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Tax Collectors (New Testament)

(339 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] Tax collectors (τελώνης/ telṓnēs) appear only in the Synoptic Gospels: in the context of Jesus’ table fellowship (Mark 2:15f. par.; Luke 15:1f.; 19:5f.), in the calling of disciples (Mark 2:14 par.), and in passages that make a special point of Jesus’ friendship with them (Matt 11:19 par.; also Luke 19:1–10). Although tax collectors are mentioned alongside sinners (Mark 2:15f. par.; Matt 11:19 par.; Luke 15:1), prostitutes (Matt 21:31f.), and Gentiles (Matt 18:17), despite their being impure in the…


(18,301 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert | Antes, Peter | Otto, Eckart | Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm | Leicht, Reimund | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept and Scope – II. Religious Studies – III. Bible – IV. Judaism – V. As a Theological Discipline – VI. As a Philosophical Discipline (Business Ethics, Discourse Ethics, Economic Ethics, Ethics, Bio-Medical Issues, Ethics Commissions, Ethics Education, Ethics of Conviction, Ethics of Duty, Ethics of Goods, Ethics of Responsibility, Evolutionary Ethics, Fraternal Ethics, Individual Ethics, Interim Ethics, Media Ethics, Medical Ethics, Metaethics, …


(197 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Caiphas; Aram. Qayafa on an ossuary), in the New Testament always Καϊάφας or Καϊ  ϊφᾶς (manuscripts), in Josephus ( Ant. XIII, 95) ᾽Ιωσήφος ὁ Καϊ  ϊάφας/ Iōsḗphos ho Kaïáphas, where it seems to be an epithet. The Roman prefect Valerius Gratus installed Caiaphas as high priest (III) in 18 ce, and the Syrian governor Vitellius deposed him in 36 ce ( Ant., loc. cit.). The office of high p…


(199 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Nov 16, 42 bce, Rome – Mar 16, 37 ce, Misenum [modern Miseno]). Initially the son-in-law of Augustus, then his adopted son, after a constant series of military and political victories he finally succeeded Augustus as emperor and reigned from 14 to 37 ce. He ¶ is mentioned by name and title only once in the New Testament, in Luke 3:1; in his function as Caesar, he is referred to in Mark 12:16f. par. (paying taxes: silver denarius with the head of Tiberius); Luke 23:2; John 19:12, 15. Luke 3:1 dates the appearance of John the …

Claudius, Emperor

(161 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Oct 1, 10 bce, Lyon – Oct 13, 54 ce, Rome). Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus was proclaimed emperor after the death of Caligula (Jan 24, 41 ce). He was poisoned by Agrippina, one of his wives, who wanted to secure the succession for her son Nero. Under Claudius, the imperial administration was expanded and the boundaries of the empire were extended. He promoted the ancient Roman cults (Roman religion). Unlike Caligula, however, he did not encourage the religious veneration of the emperor's person. According to


(208 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The speech of the high priest Gamaliel in Acts 5:35–39 recalls the uprisings of Theudas (with some 400 supporters) and of Judas the Galilean at the time of the census (probably 6 ce), both unsuccessful. The placement of Theudas before Judas cannot be reconciled with the statement of Josephus ( Ant. XX 97) that Theudas appeared during the time of the Roman procurator Cuspius Fadus (44–46 ce). According to Ant. XX 97–99, Theudas, believing himself a prophet, collected a throng by the Jordan and announced that he would command the waters to part and al…


(190 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Annas; in Jos.: Ananos), high priest, the son of Sethi. Annas was installed as high priest in 6 ce by the Roman legate of Syria Quirinius (Jos. Ant. XVIII 26) and deposed in 15 ce by the Roman procurator Valerius Gratus ( Ant. XVIII 34) although he continued to bear the title (Luke 3:2, Acts 4:6). From his family, five other sons ( Ant. XX 198) held the office of high priest, including Annas II who was responsible for the death of James, brother of Jesus (62 ce), and, according to John 18:13, also his son-in-law Caiaphas (18–36 ce). According to the J…