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Requiem Mass

(1,102 words)

Author(s): Kaczynski, Reiner | Klek, Konrad
[German Version] I. Liturgy Until the liturgical reform that followed upon Vatican II, every celebration of mass for the deceased began with the Latin antiphon to the introit, Requiem aeternam, borrowed from 4 Ezra. This is why the term “requiem” came to designate any mass for the dead (also: mass for souls) that is celebrated with chant. The other special chants of the masses celebrated for the deceased were also fixed. Especially the sequence Dies irae and the offertory Domine Iesu Christe, along with other particularities (omission of Ps 43 [42] in the prayer at the foot …

Falk, Johannes Daniel

(339 words)

Author(s): Klek, Konrad
[German Version] (Oct 26, 1768, Danzig – Feb 14, 1826, Weimar). Falk was the son of pietistically inclined parents (his father was a wigmaker) who long ¶ denied any formal schooling to their son, who was in fact eager to learn. He was aided in this regard by the Enlightenment-influenced Reformed pastor Samuel Ludwig Majewski (1736–1801); he then studied theology in Halle from 1791 and soon devoted himself entirely to his literary inclinations. After various journeys to seek out famous literary figures, he moved to Weimar …


(431 words)

Author(s): Klek, Konrad
[German Version] 1. Carl Johann Philipp (Aug 1, 1801, Hanover – Sep 28, 1859, Burgdorf ), hymnodist in the revival movement. After studying at Göttingen, where he had contact with H. Heine, he served as a tutor in Lüne and as pastor and superintendent in Sudwalde, Hameln, Wechold, Wittingen, and Burgdorf. His Psalter und Harfe was widely influential (first collection with 66 hymns 1833, second collection with 40 hymns 1843); six of his hymns are in the Evangelisches Gesangbuch. Konrad Klek Bibliography Works include: Psalter und Harfe, ed. H.-C. Drömann, 1991 On Spitta: D. Klahr, BBKL X,…

Liturgical Music

(1,636 words)

Author(s): Klek, Konrad
[German Version] According to the Protestant understanding of worship (Worship: II, 6.b.c), which does not distinguish between substantial and accidental liturgical performances, “liturgical music” denotes any music in a religious service, independent of the form of the service or the period in which it is held. The spectrum of liturgical music thus ranges from the elementary chime to monumental artistic forms such as J.S. Bach's St. Matthew's Passion, from the Early Church hymns and chants of a schola cantorum to congregational singing accompanied by a band, from spontan…

Brass Band, Church (Posaunenchor)

(325 words)

Author(s): Klek, Konrad
[German Version] Stimulated by the playing of brass instruments in the Herrnhut Unity of Brethren (Bohemian and Moravian Brethren: II), brass bands became widespread in the contexts of the revival movement and in missionary institutions from the middle of the 19th century, beginning in the Ravensberg region (first choir in 1841 in J…


(501 words)

Author(s): Klek, Konrad | Link, Christoph | Petzoldt, Martin
[German Version] 1. Julius (May 10, 1857, Lengerich, Westphalia – Jun 7, 1930, Münster), together with F. Spitta, a leader of the “Older Liturgical Movement.” After studying theology at Bonn, Halle, and Göttingen, he succeeded Spitta as assistant preacher in Bonn. He received his license to teach in 1884 and was appointed pastor in Seelscheid. In 1891 he was appointed professor in the seminary at Friedberg and in 1893 professor of practical theology at Straßburg (Strasbourg). In 1914 he became the f…

Boys' Choir, Processional (Kurrende)

(203 words)

Author(s): Klek, Konrad
[German Version] (Ger. term: Kurrende, from Lat. corradere, “beg,” by association with currere, “run”), from the Middle Ages an educated choir (I) composed of needy boys from the Latin schools, who – subject to fixed rules – sang for donations in the streets and participated in processions and communions for the sick. Luther's advocacy, based on his own experience of su…

Wolfrum, Philipp Julius

(210 words)

Author(s): Klek, Konrad
[German Version] (Dec 17, 1854, Schwarzenbach am Wald – May 8, 1919, Samaden, Switzerland). After attending the teachers’ college in Altdorf (J.C.A. Zahn), Wolfrum began teaching at the teachers’ college in Bamberg. He was put on leave to study music in Munich, where one of his teachers was G.J. Rheinberger. Beginning in 1884, he taught music at Heidelberg in the faculty of theology and was appointed musical director in 1885. In 1891 he received his Dr.phil. from Leipzig. In 1894 Heidelberg appoin…


(13,915 words)

Author(s): Hartenstein, Friedhelm | Janowski , Bernd | Hartenstein , Friedhelm | Janowski, Bernd | Häußling, Angelus A. | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology and Scope The book of Psalms is a unique collection of 150 poetic texts compiled to make a work sui generis. Its Hebrew title תְּהִלִּים(סֵפֶר) /( sēper) tĕhillîm, “(Book of) Praises,” is already found at Qumran (earliest instance: 4QMa [= 4Q491] 174, 1st cent. bce). As in the New Testament occurrences from about a century later (Luke 20:42; Acts 1:20: βίβλος ψαλμῶν/ bíblos psalmṓ n), it appears to be used primarily in the technical sense of a scroll containing psalms (cf. the frgm. 4QPs), but it might also denote a form of the Psalter. In 11QPsa, a collectio…

Tucher, Christoph Carl Gottlieb

(101 words)

Author(s): Klek, Konrad
[German Version] (May 19 [?], 1798, Nuremberg – Feb 17, 1877, Munich), judge attached to Bavarian courts. Inspired by Justus Thibaut in Heidelberg, he began do research into musical sources – initially early Italian a cappella works, then Protestant hymnology (Church song). He was a precursor and contributor to hymnal (I, 4) reform around 1850. Konrad Klek Bibliography Works include (ed.): Kirchengesänge der berühmtesten älteren italiänischen Meister, 2 vols., 1827 Schatz des evangelischen Kirchengesangs im ersten Jahrhundert der Reformation, 1840, 2 vols., 1848 On Tucher: K. …

Rheinberger, Gabriel Joseph

(200 words)

Author(s): Klek, Konrad
[German Version] (Mar 17, 1839, Vaduz – Nov 25, 1901, Munich). At the age of 12, Rheinberger went to Munich for musical training. In 1859 he was a lecturer and in 1867 a professor at the Musikhochschule, with an international reputation as a teacher of composition and organ. He worked as an organist, a répétiteur for opera, and choral director, and served as court Kapellmeister from 1877 to 1894. He composed ¶ piano and chamber music, vocal music for solo and chorus, operas, and symphonies. His liturgical music includes motets and 14 Mass settings. Symphonic choral works are his Requiem (opus…

Kuhlo, Johannes

(139 words)

Author(s): Klek, Konrad
[German Version] (Oct 8, 1856, Gohlfeld – May 16, 1941, Bethel). A Protestant pastor and superior of the Brethren House in Bethel, Kuhlo supervised the work ¶ of the church brass band (Posaunenchor) founded by his father in the Ravensberg region. With his distinctive brand of musical and theological leadership, the “Posaunengeneral” was responsible for the national and international expansion of the Posaunenchor. Konrad Klek Bibliography Works include: Posaunenbuch, 4 vols., 1881ff. Posaunenfragen, 1909 Selections in: Neues Posaunenbuch, vol. I: Klassische Choralsätze, ed. W…

Herzogenberg, Heinrich von

(180 words)

Author(s): Klek, Konrad
[German Version] Jun 10, 1843, Graz – Oct 9, 1900, Wiesbaden) was the most significant composer of Protestant church music between J. Brahms and M. Reger. After studying in Vienna he worked for five years as a freelance artist in Graz, then from 1872 in Leipzig, where he became the director of the Bach Society and a leading figure in the reception of J.S. Bach's cantatas. Herzogenberg entertained close contacts with Bach's biographer P. Spitta and with Brahms. He held a professorship for musical composition in Berlin from 1885 and began working with the liturgist F. Spitta ¶ (Strasbourg) in …


(6,019 words)

Author(s): Völker, Alexander | Klek, Konrad
[German Version] I. History – II. Musical History – III. Physical Appearance – IV. Worship – V. Education I. History 1. General A hymnal is usually a book containing a collection of Christian chant and song, including texts taken from the Bible. Starting in the 16th century, hymnals developed out of such precursors as antiphonaries and graduals, later missals, worship directories, song books, and choir books, becoming an independent and indispensable genre of religious publication – intended as a basis, source, …