Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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S̲h̲eref, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(552 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E.J.
(1853-1925), late Ottoman historian and statesman. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān S̲h̲eref was born in Istanbul, the son of a chief clerk at the Imperial Arsenal ( Ṭopk̲h̲āneyi ʿāmire ), whose family hailed from Safranbolu in northwestern Anatolia. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān S̲h̲eref graduated from the famous Galatasaray Lycée in 1873. After this he taught at several different establishments, ¶ from the Mak̲h̲red̲j̲-i Aḳlām (a college for civil servants which existed between 1864 and 1876) to the Dār al-Fünūn (University), which was re-opened in 1900, having been closed si…

Dayr ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(75 words)

Author(s): Ali, Saleh A. el-
, a place in the vicinity of Kūfa, next to Ḳanāṭir Rās al-D̲j̲ālūt (Ṭabarī, ii, 701), near Ḥammām Aʿyun (Ṭabarī, ii, 703). It was the assembly point of the Kūfan army which was sent by al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ under the command of al-D̲j̲azl against the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ites (Ṭabarī, ii, 902) ¶ and of Ibn al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲ (Ṭabarī, ii, 930). Al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Abī Rabīʿa encamped there in his revolt against al-Muk̲h̲tār (Ṭabarī, ii, 759). (Saleh A. El-Ali)

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān K̲h̲ān

(915 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(c. 1844-1901), Amīr of Afg̲h̲ānistān, was the son of Afḍal Ḵh̲ān, the eldest surviving son of Dōst Muḥammad Ḵh̲ān, the founder of the Barakzay dynasty in Afg̲h̲ānistān. In 1853 he proceeded to Afg̲h̲ān Turkistān where his father was serving as governor of Balk̲h̲. Despite his youth he took part in a series of operations which extended Dōst Muḥammad’s power over Katag̲h̲ān, Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān, and Derwāz. Before his death in 1863 Dōst Muḥammad had nominated a younger son, S̲h̲īr ʿAlī, as his success…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(2,967 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name of the Marwānid prince who restored the Umayyad dynasty in al-Andalus, and of four of his successors. 1. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān I, called al-Dāk̲h̲il , ‘the Immigrant’, was the son of Muʿāwiya b. His̲h̲ām [ q.v.]. When his relatives were being hunted down by the ʿAbbāsids, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, still a youth—he was born in 113/731—contrived to escape secretly to Palestine, whence, accompanied by his freedman Badr, he made his way first to Egypt, and then to Ifrīḳiya. At Ḳayrawān, the hostile attitude of the governor, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b.…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad

(11 words)

b. al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲ [see ibn al-as̲h̲ʿat̲h̲ ].

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Ḥassān

(529 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
b. t̲h̲ābit al-anṣārī , poet of Medina and Damascus in the early Islamic period and son of the more famous eulogist of the Prophet, Ḥassān b. T̲h̲ābit [ q.v.]. He seems to have been born in ca. 6/627-8 or 7/628, and apart from visits to the Umayyad capital, to have spent most of his life in Medina. He died there, according to Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Tahd̲h̲īb , vi, 162-3, in ca. 104/722-3 at the age of 98 lunar years, long-lived like his father. ¶ His father had latterly become a strong advocate of vengeance for ʿUt̲h̲mān and a supporter of Muʿāwiya’s cause, and ʿAbd al-Raḥmān likewise …

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Marwān

(410 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. Yūnus , called ibn al-Ḏj̲illīḳī ("son of the Galician"), famous chief of insurgents in the West of al-Andalus in the second half of the 3rd/9th century. He belonged to a family of neo-Muslims ( muwalladūn ), originating from the North of Portugal and established in Merida. Although his father had been governor of this town on behalf of the sovereigns of Cordova, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān revolted against the Umayyad Amīr Muḥammad I in 254/868. The Amīr besieged him and forced him, after the capitulation of the city, …

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Samura

(326 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H.A.R.
b. Ḥabīb b. ʿAbd S̲h̲ams b. ʿAbd Manāf b. Ḳuṣayy , Arab general. The name ʿAbd al-Raḥmān was given him by Muḥammad on his conversion in place of his former name ʿAbd al-Kaʿba. His first command was in Sid̲j̲istān in succession to al-Rabīʿ b. Ziyād in the latter years of the caliphate of ʿUt̲h̲mān, when he conquered Zarand̲j̲ and Zamīn-i Dāwar and made a treaty with the ruler of Kirmān. He withdrew after the death of ʿUt̲h̲mān; according to Chinese sources, Pēroz, the son of Yazdigird III, then attempted to establish himself in Sid̲j̲istān (Chavannes, Documents sur les Tou-kiue

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAwf

(199 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M.Th. | Watt, W. Montgomery
, originally called ʿAbd ʿAmr or ʿAbd al-Kaʿba, the most prominent early Muslim convert from B. Zuhra of Ḳurays̲h̲. He took part in the Hid̲j̲ra to Abyssinia and in that to Medina, and fought at Badr and the other main battles. He commanded a force of 700 men sent by Muḥammad in S̲h̲aʿbān 6/December 627 to Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal; the Christian chief, al-Aṣbag̲h̲ (or al-Aṣyaʿ) al-Kalbī, became a Muslim and made a ‘treaty, and ʿAbd al-Raḥmān married his daughter Tumāḍir (but cf. Caetani, Annali , i, 700). By his shrewdness and skill as a merchant he made an enor…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. K̲h̲ālid

(214 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H.A.R.
b. al-Walīd al-mak̲h̲zūmī , the only surviving son of the famous Arab general. At the age of eighteen he commanded a squadron at the battle of the Yarmūk. Muʿāwiya subsequently appointed him governor of Ḥimṣ and he commanded several of the later Syrian expeditions ¶ into Anatolia. During the civil war, after successfully opposing an ʿIrāḳī expedition into the Ḏj̲azīra. he joined Muʿāwiya at Ṣiffīn and was made standard-bearer. According to the received tradition, Muʿāwiya, fearing that ʿAbd al-Raḥmān might be a rival of Yazīd for the succ…

al-Bisṭāmī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(182 words)

Author(s): Smith, M.
b. muḥammad b. ʿalī b. aḥmad al-ḥanafī al-ḥurūfī was born in Antioch and appears to have witnessed the sack of Aleppo, by Tīmūr, in 803/1400. He studied in Cairo and went to Bursa, then the Ottoman capital and imperial residence. There he gained the favour of Sulṭān Murād II, a patron of learning, to whom several of his works are dedicated; there he died in 858/1454. He was a mystic, belonging, as his name indicates, to the Ḥurūfī [ q.v.] order of dervishes, who attributed a mystical signifcance to the letters of the alphabet and to combinations of these (cf. his Kas̲h̲f Asrār al-Ḥurūf and his S̲h̲a…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. His̲h̲ām

(658 words)

Author(s): Cossé-Brissac, Ph. de
, ʿAlawid [ q.v.] sultan of Morocco, born in 1204/1789-90. Proclaimed in Fez, 15 Rabīʿ I 1238/30 Nov. 1822, he succeeded his uncle Mawlāy Sulaymān [ q.v.] who had appointed him as his heir. Recognized without great difficulties, the new sovereign had nevertheless to repress during his reign several revolts of the tribes. Among these were the revolts of Zemmūr, in 1240/1824-5, in 1259/1843, in 1269/1852 and in 1274-5/1857-8, the revolt of Banū Zarwāl in 1241/1825, that of S̲h̲idyāma in 1243/1827-8, that of ʿAmir and Zaʿaʾ…

G̲h̲alib b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(572 words)

Author(s): Huici Miranda, A.
, al-Ṣiḳlabī , freedman ( mawlā ) of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III, in whose time and those of his son al-Ḥakam and grandson ¶ His̲h̲ām he was one of the great generals. He led expeditions against the Christians of the Peninsula and also against the Idrīsids and Fāṭimids in Morocco and Ifrīḳiya. In 335/946 he was appointed chief of the Upper Frontier and rebuilt Medinaceli, which he made the base for operations against the Christian positions of the middle and upper Duero valley. His expeditions against Ca…

Kut̲h̲ayyir b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(1,832 words)

Author(s): ʿAbbās, Iḥsān
(better known as Kut̲h̲ayyir ʿAzza and often called al-Mulaḥī after Mulaḥ, a sub-tribe of K̲h̲uzāʿa. or Ibn Abī D̲j̲umʿa, after his maternal grandfather), a poet of the ʿUd̲h̲rī school of the Umayyad period. Like other poets of the same school, his life was a favourite field for the imagination of story-tellers who wrote entertaining asmār literature. In such cases, legend plays such havoc with history that it becomes almost impossible for later critical studies to separate one from the other. Legends were introduced to sugges…

Muḥammad I b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān II

(18 words)

, caliph of Cordova [see al-andalus and umayyads of spain ].

ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲abbār b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(200 words)

Author(s): Moscati, S.
al-Azdī , governor of Ḵh̲urāsān. In 130/747-8 and 133/750-1 he was a supporter of the ʿAbbāsids in their conflict with the Umayyads, and was appointed to command the s̲h̲urṭa during the caliphates ¶ of al-Saffāḥ and al-Manṣūr. The latter sent him to Ḵh̲urāsān as governor in 140/757-8. On arrival in the province, he began a violent persecution against the local aristocracy, whom he accused of partiality for the ʿAlids; but it seems that his measures affected also some of the partisans of the ʿAbbāsids (as is stated in the Persi…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿUmar al-Ṣūfī

(460 words)

Author(s): Stern, S.M.
, abu ‘l-Ḥusayn , eminent astronomer, born at Rayy ¶ 14 Muḥarram 291/8 Dec. 903, died 13 Muḥarram 376/25 May 986. In 337/948-9 he was in Iṣfahān, in attendance on the vizier Abu ’l-Faḍl b. al-ʿAmīd, in 349/960-1 at the court of ʿAḍud al-Dawla, no doubt in the same town. He was the court astronomer of this ruler, who boasted of three of his teachers: in grammar al-Fārisī, in the knowledge of astronomical tables Ibn al-Aʿlam, and in the knowledge of the constellations ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Ṣūfī (Ibn al-Ḳiftī; cf. also Yāḳūt, Irs̲h̲ād , iii, 10). His best known work is a description of the fixed stars ( Ṣuw…
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