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Artificial Life

(520 words)

Author(s): Foerst, Anne
[German Version] The field of research known as “artificial life” (“a-life”) was introduced by Langton in 1987 at a conference in Los Alamos. It embraces all attempts to construct living systems without the help of biological structures. John v. Neumann (1903–1957), one of the pioneers of computer science, defined life as a self-reproducing cellular automaton …

Artificial Intelligence

(2,279 words)

Author(s): Foerst, Anne | Stephan, Achim
[German Version] I. Science – II. Philosophy – III. Ethics I. Science Artificial intelligence is a field of study within engineering, esp. information technology. Researchers in this field are attempting to develop machines capable of performing tasks that require intelligence. At present, the Turing test, named after Alan Turing, is the recognized intelligence test for computers: if a human being…