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Clytia, Clytie

(113 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Κλυτία, Κλυτίη; Klytía, Klytíē, Lat. Clytia). [German version] [1] Daughter of Oceanus and Tethys Daughter of Oceanus and Tethys (Hes. Theog. 352). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) [German version] [2] Daughter of Pandareus from Crete Daughter of  Pandareus from Crete, represented according to Pausanias (10,30,1f.) in the Cnidic  lesche in Delphi. Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) [German version] [3] Beloved of Helios Beloved of Helios (possibly identical to [1]), whom the latter abandons for  Leucothoe. The jealous C. betrays Leucothoe to her father, who has h…


(446 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Tochter des Atlas [2] und der Pleione (Μαῖα, Μαίας, Μαίη; Maîa, Maías, Maíē). Daughter of Atlas [2] and Pleione, by Zeus mother of Hermes, who is called Maiadeús or Maías hyiós or paîs for this reason (e.g. H. Hom. 4,2f.,73; Aesch. Cho. 814). Nymph of the Arcadian Cyllene mountains. Homer only mentions her once as the mother of Hermes (Hom. Od. 14,435). Hesiod calls her the daughter of Atlas (Hes. Theog. 938) and counts her as one of the Pleiades (Hes. Cat. fr. 169; cf. also Simon. PMG fr. 555). The most deta…


(48 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Λυσιμάχη; Lysimáchē). Daughter of Abas [1], granddaughter of Melampus (according to Antimachus in schol. Eur. Phoen. 150, daughter of Cercyon, granddaughter of Poseidon), wife of the Argive king Talaus, mother of Adrastus [1], Parthenopaeus, Pronax, Mecisteus, Aristomachus and Eriphyle (Apollod. 1,103). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)


(231 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Τηθύς; Tēthýs). In Hom. Il. 14,200 f., Hera calls T. and her brother Oceanus as the ancestors of all the gods. According to Hesiod and others, T. is the daughter of Gaea and Uranus, sister of Oceanus and by him mother of all rivers and the Oceanids (Hes. Theog. 337-370; Apollod. 1,8;  cf. Diod. Sic. 4,69,1; 4,72,1). During the battle between Zeus and Kronos, Rhea takes the young Hera to safety with T. and Oceanus (Hom. Il. 14,202-204). Hera is therefore able to pretend to want to …


(229 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Τεισιφόνη/ Teisiphónē, Latin Tisiphone). [German version] [1] Erinys, avenger of murder 'Avenger of murder'. Besides Al(l)ecto and Megaera the third Erinys (Lat. Furiae ; e.g. Hyg. Fab. praef. 3) identified by name. The triad is documented from Euripides onwards (Eur. Or. 408; Eur. Tro. 457) and plays an important role in the Orphic tradition (Orph. H. 69,2; Orph. Arg. 966-969; Orphism). The name T. first appears in literature in Lucil. 4, fr. 169 f., but is attested on an Apulian lekythos [1] a…


(263 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(also Hypermnestra; Ὑπερμήστρα; Hypermḗstra, Ὑπερμνήστρα; Hypermnḗstra). [German version] [1] Daughter of Danaus Daughter of  Danaus, wife of  Lynceus (or Lyrceus). The only daughter of Danaus who, against her father's orders, did not kill her husband in their wedding night (Pind. Nem. 10,6; Aesch. PV 866; Apollod. 2,1,5). She spares him because she loves him (Aesch. PV 865-868; schol. Pind. Pyth. 9,195b; cf. Hor. Carm. 3,11,33-52) or because he does not touch her (Apollod. 2,1,5; cf. Ov. Epist. 14,64). H. …


(126 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἰλιόνη; Iliónē). Oldest daughter of  Priamus and  Hecabe, wife of Polymestor, the Thracian (Verg. Aen. 1,653f. mentions her sceptre which Aeneas brings from Ilion; cf. Hyg. Fab. 90). She raises her youngest brother  Polydorus along with her and Polymestor's son  Deipylus. After the end of the Trojan War, Agamemnon induces Polymestor to kill Polydorus. He unknowingly kills his own son, since I. had passed Deipylus off as her brother. The real Polydorus then instigates I. to kill he…


(331 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Καλλιστώ; Kallistṓ, Lat. Callisto). Arcadian nymph or princess, daughter of  Lycaon (Eumelus of Corinth, EpGF p. 100 fr. 10; Hes. Cat. fr. 163; Apollod. 3.100), according to Asius (EpGF p. 90 fr. 9) of Nycteus, according to Pherecydes (FGrH 3 fr. 157) of Ceteus; Hunting companion of Artemis who falls in love with Zeus. He approaches her in the shape of Artemis or Apollo and either seduces or rapes her (Amphis, CAF II fr. 47; Apollod. 3.100; Ov. Met. 2,425). Artemis (Hes. Cat. fr. …


(200 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Νεφέλη/ Nephélē). [German version] [1] Personification of a cloud No evidence exists concerning her ancestry, probably because originally she is the personification of a ‘cloud’. Nephele is the wife of Athamas, mother of Helle and of Phrixus. Because Ino (Leukothea), the second wife of Athamas, caused a drought and wanted to kill Nephele's children, Nephele put the two children onto a golden ram, which flew away with them (Apollod. 1,9,1-6; Hyg. Fab. 1-3; 21; Ov. Met. 11,195). According to schol. Aristo…


(130 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Πολυκάστη/ Polykástē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Lygaeus in Acarnania Daughter of Lygaeus in Acarnania, wife of Icarius [2], mother of Penelope, Alyzeus and Leucadius. The two last were eponyms of Alyzeia and Leucas (Str. 10,2,24; 10,2,8). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) [German version] [2] Daughter of Nestor Youngest daughter of Nestor [1] (Hom. Od. 3,465) and Eurydice (cf. ibid. 3,451 f.). According to Apollod. 1,1,9, her mother was Anaxibia. She bathed Telemachus when he was received as a guest in the house of her father (Hom. Od. 3,464-468). …


(136 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Σθενέβοια/ Sthenéboia). Called Antea in Hom. Il. 6,160, daughter of the Lycian king Iobates (Apollod. 2,25; Hyg. Fab. 57) or Amphianax (Apollod. 2,25; schol. Hom. Il. 6,200 Rekker) or the Arcadian king Aphidas [3] (Apollod. 3,102), wife of Proetus and mother of the Proetids and of Megapenthes [1] (Apollod. 2,26; 2,29; Aristoph. Ran. 1043 with Schol. et al.). After failing to seduce Bellerophontes she accuses him of raping her to Proetus (Potiphar motif, Joseph; cf. Phaedra). Bellerophontes is sent away by Proetus with the intention of …


(298 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Λαοδάμεια; Laodámeia). Ep. feminine name (‘Ruler over the People’) of various mythological figures. [German version] [1] Daughter of Bellerophon and a daughter of the Lycian king Iobates Daughter of Bellerophontes and a daughter of the Lycian king Iobates, mother by Zeus of Sarpedon (Hom. Il. 5,196-199; Apollod. 3,1,1; Serv. Aen. 1,100). According to Hom. Il. 5,205 she is killed by the enraged Artemis. Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) [German version] [2] Wife of Protesilaus Daughter of king Acastus of Iolcos, wife of Protesilaus, who goes off immediately after the wed…

Philomele, Philomela

(27 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Φιλομήλη, Φιλομήλα; Philomḗlē, Philomḗla). Daughter of the Attic King Pandion [1], sister of Procne. For her myth, see Procne. Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)


(399 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Μελανίππη; Melaníppē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Aeolus Daughter of Aeolus [1], the son of Hellen, and of Hippe [2], the daughter of the centaur Chiron. Mother by Poseidon of the twins Aeolus [3] and Boeotus. M. was the protagonist in two fragmentarily surviving tragedies by Euripides: Μ. ἡ σοφή (‘The Wise M.; TGF 479-487) and Μ. ἡ δεσμῶτις (‘M. Bound; TGF 488-514). In the older ' Wise M.' (set in Thessaly), it is told how in the absence of her father Aeolus, M. becomes the mother of two sons by Poseidon. Although she exposes the children, they survive a…


(195 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Στερόπη/ Sterópē, Ἀστερόπη/ Asterópē '(flash of )lightning'; Ἀερόπη/ Aërópē). [German version] [1] One of the Pleiades One of the Pleiades, the seven daughters of Atlas [2] and Pleione (Hes. fr. 169 M.-W.; Apollod. 3,110; Paus. 5,10,6), mother by Ares of Oenomaus [1] (Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 19a; Eratosth. Katasterismoí (epitome) 23; cf. Tzetz. on Lycoph. 149). There is a depiction of S. on the frieze of the eastern gable at Olympia (Paus. 5,10,6; [2. 809 no. 5]), dated to the second quarter of the 5th cent. BC. She is also called Asterope or Aerope (Hes. fr. 169; Hyg. Fab. 84). Waldner, Kathar…


(331 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Πολυκρίτη/ Polykrítē). Heroine of Naxos who, by a ruse, saves her hometown when it is besieged by the Milesians and Erythreans: she is left behind in a sanctuary before the city of Naxos [1] and taken prisoner by Diognetus, the leader of the Erythreans. Since he does not dare to rape her in the sanctuary, he tries to win her over by persuasion. She agrees under the condition that he swears to grant her request first. When Diognetus agrees, P. requests that he betray his allies, th…


(455 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Ἱπποδάμεια/ Hippodámeia, Ἱπποδάμη/ Hippodámē, Latin Hippodamia). [German version] [1] Daughter of king Oenomaus Daughter of king  Oenomaus of Pisa and Sterope (Paus. 5,10,6). Because an oracle prophesied his murder by the future son-in-law (Diod. Sic. 4,73,2), or because he himself desires H. (Hyg. Fab. 253), Oenomaus prevents H.'s marriage by challenging her many suitors (Hes. Cat. fr. 259a; Pind. Ol. 1,128; Paus. 6,21,10f.; Epimenides, FGrH 457 fr. 14) to a chariot race, during which he defeats and kills …


(48 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Λυσίππη; Lysíppē). Daughter of Proetus and Stheneboea (Apollod. 2,25-26). Because she sinned against the gods, L. goes mad together with her sisters Iphianassa [1] and Iphinoe, but is then cured by Melampus (Apollod. 2,26-29; cf. Hes. Cat. fr. 37,10-15; 131; 133). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)


(259 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Ἁρπαλύκη; Harpalýkē). [German version] [1] Huntress and livestock thief Daughter of the Thracian king Harpalycus who, after the death of her mother, raises her with cow's and mare's milk and trains her to be a warrior. After his death, she lives as a livestock thief and hunter until she is captured with a net and killed. Ritual fighting took place at her grave (Serv. Auct. Aen. 1,317; Hyg. Fab. 193). The oldest reference to her can be found in Virgil (Aen. 1,317) for whom H. served as a model of  Camilla (Verg. Aen. 11,532-915). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) [German version] [2] Daughter of Ep…


(180 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Λυσιδίκη; Lysidíkē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Pelops and Hippodamia Daughter of Pelops and Hippodamia [1], wife of Mestor, mother of Hippothoe (Apollod. 2,50). According to a tradition dismissed by Paus. 8,14,2, the mother of Amphitryon and hence the wife of Alcaeus. According to schol. Pind. Ol. 7,49, the wife of Electryon, mother of Alcmene (cf. also Plut. Thes 7,1 and schol. Pind. Ol. 7,50). All the husbands of L. who appear in the tradition are sons of Perseus. Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) [German version] [2] Female companion of Theseus and Ariadne On the François Vase (5…


(164 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Μήστρα; Mḗstra). Daughter of Helios's son Aethon [2]. According to Hes. Cat. fr. 43c, Mestra received from Poseidon the gift of transforming herself. The legend was first recorded in detail at the time of the Roman Empire: Mestra helps her father, whose punishment from Demeter makes him suffer ravenous hunger, by allowing him to sell her, but she uses Poseidon's gift to turn herself into an animal and return to her father to be sold again (Ov. Met. 8,738f.; cf. also schol. Lykophr…


(452 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Πασιφάη/ Pasipháē). Daughter of Helios and of Perse(is) (Apoll. Rhod. 3,998-1001; Apollod. 3,1,2; Paus. 3,26,1; Ov. Met. 9,736 amongst others; according to Plut. Agis 9, the daughter of Atlas [2], according to Diod. Sic. 4,60, the daughter of Crete), sister of Aietes, Calypso, Circe and Perses [2], wife of the Cretan king Minos (Apollod. 3,1,2,; Diod. Sic. 4,77 amongst others), mother of Ariadne and Phaedra. Minos asks Poseidon to make a bull appear out of the sea as a sacrificial animal in order to legitimize his claim to power in Crete. Howe…


(229 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Ψαμάθη/ Psamáthē, Ψαμάθα/ Psamátha, Ψαμάθεια/ Psamátheia). [German version] [1] Nereid Nereid (Hes. Theog. 260; Apollod. 1,12). The mother of Phocus [1] by Aeacus (Hes. Theog. 1004 f.; Pind. Nem. 5,13). Like her sister Thetis, who resisted marriage to Peleus, P. escaped marriage with Aeacus by transforming into a seal (Apollod. 3,158). According to Eur. Hel. 6-14, she later became the wife of Proteus and the mother of Theoclymenus and Theonoë by him. Because Peleus killed her son Phocus, she sent a rapac…


(454 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὀμφάλη; Omphálē). Mythical queen of the Lydians (Lydia). She is the daughter of Iardanus and becomes queen as successor to her husband Tmolus (Apollod. 2,6,3; Diod. 4,31). Heracles [1] is the father of her sons Lamus [2] and Agelaus [3] (e.g. Apollod. 2,7,8; Ov. Epist. 9,54). According to Clearchus of Soli (fr. 43a Wehrli), she and other Lydian women are raped and as queen she takes her revenge by forcing free women to sleep with slaves. Heracles is sold abroad as a punishment for killing his host Iphitus and performs the duties of a slave for O. (Soph. …


(247 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἰόλη; Iólē). Daughter of  Eurytus [1], king of Oechalia, and Antioche (Hes. Cat. fr. 26,31a), sister of  Iphitus, who was murdered by Heracles (cf. Hom. Od. 21,11-41). Although Heracles wins I. in the archery contest arranged by Eurytus, the latter refuses to give him his daughter (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 82a; Apollod. 2,6,1-3; Diod. Sic. 4,31,37). In revenge for the period of servitude with  Omphale imposed on him as retribution for the murder of Iphitus, Heracles destroys Oechalia a…


(371 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Περίβοια; Períboia). Name of numerous mythical women, including: [German version] [1] Naiad, mother by Icarius of Penelope Naiad, mother by Icarius [2] of Penelope (Apollod. 3,126). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) [German version] [2] Youngest daughter of Eurymedon, King of the Titans Youngest daughter of Eurymedon [1], king of the Titans, mother by Poseidon of the first Phaeacian king Nausithous [1] (Hom. Od. 6,56-59). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) [German version] [3] One of the first two girls chosen by lots to pacify Athena One of the first two girls chosen by lots, to be se…


(183 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Arcadian nymph (Σύριγξ; Sýrinx). Arcadian nymph. Fleeing from Pan, who intends to violate her, she is transformed beside the River Ladon into a reed, from which Pan constructs a flute (named after him) (S. [2]). From then on the shepherd's flute is considered to be an instrument expressing longing for love (Ov. Met. 1,690-712). Numerous allusions show that the tale was known not only in Latin verse, but also in Greek, no later than the Hellenistic Period (Longus 2,34 f.; Ach. Tat. …


(47 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἑκαμήδη; Hekamḗde). Daughter of Arsinous of Tenedus. H. was taken as booty by  Achilles, who destroyed Tenedus, and later given to Nestor as a gift of honour (Hom. Il. 11,624; 14,6; Suda, s.v.). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) Bibliography H. W. Stoll, s.v. H., Roscher 1, 1885.


(568 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Πρόκνη/ Próknē, Lat. Progne, Procne). Daughter of the Attic king Pandion [1], wife of  Tereus, sister of Philomela. Out of gratitude for support in a war, P.'s father gives her in marriage to the Thracian Tereus. In Thrace her son Itys is born. When P. wishes to see her sister Philomela, Tereus is supposed to bring her from Athens to Thrace. He violates her on the way, cuts out her tongue to secure her silence and hides her in the country. Philomela weaves what happened to her into a…


(441 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (ὠσχοφόρια/ ōschophória, ὀσχοφόρια/ oschophória, in inscriptions also *ὠσκοφόρια/* ōskophória). Athenian festival. Its course of events can be reconstructed from Plut. Theseus 22-23 and Procl. Chresthomateia 87-92 Severyns [1]: a procession with two youths (ὠσχοφόροι/ ōschophóroi, 'carriers of grapevines') dressed up as girls carrying grape stalks and a choir walked from a temple of Dionysus to the temple of Athena Skiras in Phaleron, where sacrifices were offered. Women participated in the festival as δειπνοφόροι/ deipnophóroi ('food carriers') and to…


(166 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἕρση; Hérsē). Daughter of  Cecrops and  Aglaurus [2] (or Agraulus) (Paus. 1,2,6; Apollod. 3,14,2). In Athens, H. and her sisters Aglaurus (or Agraulos) and  Pandrosus constitute the Cecropids. Despite the prohibition of Athena, who had entrusted it to them, they open a basket containing the new-born  Erichthonius [1]. Then in madness H. and Aglaurus hurl themselves from the Acropolis (Eur. Ion, 268-274; Paus. 1,18,2; cf. 1,2,6; 27,2; Apollod. 3,14,6; Ov. Met. 2,552-561). H. and he…


(541 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἰώ; Iṓ). Daughter of  Inachus, king of Argus (Aesch. PV 589f.; Bacchyl. 19,18 et al.), or of  Peiren (or Peras or Peirasus), king of Tyrins (Hes. Cat. fr. 124), and Melia (Johannes Antiochenus FHG IV 544 fr. 14). Zeus falls in love with her and seduces her in the form of a bull. Out of jealousy, Hera transforms I. into a cow (Aesch. Supp. 299). According to Hes. Cat. fr. 124, I. is transformed by Zeus himself only after their affair in order to deceive Hera (so also Apollod. 2,1,3…

Cassiepea, Cassiopea, Cassiope

(158 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Κασσιέπεια, Κασσιόπεια, Κασσιόπη, Kassiépeia, Kassiópeia, Kassiópē). [German version] [1] Mistress of Zeus Daughter of Arabus, wife of the son of Agenor  Phoenix, mother of  Phineus, Cilix and Doryclus, by Zeus of  Atymnius [2] (Hes. Cat. fr. 138; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 86; Apollod. 3,1,2). According to Antoninus Liberalis (40), also the mother of  Europe [2] and  Carme (cf. Hes. Cat. fr. 140). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) [German version] [2] Wife of Epaphus, son of Zeus Wife of Epaphus, son of Zeus and  Io, mother of Libya, after whom the country of Libya is named (Hyg…


(107 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Νικοστράτη/ Nikostrátē). Arcadian nymph, prophetess, mother by Hermes of Evander [1], with whom she moved, 60 years before the Trojan War, from Pallantium in Arcadia to Italy, where Evander founded on the Palatine the first city (Str. 5,3,3; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,31,1;  Plut. Quaest. Graec. 56; Ov. Fast. 1,462; 618; 627; 634; Serv. Aen. 8,51; 130; 336). According to Plut. Romulus 21, she was the wife of Evander. Outside this Hellenizing tradition, the mother of Evander is called Carmentis (cf. Str. 5,3,3; Plut. Romulus 21). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) Bibliography H.…


(259 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Πελόπεια/ Pelópeia, Πελοπία/ Pelopía). [German version] [1] Daughter of Pelias Daughter of Pelias and Anaxibia or Phylomache (Apollod. 1,95; Hyg. Fab. 24). With Ares mother of Cycnus [1] (Apollod. 2,155). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) [German version] [2] Daughter of Thyestes Daughter of Thyestes, with him mother of Aegisthus, who takes revenge on Atreus for the killing of Thyestes' sons. The story of Thyestes' incest is part of the complex of myths about the descendants of Pelops. This incest is mentioned frequently (e.g. Ov. Ib. 359…


(439 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Λήδα; Lḗda). Daughter of the Aetolian king Thestius and of Eurythemis (Apollod. 1,7,10), sister of Althaea [1] and Hypermestra [1] (Hes. Cat. fr. 23a, 3-5; Apollod. ibid.), wife of the Lacedaemonian king Tyndareos. She is credited with different children: Timandra, Clytaemnestra, Phylonoe (Hes. Cat. fr. 23a, 7-10; Apollod. 3,10,6), Phoebe (Eur. IA 49-51), especially Helene [1] and the Dioscuri Castor and Polydeuces. According to Homer, these are the sons of Tyndareos (Hom. …


(212 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Κανάκη; Kanákē). Daughter of the Thessalian  Aeolus [1] and Enarete, who had an additional five daughters and six sons (Apollod. 1,50). C. is mother of five sons fathered by Poseidon, among them is Aloeus, progenitor of the  Aloads (Apollod. 1.53). According to Diod. Sic. 5.61, the Tyrrhenian king Aeolus is C.'s father. The Tyrrhenian and Thessalian Aeolus were blended and said by Homer to be the king of the winds  Aeolus [2], whose six sons and six daughters lived in pairs as married couples (Hom. Od. 10.1-9). In the tragedy Aeolus, Euripides described an incestuous …


(273 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Mistress of Apollo (Κορωνίς; Korōnís, accusative also Κόρωνιν; Korōnín). Daughter of the Lapith  Phlegyas, mistress of  Apollo, by him mother of  Asclepius. Through his messenger, the raven, Apollo discovers that C., pregnant by him, has slept with  Ischys and wants to marry him (Hes. Aeolidae fr. 60; Pind. Pyth. 3,5-20). According to Pindar (Pyth. 3,27-29), Apollo in his omniscience needs no messenger. He kills Ischys and has C. and other women killed by  Artemis. He saves Asclepius f…


(519 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Θέτις/ Thétis). Daughter of Nereus and Doris [I 1], one of the Nereids (Hes. Theog. 240-244; cf. Hom. Il. 1,358; 18,36; Pind. Pyth. 3,92; Apollod. 1,11 et al.), raised by Hera (Hom. Il. 24,60), mother of Achilles [1]. When Poseidon and Zeus desire T., an oracle of Themis prophesies that the son of T. will dethrone his father. Zeus therefore decides to marry T. against her will to the mortal Peleus. According to a further prophecy of Themis, T. would see her son die in battle (Pind…


(272 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἁρμονία; Harmonía). Daughter of Ares and Aphrodite, wife of  Cadmus, mother of  Ino,  Semele,  Agave,  Autonoe and  Polydorus (Hes. Theog. 933-937; 975-978; Apollod. 3,25). The wedding of Cadmus and H., for which the gods bring along opulent presents (i.a. a necklace made by Hephaestus and a  peplos, in Alcmaeon [1], Amphiaraus), was a popular topic (Pind. Pyth. 3,88-92; Paus. 3,18,12; Apollod. 3,25). The bridal song is sung by the Muses (Thgn. 15-18). At the end of their life, Ca…


(236 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Οἰνοτρόποι; Oinotrópoi). The three daughters of Dorippe and Anius, the mythical first king of Delos: Oino ('Wine-Maid'), Spermo ('Corn-Maid') and Elais ('Oil-Maid'). On their way to Troy, Anius tries to persuade the Greeks to stay with him for nine years and be fed by the O., in order then to conquer Troy in the 10th year (Kypria PEG I fr. 19). The O. have from Dionysus the ability to conjure up corn (schol. Lycoph. 570), wine and oil (Lycoph. 577-580). According to Ovid, everythi…


(678 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Φαίδρα/ Phaídra, Latin Phaedra). Daughter of Minos and Pasiphae, second spouse of Theseus, mother of Demophon [2] and Acamas. P. loves her stepson Hippolytus [1]. She tries in vain to seduce him and accuses him of having raped her. Theseus asks Poseidon to destroy Hippolytus. The god sends a bull from the sea, which gives such a fright to Hippolytus' horse-team, that he is killed in the accident. P. commits suicide when her love for Hippolytus becomes public (Ps.-Apollod. epit. 1,17…


(87 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Θυώνη; Thyṓnē). Name of Semele after her assumption among the gods (Diod. 4,25,4; Apollod. 3,38). The earliest evidence is in Sappho (fr. 17,10 Voigt) and Pindar (P. 3,98-99). T. also appears sporadically as the nurse of Dionysus (e.g. Panyassis fr. 5). The latter receives from her the epithet Thyonidas (Hesych. s. v.), Latin Thyoneus (e.g. Hor. Carm. 1,17,23; Ov. Met. 4,13 et passim). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) Bibliography A. Kossatz-Deissmann, s.v. Semele, LIMC 7.1, 718-726  K. Preisendanz, s.v. T., RE 6 A, 735-736  J. Schmidt, s. v. T., Roscher 5, 926-92…


(343 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Λύσσα, Λύττα; Lýssa, Lýtta). Personification of (battle) rage and madness. She appears as an independent person for the first time in 5th-cent. tragedy; according to Eur. HF 822-899 she is descended from Nyx and the blood of Uranus that the latter sheds when he is castrated by Kronos. Homer mentions the state of lyssa, but she is not a person (Hom. Il. 8,299; cf. also 9,239; 304f.). As such she appears for the first time in Aeschylus in the Xántriai (TrGF III fr. 169) where she spurs on the Minyades - struck with madness by Dionysus - to kill a human being …


(282 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Μαῖρα; Maîra). [German version] [1] Daughter of Proetus According to the Nóstoi (EpGF fr. 5), M. is the daughter of Proetus, the son of Thersander (the son of Sisyphus), and dies a virgin. In Hom. Od. 11,326 only her name is mentioned, together with Clymene and Eriphyle. In Pherecydes (FGrH 3 F 170 with Jacoby ad loc.), who names Antea as her mother (according to Hom. Il. 6,160, wife of Proetus of Argos), she is a companion of Artemis. She is shot dead by her when she gives birth to Locrus [2] by Zeus. Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) [German version] [2] Arcadian heroine Arcadian heroine, daughter …


(1,389 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Of Alexandria, mathematician and engineer, 1st cent. AD (Ἥρων; Hḗrōn). [German version] A. Life H. of Alexandria, mathematician and engineer. No details of his life are known. He lived after  Archimedes [1], whom he quotes, and before  Pappus, who quotes him. In the Dioptra, ch. 35, H. describes a method for determining the time difference between Rome and Alexandria by observing the same eclipse of the moon at both locations. It is quite likely that this eclipse occurred in AD 62 and that H. probably observed it himself in Alexandria [10. 21-24]. Folkerts, Menso (Mu…


(496 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) | Frede, Michael (Oxford)
(Θεανώ/ Theanṓ). [German version] [1] Priestess of Athena in Troy Priestess of Athena in Troy, daughter of Thracian King Cisseus and of Teleclia, daughter of Ilus [1] (Hom. Il. 6,298-300; 11,223-224; schol. Eur. Hec. 3; Lucian. Imagines 19), since Euripides, sister of Hecabe as well (Eur. Hec. 3 and schol.; schol. A Hom. Il. 16,718; cf. Verg. Aen. 7,320). Mother of many children with Antenor [1] (the so-called Antenorids). As a priestess of Athena, she was of crucial importance for the Greeks in the battl…


(181 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] [2] (Pol. 13 in Steph. Byz. s.v. Λαμπέτεια/ Lampéteia; Λαμπέτης/ Lampétēs, Lycoph. Alexandra 1068 [promontory, modern Capo Súvero]; Liv. 29,30,1; 30,19,10; Plin. HN 3,72; Clampetia, Mela 2,69; Geogr. Rav. 4,32; 5,2; Clampeia, Tab. Peut. 7,1). Harbour town in Bruttium ( Bruttii) near modern Amantea. Conquered by the Romans in 204 BC, probably deserted since then. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 928. [German version] [1] Daughter of Helios and the nymph Neaera (Λαμπετίη; Lampetíē). Daughter of Helios and the nymph Neaera. As a girl s…


(739 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough)
(Πεισίστρατος; Peisístratos). [German version] [1] Companion of Telemachus Son of Nestor [1], ruler of Pylos, and of Eurydice. He accompanied Telemachus, who was of the same age, to Sparta (Hom. Od. 3,400-483; 15,44ff.; Paus. 4,1,4). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) [German version] [2] Son of Peisistratus [1] Son of P. [1], grandson of Nestor [1]. He as the only one of the Nelids, does not go to Athens when they are driven out of Messenia by the Heraclids (Paus. 2,18,8f.; Hdt. 5,65). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) Bibliography J. Andrée-Hanslik, s.v. P., RE 19, 155f. [German version] [3] Athen…
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