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Leucimme

(51 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Λευκίμμη/ Leukímmē, Dorian Λευκίμμα/ Leukímma). A low promontory (‘white cape’) protruding to the north, on the south-east coast of Corcyra, modern Lefkimi. Thuc. 1,30,1; 4,47,2; 51,4; 3,79,3; Str. 7,7,5; Ptol. 3,17,11. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography A. W. Gomme, A Historical Commentary on Thucydides 1, 1945, 183 Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 2, 445f.

Lysimachia

(508 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Λυσιμάχεια; Lysimácheia). [German version] [1] City on the Thracian Chersonesus This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni | Natural catastrophes City founded by one of the Diadochi Lysimachus, in 309 BC - in place of the city of Cardia destroyed by him - as the capital city of Thracian Chersonesus and the seat of government (Str. 7, fr. 51; Liv. 23,38,11; Ptol. 3,11) there on the southern coast of Melas Kolpos near modern Bakla Burnu. In the Hellenistic period L. was the most important trans-sh…

Euripus

(288 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Strait between Chalcis on Euboea and Boeotia (Εὔριπος ὁ Χαλκιδικός; Eúripos ho Chalkidikós). This strait, 9 km in length between Chalcis on Euboea and Boeotia, with three narrows, lies at the approximate mid-point of the sound between  Euboea and the Greek mainland (Anon. in GGM 1,105 § 29: ἡ τῶν Εὐβοέων θάλατττα). Originally, two channels ran through the most northerly narrows at Chalcis, one at the western shore, 0.5 m deep and 15 m wide, bounded on the seaward side by a reef, and with a…

Tecmon

(49 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Τέκμων; Tékmōn). Fortified township of the Molossi in Epirus, probably at modern Kestritza to the south of the modern Lake of Ioannina. T. was conquered by the Romans in 167 BC (Liv. 45,26,4). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Cabanes, L'Épire, 1976, 506  N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 527.

Neium

(49 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Νήϊον/ Nḗïon). A woody mountain on Ithaca, mentioned only in Hom. Od.1,186 and 3,81 and after that by lexicographers. Even the ancient exegetes of Homer could not identify it (Str. 10,2,11). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography A. Heubeck, A Commentary on Homer's Odyssey, vol. 1, 1988, 100, 165.

Aegilips

(68 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Αἰγίλιψ; Aigílips). In Homer's catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,633) listed as a place under Odysseus' rule, its exact location controversial even in antiquity (Str. 10,2,10: on  Leucas; Steph. Byz. s. v. Κροκύλειον; Krokýleion: on  Ithaca; Suda s. v. A.: on  Cephallenia), modern searches concentrate on Ithaca. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography E. Visser, Homers Katalog der Schiffe, 1997 R. H. Simpson, J. F. Lazenby, The catalogue of ships, 1970, 103 f.

Derieis

(48 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Δεριεῖς; Derieîs). Tribe and district in the east of Acarnania, destination of the Peloponnesian ceremonial emissaries (IG IV2 96, l. 61ff.; SEG 36,331, l. 41ff.). In 314 BC synoikismós in  Agrinium (Diod. Sic. 19,67,4). Capital not located. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Pritchett, vol. 8, 81-85.

Omphalium

(222 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ὀμφάλιον/ Omphálion). [German version] [1] Plain in Crete Plain (Diod. Sic. 5,70) on Crete in the area of Knossos on the river Triton (modern Platyperama; Callim. H. 1,42ff.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὀ.). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geographie von Griechenland, vol. 2, 1868, 570  M. Guarducci, Inscriptiones Creticae, vol. 1, 1935, 45f. [German version] [2] Place in Thessalia Place in Thessalia (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὀ.) near modern Lutra Smokovu, possibly the sanctuary of Omphale. The Dolopian cities of Angeae and Ctimenae fought over its possession [1]. Kramolisch,…

Thesproti, Thesprotia

(207 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Θεσπρωτοί/ Thesprōtoí, Θεσπρωτία/ Thesprōtía). One of the three main tribes of Epirus with an area of settlement between the river Thyamis in the north, the Gulf of Ambracia as far as the river Aphas (modern Louros) in the southeast and the Adriatic (Ionios Kolpos) in the west. In Hom. (Od. 14,314-320; 16,425-427), the T. are mentioned, particularly the oracle of the dead, nekyomanteíon, of Ephyra [3]; the coastal city of Buthrotum is described by Hecat. FGrH 1 F 105 as a pólis . Ancient authors (Str. 7,7,11; Hdt. 2,56) describe the T. as …

Tomarus

(74 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Τόμαρος/ Tómaros, also Τμάρος/ Tmáros). A sacred mountain (1972 m elevation) to the west of Dodona (Str. 7,7,11; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 319; Plin.  HN 4,2), now again Tómaros (formerly Olytsika). Derived from T. are Τμάριος/ Tmários, Τομαριάς/ Tomariás and Latin Tomarius as epithets of Zeus and the sacred oak in Dodona, and probably the term τομοῦροι/ tomoûroi for oracle priests [1. 368 f.] Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967. Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 2, 1, 86 f.

Brattia

(48 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Βραττία; Brattía). Liburnian island, also called Brettia (Steph. Byz. s.v. B.) or Cratea (Scyl. 23), modern Bra (Croatia), dependency of  Salona (12 km to the north), known for its goats, wine and quarries.  Liburni Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969 Id., The Illyrians, 1992.

Ptychia

(46 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Πτυχία/ Ptychía). Island between Corcyra [1] and the mainland (Thuc. 4,46,3); probably modern Vido to the north of the modern town of Kerkyra. Recorded also at Ptol. 3,13,9 and Plin. HN 4,53. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography E. Kirsten, s. v. P., RE 23, 1893 f.

Portunata

(60 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Island and city of the same name in the sinus Flanaticus, the bay to the east of Histria (Plin. HN 3,140). Identified, but not beyond doubt [1], with Dugi Otok (in Croatia) [2]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 E. Polaschek, s. v. P., RE 22, 400 2 J. Chapman, The Changing Face of Dalmatia, 1996, Index s.v. Dugi Otok.

Curictae

(86 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (also Curica, Tab. Peut.; Κυρικτική, Str. 2,5,20). Island off the Dalmatian coast (now Krk, Croatia) with two towns: Curictae (Κούρικον, Ptol. 2,16,13) near what is today the town of Krk and Fertinates (Φουλφίνιον, Ptol. loc.cit.) near modern Omisalj. Contested by the armies of Pompey and Caesar (Caes. B Civ. 3,10,5), since Augustus part of Illyricum. Claudius awarded the residents the ius Italicum (Plin. HN 3,139, tribus Claudia). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography G. Alföldy, Bevölkerung und Gesellschaft in [...] Dalmatien, 1965 J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1…

Ionios Kolpos

(217 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἰόνιος κόλπος; Iónios kólpos), Adria (ὁ Ἀδρίας, Mare Adriaticum or s uperum), Ionian Sea. In contrast with the modern view, the Ionios Kolpos (IK) was seen by Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 91f.) as starting from Istria, by Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 4) from the mouth of the Spines. In the south the name is occasionally transferred to the Sicilian Sea (Mela 2,37; 48; 110). Originally, Adria only referred to the innermost corner of the Adriatic Sea at the mouth of the Po and the settlement area of the Veneti, from the name of whose town  Atria, the name Adria a…

Echinades

(222 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἐχινάδες, Ἐχῖναι; Echinádes, Echînai). Archipelago off the SW coast of Acarnania and the mouth of the Achelous; today, it belongs to the nomos Cephallenia. The islands were largely uninhabited, but they were exploited economically (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,51). Already in antiquity it was observed that the islands became joined to the mainland due to the  Achelous [1] depositing debris into the area (Hdt. 2,10; Thuc. 2,102; Scyl. 34; Str. 1,3,18; 10,2,19 [1; 2]). This phenomenon was a…

Cassiope

(160 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Κασσιόπη; Kassiópē, Lat. Cassiope). Port on the north-eastern coast of  Corcyra (Korfu), modern Kassiopi. From Hellenistic times onwards (founded by Pyrrhus?) important staging point for the crossing to Italy, as used by Cicero in 50 BC (Cic. Fam. 16,9,1) and Nero in AD 66 (Suet. Nero 22,3). Zeus Kasios was venerated in C. (Plin. HN 4,52), as evident from coins [2] and inscriptions (ILS 4043; SEG 23, 395; 477) [1]. His temple was later built over with a three-naved basilica in the early Christian period [3; 4]. In late antique itineraries, C. ( Cassiape, Cassiope) is used…

Colentum

(46 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Dalmatian island (today known as Murter, Croatia), which belonged to the conventus of  Salona; Plin. HN 3,140; Ptol. 2,13,3; Geogr. Rav. 408,13. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 487 S. Čače, Colentum insula (Plinio Nat. Hist. 3,140), in: Diadora 10, 1988, 65-72.

Antigonea

(401 words)

Author(s): Sontheimer, Walther (Stuttgart) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
(Ἀντιγόνεια; Antigóneia). [German version] [1] City in Syria This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni In Syria (Str. 16,750; Diod. Sic. 20,47) at the Orontes. Founded by Antigonus in the year 307 BC. Sontheimer, Walther (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] City on the west coast of the Chalcidice On the west coast of the Chalcidice (at Hagios Pavlos?), probably founded by Antigonus [2] as a counterpoise to Cassandria (Potidaea). In a historical context only mentioned about 200 BC in a Delphic list of theorodokoi [1. 18, col. III, 76] and mentioned in the thir…

Athamania

(176 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀθαμανία; Athamanía). Region in the south-east of Epirus, in the Pindus range (Str. 7,7,8), bordering on Thessaly in the east (later counted as Thessalian: Str. 9,5,11; Steph. Byz. s.v. A.). During the 4th cent. BC, the Ἀθαμᾶνες ( Athamânes) joined the League of Corinth and Second Athenian Confederacy (Diod. Sic. 14,82; Nep. Tim. 2), and in the 3rd cent. BC, it was a member of the Epirote League. Under the rule of kings Theodorus and  Amynander (Pol. 4,16; Str. 9,4,11; [1]), A. became particularly important in the Macedonian Wars [2].   Koinon in the…

Cassope

(280 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Κασσώπη; Kassṓpē). City in south-western Epirus near the modern Kamarina, main city of the Thesprotian tribe of the Cassopaei (Κασσωπαῖοι, Str. 7,7,1; 7,7,5 and inscriptions; Κασσωποί, Scyl. 31); they settled in an area of about 900 km2 -- very fertile in its southern parts -- between the Gulf of Ambracia, the Ionian Sea and the Acheron (map: [6. 116]). Within this tribal territory lay the Elean colonies of Buchetium, Elatria, Pandosia, and Batiae (localization…

Dyrrhachium

(529 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Wine | | Coloniae | Commerce | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Delian League | Balkans, languages (Δυρράχιον; Dyrr[h]áchion, Dyrrhachium). [German version] I. Graeco-Roman period Harbour town on the Illyrian coast, the modern Durrës in Albania; founded on a peninsula by Corinth and Corcyra, probably in 626/625 BC, as the colony of Epidamnus (Eus. Chronicon 88f.; Thuc. 1,24-26; Scymn. 435-439). The name D. (c…

Lyncon montes

(64 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Mountain massif in the Epirote part of the Pindus, up to 2,249 m high, whose northern foothills are directed towards Macedonia and whose southern ones towards Thessaly source area of the Aous (modern Viotsa). According to Liv. 32,13,2f., thickly wooded with wide tablelands and perennial springs. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 280f. Philippson/Kirsten 2, 69-76.

Astacus

(425 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἀστακός; Astakós, ‘lobster town’). [German version] [1] Town on the eastern end of the Gulf of A. or of  Nicomedia This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Delian League Town on the eastern end of the Gulf of A. or of  Nicomedia, in an unhealthy region; its exact location is unknown. Its foundation in 712/11 BC was initiated by  Megara (Memnon, FGrH 434 F 12; Str. 12,4,2), and it was presumably a member of the  Delian League from 478/7 BC[1]; in 435/4 BC, it was colonized by Athens. In about 405 BC, under D…

Thyamis

(83 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Θύαμις; Thýamis). River, today also T. (formerly Kalamas), and promontory, modern Akra Kalamas, in Epirus. The T. flows in two branches into the Ionios Kolpos opposite Corcyra [1] and forms the border between Thesprotia (Thesproti) in the south and Cestrine in the north (Thuc. 1,46,4; Str. 7,7,5; Plin.  HN 4,4). Pomponius [I 5] Atticus had an estate on the T.  (Cic. Att. 7,2,3; Cic. Leg. 2,7). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 186 f.; 669 f.  Philippson/Kirsten 2, 38 f.; 87-90; 93-99.

Campylus

(35 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Καμπύλος; Kampýlos). One of the tributaries of the Achelous in Aetolia (Diod. Sic. 19,67,3); its location cannot be determined more closely. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography H. v. Geisau, s.v. K., RE 10, 1844.

Acheron

(499 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἀχέρων; Achérōn). [German version] [1] River in Epirus River in  Epirus, rising from the slopes of Tomarus [2. 166] (in the 4th cent. BC territory of the Molossi: Liv. 8,24,2), flows through the narrow gorges of Thesprotia (Thuc. 1,46,3); when it entered the plain its sluggish meanders formed in antiquity the swamp-like lake Ἀχερουσία λίμνη ( Acherousía límnē, today dried up). According to Str. 7,7,5 (as in Thuc. 1,46,3 based on Hecataeus [2. 443-469, 478]), it entered the sea near the γλυκὺς λιμήν ( glykỳs limḗn ‘Sweet-water harbour’, a station on the Roman   cursus publicus

Neritum

(148 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Νήριτον; Nḗriton). Originally probably a poetic designation for ‘mountain forest’ [1. 185], the name of a forested mountain on Ithaca (Hom. Od. 9,22; 13,351). In the Homeric Catalogue of Ships (Hom. Il. 2,632) the significance is unclear: N. can be understood either as a mountain [2. 591-596] or as an island or city next to Ithaca (cf. Verg. Aen. 3,271; Ov. Met. 13,712; Mela 2,110). Other ancient authors identify N. with the town of Nericus, which they localised on Leucas (cf. Plin. HN 4,5). Hence in ancient authors and in the MSS the forms Nericus and Neritus are mixed u…

Lissa

(169 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Island off the Dalmatian coast Island off the Dalmatian coast opposite Iader (Plin. HN 3,152), modern Ugljan. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 206, 208f. [German version] [2] Town in Lycia This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Λίσσα; Líssa). Town attested epigraphically on the south-west coast of Lycia in Asia Minor. Not identical with the place where the inscriptions [3; 6] were found, a Hellenistic tower farmstead in Kızılağaç on Kargın Gölü (different in [1. 520; …

Phoetiae

(138 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Φοιτίαι/ Phoitíai, also Φυτία/ Phytía). City in Acarnania (Acarnanians), 4 km to the northwest of modern Bambini. In a strategically favourable location P. dominated a fertile plateau in the interior of Acarnania and was one of the leading cities of the Acarnanian Koinon. During the division of Acarnania in the 3rd century BC P. remained Aetolian until conquered by Philip  [7] V in 219 BC. A plan of P. can be found in [1]. Cf. IG IX 12 2, 389, 602; mentions in theorodokoi lists: IG IV2 95 Z. 11; SEG 36, 3…

Cephallenia

(929 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Κεφαλληνία; Kephallēnía). The largest of the Ionian islands west of Greece, with an area of about 761 km2, a length of 50 km with a north-south orientation and a maximum width of 25 km. Because of the contour of the island and the high limestone mountains (modern Enos, Efmorfia, Agia Dinati), several separate settlement areas existed which only in modern times were linked by roads. From the main body of the island to the north protrudes the Erisos peninsula, while in the west, the latter is link…

Arachthus

(72 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἄραχθος; Árachthos). Greatest river of southern  Epirus (also Ἄραθθος, Ἄρατθος; Áraththos, Áratthos CEG 1,145; BMC Corinth 107; Str. 7,7,8; Dionysius Calliphontus 42); rises near the Molossi on the Lacmon (Pindus); navigable from its mouth on the Gulf of Ambracia to  Ambracia. Shifting river-bed in its lower reaches from ancient times [1]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 P. N. Doukellis, É. Fouache, in: BCH 116, 1992, 375-382 2 N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967 3 Philippson/Kirsten 2, 115-121.

Cissa

(45 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Also Gissa, Kissa (Plin. HN 3,140; 151). North Dalmatian island (modern Pag, Croatia) of the  Mentores (Scyl. 21). Ancient settlement near modern Časka, relationship with the Roman Calpurnii family. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 199 Id., The Illyrians, 1992.

Ambracia

(566 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars (Ἀμβρακία; Ambrakía). South Epirote town in Thesprotia, originally about 80 stades upriver of the mouth of the Arachthus (navigable up to A.) into the Gulf of A. (Scyl. 33), the location of the modern Arta. The older form of its name, up to the 4th cent. BC, was Ἀμπρακία ( Amprakía; Hdt.; Thuc.; coins), derived from the castle of Ambrakos in the lagoons south of the town (Pol. 4,61,4 ff…

Aeginium

(140 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Αἰγίνιον; Aigínion). Town in Tymphania, originally taken as belonging to Epirus (Str. 7,7,9), but from 191 BC belonging to Macedonia, from 167 BC to the Thessalonian Hestiaiotis. Strategically important location in the upper valley of the Peneius (impregnable according to Liv. 32,15,4), destroyed by the Romans in the Third Macedonian War in 167 BC (Liv. 45,27). Its localization close to the modern Kalambaka [3. 121-123; 1. 898] (medieval Stagoi [4. 262 f.]) seems to be certain, de…

Amphilochi, Amphilochia

(306 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀμφίλοχοι, Ἀμφιλοχία; Amphílochoi, Amphilochía). Region and tribe east of the Gulf of  Ambracia, mainly mountainous, only a narrow coastal plain, bordering to the east on the   Agraei, to the south on  Acarnania. Str. 7,7,1; 7,8 ranked them amongst the Epirotes, but generally, they were considered to be a separate ‘Barbarian’ tribe (Dionysius Calliphontus 46 f.; Str. 9,5,1; Thuc. 2,68; [2. 351 f.]). According to older tradition, the main town of Argos Amphilochicum was founded by  A…

Issa

(187 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἴσσα; Íssa). Island and city off the Dalmatian coast, modern Vis, Croatia. The settlers who came from Syracuse to I. in the late 4th cent. BC (Scymn. 413f; Diod. Sic. 15,14,2) [3; 4] established colonies in their turn: Tragurium, Epetium and a settlement on Corcyra Melaina (SEG 43, 348) [3]. Elevated by Rome in 230/229 BC to a civitas libera et foederata [1. 100], in 167 BC I. was declared exempt from taxes. In 56 BC a legation from I. went to Caesar (SEG 43, 350). From the 1st cent. BC part of the administrative region of  Salona [1. 106f…

Hylli

(127 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὕλλοι; Hýlloi). Illyrian tribe, first mentioned in the 4th cent. BC among the bárbaroi (Scyl. 22); other spellings Hylleîs (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὑλλεῖς) and Hyllaîoi (Ὑλλαῖοι, Ptol. 2,16,5). Their settlement area has been located approximately between the rivers Titius (modern Krka) and Nestus (modern Cetina). Like other smaller Illyrian tribes, the H. were absorbed by the  Dalmatae after the 4th cent. BC, so that, in the Roman period, only the designation of the coast south of Šibenik as the peninsula Hyllica/ Hyllis (Plin. HN 3,141; Scymn. 405) recalled the H.…

Nericus

(83 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Νήρικος; Nḗrikos). Hom. Od. 24,377 mentions a place named N. on the mainland (ἀκτὴν ἠπείροιο), described in Str. 10,2,8 as a predecessor settlement of the town of Leucas. Besieged in vain by Athens in 426 BC (Thuc. 3,7,5). Location probably near the modern Hagios Georgios on the mainland opposite the ancient town of Leucas. Further evidence: Str. 1,3,18; Plin. HN 4,5. Neriton Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography M. Fiedler, Zur Topographie der Polis Leukas, in: P. Berktold (ed.), Akarnanien, 1996, 159f.

Callieis

(208 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Καλλιεῖς; Kallieîs). The westernmost branch of the Aetolian  Ophieis in the upper Daphnus valley (modern Mornos; Thuc. 3,96,3). Their chief place of Callion (or Callipolis, modern Kallion, formerly Velouchovo) occupied a strategic position above the right bank of the Daphnus, and, for that reason, is mentioned in connection with the campaigns of  Demosthenes [1] in 426 BC, of  Acilius [I 10] Glabrio in 191 BC, and also the raid by Gauls in 279 BC (in which the town and its inhabit…

Coronta

(90 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Κόροντα, Κορόνται; Kóronta, Koróntai). City in  Acarnania near modern Chrysovitsa, with finds dating to Mycenaean times, mentioned only at Thuc. 2,102,1, member of the Acarnanian Koinon, destination of the Peloponnesian theorodokoi (SEG 36, 331 l. 49-51). Inscriptions: IG IX 12, 2, 427-433; 603f.; AD 25 B 2, 1970, 297; 26 B 2, 1971, 321; 40 B, 1985, 140; SEG 29. 473. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Pritchett, vol. 8, 102f. D. Strauch, Röm. Politik und Griech. Tradition, 1996, 274.

Arethusa

(416 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Ἀρέθουσα; Aréthousa). Frequent name for springs. [German version] [1] Spring on Homer's Ithaca Spring on Homer's  Ithaca, where the swine of  Eumaeus graze (Hom. Od. 13,408; Plut. Mor. 776 E; Steph. Byz. s. v. A.). To identify A. with the spring of Perapigadi on the modern Ithaka, 5 km south-east of Vathy, is speculative. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography A. Heubeck, A commentary on Homer's Odyssey, 1992, 189 f. A. J. Wace, F. H. Stubbings, A companion to Homer, 1963, 414-416. [German version] [2] Name for the main spring of Chalkis on Euboia The name handed down by numerou…

Corax

(964 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen)
(Κόραξ; Kórax). [German version] [1] Mountains Mountains to the east of Aetolia, today's Giona in the Nomos Phokis, 2484 m high; Str. 7 fr. 6; 9,3,1; 10,2,4; Liv. 36,30,4; 37,4,7. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 1, 650. [German version] [2] see Siegecraft see  Siegecraft Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) [German version] [3] C. From Syracuse, inventor of rhetoric In ancient rhetoric tradition, C. and Tisias (T.) from Syracuse were regarded as the inventors and founders of rhetoric, the practical, learnable and teachable téchnē rhētorikḗ based on exper…

Pharos

(177 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Lighthouse Lighthouses Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) [German version] [2] Island in the Adriatic ( Pharia, Plin. HN 3,152). 68 km long island in the Adriatic Sea off the Dalmatian coast (Scyl. 23; Str. 2,5,20), modern Hvar (Croatia). According to Pol. 5,108,7, the island was called ὁ Φάρος/ ho Pháros, while the city was called ἡ Φ./ hē Ph. (ruins near Stari Grad, cf. [1]). Since 385/4 BC (Diod. Sic. 15,13,4), Ph. was a colony of Paros (Ephor. FGrH 70 F 89), since 229 BC, it was part of the Illyrian kingdom of Agron [3] and Teuta, then i…

Echinus

(668 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Ἐχῖνος; Echînos). [German version] [1] Town on the northern shore of the Gulf of Malia Town on the northern shore of the Gulf of Malia near today's village of Achino. Originally part of the Achaea Phthiotis, Echinus was granted by Philippus II to the Malieis in 342 with whom E. belonged to the Aetolian league from c. 235. In 210, E. was conquered by Philippus V (Pol. 9,41; [1]) who refused to return it to the Aetolians; after 193, the Romans conquered it and assigned E. to Malis again in 189. In Roman times, E. was considered part of Achaea Phthiot…

Paxos

(65 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Παξός; Paxós). P. and Antipaxos, collectively known as the Paxoi Islands, 13 km south of Corcyra , still known as P. In 229 BC, they were the theatre of a naval battle during the 1st Illyrian War (Pol. 2,10,1-7). There are a few remains of early Christian churches. Cf. Plin. HN 4,52; IG IX 1, 966. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 2, 456-459.

Aperanti

(54 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀπεραντοί; Aperantoí). Tribe in northern  Aetolia, east of the Agraei, west of the Panaetolicum [2. 97 f.]; capital probably near Hagios Vasileios [1] (Pol. 20,11). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 S. Bommeljé et al. (ed.), Aetolia and the Aetolians, 1987, 105, s. v. Sidira 2 P. Cabanes (ed.), L'Illyrie méridionale et l'Epire dans l'antiquité, 1, 1987, 95-113.

Celadussae

(37 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Dalmatian archipelago (Plin. HN 3,152) opposite  Iader. Some of the islands (i.a. the modern Ugljan and Pašman) were included in the centuriation of that colony. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 208f.

Ephyra

(170 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἐφύρα; Ephýra). [German version] [1] City in Argos City ‘in a corner of Argos’ (Hom. Il. 6,152); home of Sisyphus; later equated with Corinth. Sources: Str. 8,3,5; Paus. 2,1,1; 3,10. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) [German version] [2] Equated with Oinoe in Elis by Homeric commentators Str. 8,3,5 mentions an otherwise unknown town on the Elean coast, by the name of  Oinoe; Homeric commentators equate it with the Homeric E. [1] (cf. also Steph. Byz. s.v. E.; Hsch. s.v. E). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography L. Deroy, Ephyre, ville imaginaire, in: AC 18, 1949, 401-402. [German version] [3] City in E…

Leucas, Leucadia

(1,280 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine (Λευκάς, Λευκαδία; Leukás, Leukadía; Lat. Leucas, Leucadia). [German version] A. Geography One of the central Ionian islands with a city of the same name, separated from the Acarnanian coast by only a shallow strait, with an extent of c. 295 km2 and 31 km long ( Acarnanians, Acarnania, map). The interior of L. consists of a central mountain massif (S…

Pronni

(134 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Athenian League (Second) (Πρῶννοι; Prônnoi). One of the four cities on Cephallenia, in the south east of the island on a rocky eminence to the south of the present-day village of Póros. In 375 BC, P. joined the second Athenian League (StV 257); it was besieged in vain by Philip V (Philippus [I 7]) in 218 BC during the Social Wars [2] (Pol. 5,3,4). The area has been intensively investigated by archaeologists since the discovery of a rich princely gr…

Cocytus

(202 words)

Author(s): Schlapbach, Karin (Zürich) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Κωκυτός; Kōkytós, Lat. Cocytus). [German version] [1] River of the Underworld ‘River of lamentation’ (cf. κωκύειν, ‘to weep, lament’). According to Paus. 1,17,5 from Homer onwards one of the rivers of the Underworld, named after the Thesprotic C. [1. 76]. It is fed from the  Styx and flows with the Pyriphlegeton into the  Acheron [2] (Hom. Od. 10,513f.); in Virgil the Acheron flows into the C. (Verg. Aen. 6,296f.). According to Pl. Phd., the C. flows around in a circle and empties into the  Tartarus (113b…

Trichonium

(206 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia (Τριχόνειον/ Trichóneion, literary Τριχώνιον/ Trichṓnion). Aetolian city (Aetoli) to the south of Lake Trichonis (modern Limni Trichonida) on the northern slopes of the Aracynthus mountains (modern Zygos) near modern Gavalu. T. was the most significant city of central Aetolia, supplied most of the strategoi (cf. Stratēgós ) of the Aetolian League, but is mentioned in historiographic literature only in the context of Philippus [7] V's campaign to Thermus …

Ceraunian Mountains

(131 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Κεραύνια ὄρη; Keraúnia órē). The most northern of the coastal ranges of Epirus (Str. 7,5,8; 7,6,1; 7,7,5), modern Rëza e Kanalit (or Karaburun) in Albania. It starts in the south at the Çikë range (2045 m) and ends in the north in the far protruding Cape  Acroceraunia. The rugged limestone heights (up to 1593 m) are much feared because of their frequent thunderstorms, after which they were named ‘Thunder Mountains’. Only in the south were ancient landings or settlements found: Kemar…

Thyrrheum

(263 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Θύρρειον/ Thýrrheion, Θύριον/ Thýrion, Θούριον/ Thoúrion). City in northern Acarnania, 5 km to the south of the Gulf of Ambracia, at a height of 420 m, modern Thyrion. Still autonomous in the 4th cent. BC (Xen. Hell. 6,2,37), no later than the 3rd cent. T. was a member of the Acarnanian Koinón (IG IX 12, 1, 23); in 269 BC with the partition of the Koinón it fell to Epirus and from 238 to 232 and again c. 211 BC was Aetolian (Aetolians; the treaty of alliance between Rome and Aetolia was found i…

Pandosia

(276 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
(Πανδοσία; Pandosía). [German version] [1] City of Thesprotia in the south of Epeirus City of Thesprotia in the south of Epeirus. Allegedly one of the four Elean colonies in the territory of the Cassopaei on the Acheron [1] (Demosth. Or. 7,32; Theopompus FGrH 115 F 382). It is presumed that it was founded in the 8th/7th cent. BC [1; 3. 427] or not until the 5th cent. [2. 52]. P. is located near Trikastron about 17 km inland [1. 52f.; 2. 477f.]. Coins: [2. 107-110]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 S.I. Dakaris, Cassopaia and the Elean Colonies, 1971 2 P.R. Franke, Die antiken M…

Agraii

(46 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀγραῖοι; Agraíoi). Tribe in north-western Aetolia between the Amphilochi and Aperanti. Independent in the 5th cent. BC (‘kingship’, Thuc. 3,111,4); two centuries later member of the koinon of the  Aetolians. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography C. Antonetti, Agraioi, in: Dialogues d'histoire ancienne 13, 1987, 199-236.

Charadros

(357 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Wien) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Χάραδρος). A. Orte [English version] [1] Stadt in Süd-Epeiros Stadt in Süd-Epeiros, seit 167 v.Chr. unabhängig vom Epirotischen Koinon. Mit Hilfe eines Grenzvertrags (SEG 35, 665; ca. 160 v.Chr.) im NW von Ambrakia bei h. Palaia-Philippias lokalisiert; Pol. 4,63; 21,26. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography BCH 112, 1988, 359-373  V. Karatzeni, Τὸ ἱερὸν ὄρος, in: FS Dakaris, 1995, 289-299. [English version] [2] Hafenplatz und Fluß in Kilikien Hafenplatz und Fluß (FGrH 1 Hekat. fr. 265) in Kilikia Tracheia, h. Yakacık (zuvor Kaledıran), 25 km westl. von Anemu…

Chalcis

(736 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Χαλκίς; Chalkís). [German version] [1] Settlement in Euboea on the Euripus This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Dark Ages | Ionic | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources | Boeotia, Boeotians In Euboea on the Euripus; by its especially strategic position the most important town on the island. It remains uncertain whether the name C. derives from the or…

Tymphaea

(163 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Τυμφαία; Tymphaía). Region in Epirus, to the east of Mount Tymphe (2497 m high, modern Mavrovouni) in the Pindus [1]. T. extended in the northeast from the source rivers of the Veneticus to the basin region of the upper Haliacmon as far as modern Grevená, in the south as far as the area of the source of the Peneius around modern Kalabáka. The Tymphaei were originally considered as Epeirotae (Arr. An. 1,7,5; Str. 7,7,8f.; Plin. HN 4,6), and from the time of Philippus [4] II (cf. [1…

Stratos

(246 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (ὁ or ἡ Στράτος/ Strátos (m/f)). The most important city of Acarnania (Thuc. 2,80; Acarnanians, Acarnania, with map); on the right bank of the Achelous [1], upstream of the modern Stratos; chief city of the Acarnanian confederacy in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. After the partition of Acarnania in 260 BC, S. became Aetolian; with the foundation of Nicopolis [3] in 30 BC, …

Metropolis

(1,797 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meriç, Recep (Izmir) | Et al.
(μητρόπολις/ mētrópolis, literally ‘mother city’). [German version] [1] Mother city of colonies in the era of the ‘Great’ Colonisation (c. 750-500 BC) Since the so-called Great Colonisation (c. 750-500 BC, Colonization IV, cf. the overview there), in numerous Greek communities an oikistḗs (‘founder’) and further ápoikoi (‘settlers’, ‘colonists’) were selected from the citizenry of the future metropolis as starting point for a colonisation enterprise (or they left on their own initiative) and entrusted with the establishment of an apoikía outside the …

Zacynthos

(656 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (ἡ Ζάκυνθος; hē Zákynthos). The southernmost of the Ionian islands (401 km2; approximately 37 km in length, 19 km in width); the southeastern coast is 16 km from the mainland (Elis [1] in the Peloponnesus). Three zones cross Z. from northwest to southeast: in the west a broad almost uninhabited limestone mountain range (Vrachionas, up to 756 m high) with a steep harbourless coast, …

Onchesmus

(62 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὀγχεσμός/ Onchesmós). Port in Epirus, today's Sarandë (Hagioi Saranda) in Albania. O. served as harbour for Phoenice, the main city of the district of Chaonia. In Roman times, O. was the ferry port between Epirus and Italy (Cic. Att. 7,2,1; Str. 7,7,5; Ptol. 3,14,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,51,2). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Cabanes, L'Épire, 1976  N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967.

Ithaca

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Persian Wars (Ἰθάκη; Ithákē, Lat. Ithaca). [German version] A. Geography One of the central Ionian islands west of Greece, nowadays also known as Thiaki; it is 23 km long and c. 6 km wide, with a total area of c. 94 sq km, east of the island of  Cephallenia and separated from the latter by a 2-5 km wide sound. I. is divided into a larger northern half with Mt. Neriton (808 m), and a southern half with Mt. Merovigli (671 m); they are joined by a narrow isthmus (600 m wide) with Mt. Aetus…

Epirus

(1,836 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Ἤπειρος; Ḗpeiros, Epirus) [German version] I. Region E. is located at the north-western fringe of the Greek cultural sphere, nowadays comprising northern Greece and southern Albania. From Homer (8th cent. BC) to the late 5th cent., the geographical term ἤπειρος ( ḗpeiros) referred to the mainland north of the Gulf of Ambracia. There is a wide variation in the attribution of individual tribes to E. both in ancient and modern literature, making it impossible clearly to define E.'s geographic expansion [1]. E. was bordered in the west by…

Aous

(127 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀῶος, Ἄωος; Aôos, Áōos). River in northern  Epirus (the modern Viosa, Albanian Vijosë); also called Aias (FGrH 1 Hecat. F 102b; Plin. HN 3,26). Sources on the Lacmon in the Pindus; on the upper reaches in the territory of the Molossi a bridge (Pol. 27,16; [2. 280, 628]); on the middle reaches the Paravaea (Arr. Anab. 1,7,5); here west of Tepelena (as a river border [1. 115 f.]) the gorge at the river's entry onto the plain (Liv. 32,5,11; 10,2). The A. was navigable from Apollonia [1] to its mouth (Plut. Caesar 38); here an asphalt spring with  nymphaeum and oracle [1. 494]. St…

Palaeste

(46 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Παλαίστη/ Palaíst ē). Town in Acroceraunia on the coast of Epirus, modern Palasë in Albania, where Caesar landed his troops during his Dyrrhachium campaign on 4 January 48 BC (Caes. B. Civ. 3,6,3; Luc. 5,460). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 125f.

Pullaria

(59 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Island in the  Ionios Kolpos off the southern extremity of  Histria (Plin. HN 3,151; Tab. Peut. 5,39; Geogr. Rav. 5,24). P. can be identified either with modern Lošinj (in Croatia) or with the Brioni Islands to the northwest of ancient Pola. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 4, 196  Id., The Illyrians, 1992, 185.

Elea

(99 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἐλέα; Eléa). [German version] [1] Coastal town in Epirus Coastal town in Epirus at the mouth of the Acheron near modern Veliani, main settlement of the Eleatis region (wrongly Elaia/Elaiatis in Thuc. 1,46,4) in Thesprotia. Origin of the pólis before 350 BC, first minting between 360 and 335 BC. Of the 10-ha. town mainly the 1.5-km-long walls are preserved. Documents: Scyl. 30; Str. 7,7,5. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Archaeological Reports 41, 1994/5, 26 P. Cabanes, L'Épire, 1976 S. I. Dakaris, Thesprotia, 1972 P. R. Franke, Die ant. Mz. von Epirus, 1961, 300-307. …

Evenus

(688 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Εὔηνος, Εύηνός; Eúēnos, Euēnós) [1] of Paros [German version] A. Personal Data Eratosthenes distinguishes between two elegiac poets from Paros, both named E. (Harpocr. s.v. Εὔηνος 139,15 Dindorf), others maintain that there had only been one [1]. Plato mentions an E. of Paros, a poet and ‘philosopher’ (Pl. Phd. 60d; 61b), a teacher of political rhetoric around 400 BC (Pl. Ap. 20a-b), who had ‘discovered’ a number of tropes (Pl. Phdr. 267a). Both his language and the subject matter of some of the extant fra…

Nicopolis

(1,739 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νικόπολις; Nikópolis). [German version] [1] Town on the upper Nestus river This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Town on the upper Nestus river on the road from Philippopolis to the Aegean coast (Ptol. 3,11,13: Ν. ἡ περὶ Νέσσον; 8,11,7; Hierocles, Synekdemos 636,5), near modern Goce Delčev (Bulgaria), founded in AD 106 by Traianus. From the 2nd to 4th cents. AD, N. reached a high economic and cultural level (minting from Commodus to Caracalla: HN 287; thermal baths, peristyle buildings, sculpt…

Acroceraunia

(106 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (τὰ Ἀκροκεραύνια; tá Akrokeraúnia). Mountain range on the coast of  Epirus (modern Karaburun in Albania), as a continuation of the Ceraunian Mountains on the territory of the  Chaones, border to Illyria (Str. 7,7,5; Plin. HN 3,97,1; 145,2), also a peninsula with a length of 16 km and a breadth of 3-5 km, and up to 800 m in height, protecting the Gulf of Aulon (Vlores) and the port of  Oricus. Because of its inhospitality and frequent storms metonymous for ‘dangerous places’ (Ov. Rem. am. 739; cf. ThLL 1, 42). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1…

Agrinium

(95 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania (Ἀγρίνιον; Agrínion). Originally an Acarnanian town, in 314 BC under Cassander   synoikismos of the  Derieis in A., then, after capture by the  Aetolians (Diod. Sic. 19,67 f.), it became a member of the Aetolian koinon (several strategoi hailed from A.). Remains of the town (walls, stoa, houses) localized near Megali Chora, 3 km north-west of the modern A. (regional museum).  Acarnania;  Strategos Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography C. Antonetti, Les Étoliens, 1990, 23…

Akarnanes, Akarnania

(2,203 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Ἀκαρνᾶνες, Ἀκαρνανία). Stamm und Landschaft im Westen von Mittelgriechenland zw. Ion. Meer, Ambrakischem Golf und Golf von Patras; im Osten bildete im 3. Jh. v. Chr. der Acheloos [1] die Grenze zu den Aitoloi (im 4. Jh. v. Chr. siedelten A. auch östl. des Flusses: Agrinion, Aiolis). A. wird untergliedert von vier nordsüdl. verlaufenden Senken [17. 368-373]: Die östlichste (Stratike oder Akarnanikon Pedion) am Acheloos, östl. der Lykovitsi-Höhen, geht in die (größtenteils zu Aito…

Lyncon montes

(52 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] Bergmassiv im epeirotischen Teil des Pindos, bis 2249 m hoch, dessen nördl. Ausläufer nach Makedonia, die südl. nach Thessalia gerichtet sind; Quellgebiet des Aoos (h. Viotsa). Nach Liv. 32,13,2f. dicht bewaldet, mit weiten Hochebenen und perennierenden Quellen. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 280f.  Philippson/Kirsten 2, 69-76.

Kassiope

(142 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Κασσιόπη, lat. Cassiope). Hafen an der NO-Küste von Korkyra (Korfu), h. Kassiopi. Seit hell. Zeit (Gründung durch Pyrrhos?) wichtiger Überfahrtshafen nach Italien, den Cicero 50 v.Chr. (Cic. fam. 16,9,1) und Nero 66 n.Chr. (Suet. Nero 22,3) nutzte. Hier wurde Zeus Kasios verehrt (Plin. nat. 4,52), von dem Mz. [2] und Inschr. (ILS 4043; SEG 23, 395; 477) zeugen [1]. Über seinem Tempel wurde in frühchristl. Zeit eine dreischiffige Basilika errichtet [3; 4]. In spätant. Itinerarien erscheint K. ( Cassiape, Cassiope) als Bezeichnung für die Insel Korkyra. Weit…

Pandosia

(240 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
(Πανδοσία). [English version] [1] Stadt der Thesprotia im Süden von Epeiros Stadt der Thesprotia im Süden von Epeiros. Angeblich eine der vier elischen Kolonien im Gebiet der Kassopaioi am Acheron [1] (Demosth. or. 7,32; Theopompos FGrH 115 F 382). Die Gründung wird im 8./7. Jh.v.Chr. [1; 3. 427] oder erst im 5. Jh. vermutet [2. 52]. P. wird bei Trikastron etwa 17 km landeinwärts lokalisiert [1. 52f.; 2. 477f.]. Mz.: [2. 107-110]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 S.I. Dakaris, Cassopaia and the Elean Colonies, 1971 2 P.R. Franke, Die ant. Mz. von Epiros, 1961 3 N.G.L. Ha…

Hydra

(408 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Princeton) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] [1] Wasserungeheuer (Ὕδρα, “Wasserschlange”). Ungeheuer, das von den Ungetümen Typhon und Echidna (“Schlange”) geboren und von Hera aus Groll über Zeus aufgezogen wird. Sie haust an der Quelle der Amymone in den Sümpfen von Lerna, raubt Vieh und Menschen und wird schließlich von Herakles getötet (Hes. theog. 313-318; Diod. 4,11,5f.; Apollod. 2,77-80; Hyg. fab. 30), trotz der Hilfe einer von Hera gesandten Krabbe; in der kanonischen Reihenfolge ist dies Herakles' zweite Tat. Das Gif…

Keraunische Berge

(116 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Κεραύνια ὄρη). Das nördlichste Küstengebirge von Epeiros (Strab. 7,5,8; 7,6,1; 7,7,5), h. Rëza e Kanalit (oder Karaburun) in Albanien. Es beginnt im Süden beim Gebirge Çikë (2045 m) und endet im Norden in dem weit vorspringenden Kap Akrokeraunia. Die schroffe Kalkmauer (H bis 1593 m) ist wegen der häufigen Gewitter gefürchtet, nach denen das “Gewittergebirge” benannt ist. Nur im Süden finden sich ant. Landeplätze und Siedlungen: Kemara/Chimera (h. Himarë) [1. 679] und Palaeste (…

Alalkomenai

(236 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἀλαλκομεναί). [English version] [1] Kleine boiotische Stadt Kleine boiot. Stadt am Südrand des ehemaligen Kopais-Sees, zw. Haliartos und Koroneia am Fuß eines niedrigen Berges, mit dem berühmten Athenaheiligtum in der Ebene am Tritonbach (Geburtsstätte der Athena), in unmittelbarer Nähe zum Heiligtum der Athena Itonia. A. lag wahrscheinlich nördl. unterhalb vom h. Solinarion, das Athenaheiligtum entweder nordöstl. bei der Kirche Agios Ioannis oder nordwestl. bei Ajia Paraskevi (früher: Agoriani) oder …

Kephallenia

(812 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Κεφαλληνία). Die größte der Ion. Inseln im Westen Griechenlands mit ca. 761 km2, 50 km lang in NS-Richtung, bis zu 25 km breit. Bedingt durch die Kontur der Insel und die hohen Kalkberge (h. Enos, Efmorfia, Agia Dinati), existieren mehrere abgeschlossene Siedlungsgebiete, die erst in der Neuzeit durch Straßen miteinander verbunden wurden. Vom Hauptkörper der Insel ragt nach Norden die Halbinsel Erisos hervor, während im Westen die Halbinsel Paliki mit diesem durch einen 4 km schmalen Isthm…

Onchesmos

(55 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Ὀγχεσμός). Hafenstadt in Epeiros, h. Sarandë (Hagioi Saranda) in Albanien. O. diente Phoinike, dem Hauptort der Landschaft Chaonia, als Hafen. In röm. Zeit war O. Fährhafen zw. Epeiros und It. (Cic. Att. 7,2,1; Strab. 7,7,5; Ptol. 3,14,2; Dion. Hal. ant. 1,51,2). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Cabanes, L'Épire, 1976  N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967.

Leukas, Leukadia

(1,080 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Ägäische Koine | Akarnanes, Akarnania | Attischer Seebund | Getreidehandel, Getreideimport | Kolonisation | Makedonia, Makedones | Peloponnesischer Krieg | Perserkriege | Punische Kriege (Λευκάς, Λευκαδία, lat. Leucas, Leucadia). [English version] A. Geographie Eine der mittleren Ion. Inseln mit gleichnamiger Stadt, nur durch eine seichte Meerenge von der akarnanischen Küste getrennt, ca. 295 km2 groß und 31 km lang (Akarnanes, Karte). Das Innere von L. besteht aus einem zentralen Bergmassiv (am höchsten …

Arba

(46 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] Eine der liburnischen Mentores-Inseln (h. Rab, Kroatien) mit gleichnamiger Stadt. Municipium seit Augustus, gehörte zur tribus Sergia (Plin. nat. 3,140; Ptol. 2,17,13). Liburni Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography G. Alföldy, Bevölkerung und Ges. in der röm. Prov. Dalmatien, 1965  J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969.

Acheloos

(470 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Isler, Hans-Peter (Zürich)
[English version] [1] Längster, wasserreichster Fluß Griechenlands (Ἀχελῷος). Längster, wasserreichster Fluß Griechenlands im Gebiet der Aitoloi und Akarnaneis, urspr. Name Thoas, seit dem MA Aspropotamos, h. wieder A. Quellen im Territorium der Dolopes (Thuk. 2,102,2) beim Berg Lakmon im Pindos, dort von fünf Zuflüssen gespeist, durch Staustufen h. stark umgestaltet. Vom Gebiet der Agraioi und Amphilochoi (Strab. 10,2,1) kommend, trat er bei Stratos (Furt, Thuk. 3,106,1) mit breitem Bett (h. kanalisie…

Agraioi

(42 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Ἀγραῖοι). Stamm im nordwestl. Aitolien zw. Amphilochoi und Aperantoi. Unabhängig im 5. Jh. v. Chr. (“Königsherrschaft”, Thuk. 3,111,4); 2 Jh. später im Koinon der Aitoloi. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography C. Antonetti, Agraioi, in: Dialogues d'histoire ancienne 13, 1987, 199-236.

Korkyra

(1,108 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] [1] h. Korfu (Κόρκυρα, lat. Corcyra; die Insel Korfu). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) [English version] A. Name Die nördlichste der Ion. Inseln, auf Mz. und einheimischen Inschr. immer K. gen., daneben lit. und inschr. (IG II-III2 96; SEG 25, 354) auch Κέρκυρα, lat. Corcyra, h. amtlich Kérkyra. Der seit dem 10. Jh. gebräuchliche Name Korfu entstand aus dem griech. Wort Koryphḗ (“Gipfel”) nach der die ma. und mod. Stadt überragenden Festung. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) [English version] B. Geographie Die Insel ist 62 km lang, zw. 3,5 und 28 km breit und ca. 585 km2 groß. Siche…

Kranioi

(61 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Attischer Seebund (Κράνιοι). Stadt im Westen von Kephallenia, östl. des h. Hauptorts Argostoli, unterstützte im Peloponnesischen Krieg Athen: Thuk. 2,30; 33; 5,35; 56; Strab. 10,2,13. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Kalligas, Ἱερὸ Δήμητρας καὶ Κόρης στὴν Κράνη Κεφαλλονιᾶς, in: ArchE, 1978, 136-146  R. Speich, Korfu und die Ion. Inseln, 1982, 263-265.

Aoos

(115 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Ἀῶος, Ἄωος). Fluß im nördl. Epeiros (h. Viosa, albanisch Vijosë), auch Aias genannt (FGrH 1 Hekat. F 102b; Plin. nat. 3,26). Quellen am Lakmon im Pindos, am Oberlauf bei den Molossi eine Brücke (Pol. 27,16; [2. 280, 628]); am Mittellauf die Parauaia (Arr. an. 1,7,5); hier die Schlucht beim Eintritt in die Ebene (Liv. 32,5,11; 10,2) westl. von Tepelena (als Grenzfluß [1. 115f.]). Der A. war von Apollonia [1] bis zur Mündung schiffbar (Plut. Caesar 38); hier eine Asphaltquelle mit Nymphaeum und Orakel [1. 494]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 P. Cabanes, L'Ép…

Hylloi

(125 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Ὕλλοι). Illyr. Stamm, erstmals im 4. Jh. v.Chr. unter den bárbaroi erwähnt (Skyl. 22); andere Schreibweisen Hylleís (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὑλλεῖς) und Hyllaíoi (Ὑλλαῖοι, Ptol. 2,16,5). Ihr Siedlungsgebiet wird ungefähr zw. den Flüssen Titius (h. Krka) und Nestus (h. Cetina) lokalisiert. Wie andere kleinere illyr. Stämme wurden die H. nach dem 4. Jh. v.Chr. von den Dalmatae absorbiert, so daß in röm. Zeit nur noch die Bezeichnung der Küste südl. von Šibenik als Halbinsel Hyllica/ Hyllis (Plin. nat. 3,141; Skymn. 405) an die H. erinnerte. Eine Verbindung zw…

Kalydon

(501 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Καλυδών). [English version] [1] Heros der gleichnamigen Stadt Eponymer Heros der gleichnamigen aitolischen Stadt K. [3], Sohn des Aitolos und der Pronoe, Bruder des Pleuron, Gatte der Aiolia und von ihr Vater der Epikaste und der Protogeneia (Apollod. 1,58-59). Ein ähnliches, ebenfalls die Namen des Landes und der beiden größten Städte genealogisch verbindendes Konstrukt bei Deimachos (FGrH 65 F 1 = schol. Hom. Il. 217-218 Erbse), wo sich die Abfolge Endymion-Aitolos-Pleuron-K. findet. Steph. Byz. s.v. bietet als Vater des K. den Endymion oder den Aitolos. K. ist auch der Name …

Elimeia

(182 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[English version] (Ἐλίμεια). Urspr. zu Epeiros gehörige Landschaft (Strab. 9,5,11) im Osten des Pindos-Gebirges am Oberlauf des Haliakmon südl. der Orestis und Eordaia; seit dem 5. Jh.v.Chr. führt der Volksstamm der Elimiotai in Ober-Makedonia nach der E. seinen Namen (Thuk. 2,99). Die Lage der gleichnamigen Stadt ist unsicher (Kozani, Palaiogratsiano?). Städte der hell. und röm. Zeit sind Aiane und Kaisareia (Bischofssitz: Hierokles Synekdemos 642,11). E. behält trotz Abhängigkeit vom Makedonenkö…

Euenos

(606 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[1] von Paros [English version] A. Zur Person Eratosthenes unterscheidet zwei Elegiker aus Paros namens E. (Harpokr. s.v. Εὔηνος 139,15 Dindorf), andere behaupten, es gäbe nur einen [1]. Platon erwähnt einen E. von Paros, einen Dichter und “Philosophen” (Plat. Phaid. 60d; 61b), der um 400 v.Chr. polit. Rhet. lehrte (Plat. apol. 20a-b) und einige Tropen “entdeckte” (Plat. Phaidr. 267a). Sowohl Sprache als auch Themenwahl einiger Fragmente, z.B. Mäßigung beim Trinken (2 Gentili-Prato/West, evtl. eine Antw…

Molossoi

(414 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Μολοσσοί). Einer der Hauptstämme von Epeiros mit vielen Kleinstämmen. Ihre Ursprünge liegen im nördl. Pindos; seit dem 5. Jh.v.Chr. besiedelten die Stämme der M. das urspr. den Thesprotoi gehörende Becken des h. Ioannina mit dem Heiligtum von Dodona (Strab. 7,7,8; 11). Grenzen im Norden waren der obere Teil des Thyamis (h. Kalamas), im SO der Arachthos. Im frühen 4. Jh. gehörte auch ein Teil des nördl. Ufers des Ambrakischen Golfs zu den M. [2. 130-133]. Der Hauptort Passaron lag nordwestl. von Ioannina bei der Akropolis von Gardaki [3. 71-73]. Die M. sind in Sp…

Kassope

(250 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Bildung (Κασσώπη). Stadt im SW von Epeiros beim h. Kamarina, Hauptort des zu den Thesprotoi zählenden Stammes der Kassopaioi (Κασσωπαῖοι, Strab. 7,7,1; 7,7,5 und Inschr.; Κασσωποί, Skyl. 31), deren ca. 900 km2 großes, im Süden sehr fruchtbares Siedlungsgebiet zw. Ambrakischem Golf, Ion. Meer und dem Acheron lag (Karte: [6. 116]). Innerhalb des Stammesterritoriums befanden sich die sog. elischen Kolonien Buchetion, Elatria, Pandosia, Batiai (Lokalisierungen [2]). Ungef…

Euripos

(248 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] [1] Meerenge zw. Chalkis auf Euboia und Boiotia (Εὔριπος ὁ Χαλκιδικός). Diese 9 km lange Meerenge zw. Chalkis auf Euboia und Boiotia mit drei Engstellen teilt die Wasserstraße zw. Euboia und dem griech. Festland (Anon. bei GGM 1,105 § 29: ἡ τῶν Εὐβοέων θάλατττα) ungefähr mittig. Urspr. durchzogen die nördlichste engste Stelle bei Chalkis zwei Rinnen, eine am westl. Ufer, 0,5 m tief und 15 m breit, seeseits von einem Riff abgeschlossen, und eine schiffbare am östl. Ufer, etwa 5 m tief und…

Chalkis

(672 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Χαλκίς). [English version] [1] Ort auf Euboia am Euripos Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Attisch-Delischer Seebund | Attischer Seebund | Bildung | Bodenschätze | Boiotia, Boiotoi | Christentum | Dunkle Jahrhunderte | Ionisch | Kolonisation | Makedonia, Makedones | Marmor | Mykenische Kultur und Archäologie | Naturkatastrophen | Peloponnesischer Krieg | Perserkriege Auf Euboia am Euripos, durch seine bes. verkehrspolit. Lage der bedeutendste Ort der Insel. Ob sich der Name Ch. von den Erzvorkommen in der Umgebung von Ch. herleitet,…

Bomieis

(42 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Βωμιεῖς). Nordöstl. Gau der aitolischen Ophieis am Oberlauf des Euenos: Thuk. 3,96; Strab. 10,2,5. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography W. Woodhouse, Aetolia, 1897, 70f.  C. Antonetti, Problemi di geografia storica del territorio etolo-acarnano, in: P. Janni (Hrsg.), Γεωγραφία, 1985, 11-24.

Dodona, Dodone

(928 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Graf, Fritz (Princeton)
Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Ägäische Koine | Bildung | Dunkle Jahrhunderte | Orakel | Perserkriege | Theater (Δωδώνη). [English version] I. Topographie, historische Entwicklung Heiligtum und Siedlung in Epeiros, 22 km südwestl. des h. Ioannina in der 640 m hoch gelegenen Ebene Hellopia unterhalb des Tomaros [1. 85-87, 92]. D. ist die älteste lit. bezeugte Orakelstätte Griechenlands (Gründungssage Hdt. 2,54f. [2. 51-54]), schon den homer. Epen bekannt (Il. 16,233-235; Od. 19,296-301). Der urspr. Kult g…
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