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Cross/Crucifixion

(4,480 words)

Author(s): Sundermeier, Theo | Taeger, Jens-Wilhelm | Köpf, Ulrich | Slenczka, Notger | Stock, Alex
[German Version] I. The Cross in Non-Christian Religions – II. Crucifixion in Antiquity – III. The Crucifixion of Christ – IV. Church History – V. Dogmatic Theology – VI. The Cross in Modern Art I. The Cross in Non-Christian Religions From prehistoric times to the present, various forms of the cross have appeared in many non-Christian cultures and religions, used both as a religious symbol and as an ornamental design (the boundaries are fluent). It is a primal human symbol. As such it is polysemous and has …

Christ, Representations of

(4,878 words)

Author(s): Stock, Alex
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. History I. Terminology The writings of the New Testament contain no description of the external appearance of Jesus Christ. Patristic literature occasionally discusses the question of his appearance (beauty/ugliness) (Just. Dial. 14.8; 49.2; Clement of Alexandria, Paedagogus III 3.3; Stromata II 22.8; III 103.3; VI 151.3; Tert. carn. Chr. 9; Origen Cels. 6.75–77; Aug. Enarrationes in Ps 127:8), but usually raising christological or gnoseological questions, based on Isa 53:2f. and Ps 45:3f., rather than histori…

Ascension of Christ

(3,139 words)

Author(s): Zeller, Dieter | Schmitt, Armin | Boring, M. Eugene | Farrow, Douglas B. | Mühling-Schlapkohl, Markus | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. History of Dogma and Dogmatics – V. Art History – VI. Judaism I. Religious Studies The attempt to ascend to the abode of the gods is associated with myths and expressions of the impossible (Deut 30:12; Prov 30:4) and of presumption (Isa 14:13f.; the Aloads, Bellerophon). Nevertheless divine help empowers (Wind, cloud, wings, Angels…