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Tax Collectors (New Testament)

(339 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] Tax collectors (τελώνης/ telṓnēs) appear only in the Synoptic Gospels: in the context of Jesus’ table fellowship (Mark 2:15f. par.; Luke 15:1f.; 19:5f.), in the calling of disciples (Mark 2:14 par.), and in passages that make a special point of Jesus’ friendship with them (Matt 11:19 par.; also Luke 19:1–10). Although tax collectors are mentioned alongside sinners (Mark 2:15f. par.; Matt 11:19 par.; Luke 15:1), prostitutes (Matt 21:31f.), and Gentiles (Matt 18:17), despite their bein…


(18,301 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert | Antes, Peter | Otto, Eckart | Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm | Leicht, Reimund | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept and Scope – II. Religious Studies – III. Bible – IV. Judaism – V. As a Theological Discipline – VI. As a Philosophical Discipline (Business Ethics, Discourse Ethics, Economic Ethi…

Claudius, Emperor

(161 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Oct 1, 10 bce, Lyon – Oct 13, 54 ce, Rome). Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus was proclaimed emperor after the death of Caligula (Jan 24, 41 ce). He was poisoned by Agrippina, one of his wives, who wanted to secure the succession for her son Nero. Under Claudius, the imperial administration was expanded and the boundaries of the empire were extended. He promoted the ancient Roman cults (Roman religion). Unlike Caligula, however, he did not encourage the religious veneration of the emperor's person. According to Cassius Dio (60.6.6), Claudius decreed an assembly ba…


(208 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm


(197 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm


(190 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Annas; in Jos.: Ananos), high priest, the son of Sethi. Annas was installed as high priest in 6 ce by the Roman legate of Syria Quirinius (Jos. Ant. XVIII 26) and deposed in 15 ce by the Roman procurator Valerius Gratus ( Ant. XVIII 34) although he continued to bear the title (Luke 3:2, Acts 4:6). From his family, five other sons ( Ant. XX 198) held the office of high priest, including Annas II who was responsible for the death of James, brother of Jesus (62 ce), and, according to John 18:13, also his son-in-law Caiaphas (18–36 ce). According to the Johannine passion narrativ…

Festus, Porcius

(183 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] was Roman procurator in Judea from 60 to 62 ce. The beginning of his time in office, as well as the end of that of his predecessor Felix, is dated to the year 54 or 56, on the basis of the Armenian version of a Chronicle of Eusebius (GCS 20, 215) or on the version of Jerome (GCS 24, 182). A natural death ended his time in office. In contrast to his predecessor Felix and his successors Albinus and Gessius Florus, Festus seems to have been concerned, according to Flavius Josephus, who welcomed Festus's fight against the Zealots ( Bell. II 14.1; Ant. XX 8.9), with executing his offic…