the pólis of H. (originally Καισαρεῖς Προσειλημμενεῖται [1. no. 1]). Before AD 305/6 H. was defeated and became the province of…

Dia

(455 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Δῖα, Δία; Dîa, Día). [German version] [1] Female equivalent of Zeus The female equivalent of  Zeus, as Diwiya on the Linear B inscriptions from Pylos and Knossos, with her own sanctuary, just as  Poseidon also has his female counterpart in the Mycenaean pantheon [1]. In the post-Mycenaean period the three heroines who can be linked with the Mycenaean goddess by name, are all linked with Zeus, but the individual derivation is problematical. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Heroine in the local cults of Phlius and Sicyon The heroine is most likely D. in the local cult…

Ladon

(581 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Λάδων; Ládōn). [German version] [1] Dragon The dragon referred to in Apoll. Rhod. 4,1396, elsewhere referred to only as a ‘serpent’ ( óphis, drákōn), who guards the apples of the Hesperides (as also mentioned on Probus in Verg. G. 1,244); he has a hundred heads and many voices. Mythographers have him either be descended directly (as a chthonic beast) from Gaia (as is Typhon) or from related monsters (Phorcys and Ceto, the parents of Echidna and grandparents of the Lernean Hydra in Hes. Theog. 333-335; Echidna and…

Castor

(571 words)

Author(s): Geus, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Κάστωρ; Kástōr). [German version] [1] see Dioscuri see  Dioscuri Geus, Klaus (Bamberg) [German version] [2] C. of Rhodos Greek historian, 1st cent. BC Greek historiographer of the first half of the 1st cent. BC, whose vita in Suda s.v. is confused with that of the homonymous Galatian dynast, author of Chronicle in six books from Belus ( Baal) and  Ninus (2123/2 BC) on until the restructuring of the Near East by Pompey (61/0 BC), with lists of kings and officials from Assyria, Sicyon, Argus, Athens, Alba and Rome. The structure of his many-stra…

Scopas

(1,000 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Σκόπας/ Skópas). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Paros, mid 4th cent. BC Sculptor from Paros, active in the mid 4th cent. BC, working mostly in marble and very occasionally in bronze. In the opinion of the ancient world, S. was one of the most important masters of Greek sculpture. Written records ascribe to him approximately 25-30 individual works and major projects, which should probably be allotted to several sculptors with the same name of different generations. The extant pediment sculptures from th…

Melas

(695 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Et al.
(Μέλας/ Mélas). [German version] [1] Brother of Oeneus Son of Porthaon (Portheus) and Euryte in Calydon [3], brother of Oeneus, Agrius [1], Alcathous [2], Leucopeus and Sterope (cf. Hom. Il. 14,115ff.; Apollod. 1,63). M.'s eight sons were killed by Tydeus for pursuing their uncle Oeneus (Apollod. 1,76 = Alcmaeonis fr. 4 EpGF). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Son of Phrixus and Chalciope Son of Phrixus and Chalciope [2], the daughter of Aeetes, brother of Argus [I 2], Phrontis and Cytis(s)orus (Apollod. 1,83). In the older myth M., like Argus, prob…

Olbia

(1,082 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) | Et al.
(Ὀλβία/ Olbίa). [German version] [1] Milesian colony This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Thraci, Thracia | Wine | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Apollo | Patricius | Patricius | Rome | Rome Milesian colony (Colonisation) south of modern Parutino (Ukraine) at the confluence of the Hypanis and Borysthenes (Ps.-Scymn. 808f.), and for that reason also known as Borysthenes (Βορυσθένης; Hdt. 4,24; 78); founded at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC (Hdt. 4,18,5: Ὀλβιοπολῖται; Ps.-Skymn. 813f…

Nicopolis

(1,739 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νικόπολις; Nikópolis). [German version] [1] Town on the upper Nestus river This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Town on the upper Nestus river on the road from Philippopolis to the Aegean coast (Ptol. 3,11,13: Ν. ἡ περὶ Νέσσον; 8,11,7; Hierocles, Synekdemos 636,5), near modern Goce Delčev (Bulgaria), founded in AD 106 by Traianus. From the 2nd to 4th cents. AD, N. reached a high economic and cultural level (minting from Commodus to Caracalla: HN 287; thermal baths, peristyle buildings, sculpt…

Nicaea

(1,521 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νίκαια; Níkaia). [German version] [1] Naiad Naiad, daughter of the Phrygian river god Sangarius and the goddess Cybele. As a huntress, N. spurns love and remains a virgin. In Memnon of Heracleia, she does not yield to Dionysus and so he resorts to a ruse and turns into wine the spring from which N. is accustomed to drinking. She becomes drunk and falls asleep. Dionysus overpowers her in her sleep and fathers with her 'satyrs and others' (Memnon FGrH 434 F 41, 8f.). In Nonnus, Dion. 15,169-16,405, the…

Nymphaeum

(1,502 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Et al.
I. Sanctuary [German version] A. Etymology and definition The word νυμφαῖον/ nymphaîon is first attested in the 4th cent. BC, on Delos (IG XI,2,144, A l. 91). It originally designated a sanctuary of the nymphs. A nymphaeum is first attested in Itanus on Crete in the 3rd cent. BC together with a water reservoir (ILS 9458). The Latinised form nymphaeum is first found in Pomponius Mela (first half of the 1st cent. AD, Mela 2,3), for a nymph sanctuary in Chersonessus. Conversely, Plinius (HN 35,151) used the word nymphaeum to describe a well with a statue in it (Corinth). The modern t…

Heraclea

(2,510 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Peschlow-Bindokat, Anneliese (Berlin) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλεια; Hērákleia). [German version] [1] H. Trachinia This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Ἡράκλεια ἡ Τραχινία; H. hē Trachinía). City on a rock to the left of and above the exit of the gorge of the  Asopus [1] into the Spercheus plain, separated from Oete ( Oetaei, Oete) on the southern and western flanks by deep streambeds, where the Trachinian rocks rise up with their numerous tomb caves. The lower city has vanished without trace. H. was founded in …

Lycus

(2,142 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Λύκος; Lýkos). Mythology and religion: L. [1-9], historical persons: L. [10-13], rivers: L. [14-19]. [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno [1] (Ps.-Eratosth. Katasterismoi 23), only Apollod. 3,111 mentions his translation to the Islands of the Blessed, possibly to differentiate him from L. [6], with whom he is connected by Hyg. Fab. 31, 76 and 157 in spite of the descent from Poseidon. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of Prometheus and Celaeno Son of Prometheus and Celaeno [1], on whose tomb in th…

Olympus

(2,377 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ὄλυμπος/Ólympos). Geography: [1-13]. People: [14-15]. [German version] [1] Home of the ›Olympian‹ gods, highest mountain in Greece (Latin Olympus) (Latin Olympus). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) [German version] I. Geography The highest mountain in Greece, regarded as the home of the 'Olympian' gods (twelve (Olympian) gods). Its altitude, overlooking all of its surroundings, creates a powerful impression, as do its massive size and density and its dramatic ascent, especially at the east and west, which …
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