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(713 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna) | Schumacher, Leonhard
[German version] [1] T., M. Tullius Cicero's secretary, 1st cent. BC Born in the house of Cicero's (= Cic.) grandfather in Arpinum as son of a prisoner of war, therefore as a slave, in 103 BC (according to [3] in 80 BC). T. was made a freedman by his master Cic., who was not much older than he, only in 53 (cf. Cic. Fam. 16,16,1). He was a valuable help to his master in all possible ways, as the latter repeatedly emphasized (for instance, in Cic. Fam. 16,4,3 in 50 BC). T. accompanied Cic. to Cilicia in 51, was sent by his master to meet his son-in-law Cornelius [I…


(2,481 words)

Author(s): Görgemanns, Herwig (Heidelberg) | Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna)
[German version] A. Term, Terminology, Origins A letter is a written message to an absent recipient. The Greek epistolḗ (ἐπιστολή) is the verbal noun for ἐπιστέλλειν; epistéllein, ‘to give a message (to a messenger)’ or ‘to send a written or oral message (to s.o.)’; epistolḗ means ‘a sent message’, which in earlier times could also include an oral message. Synonyms: grámmata (γράμματα), literally ‘piece of writing’, Lat. epistula, litterae. Wherever script was developed, writing letters was one of its first applications. For that reason, communication by writing…


(300 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Iulius T. Tutor of princes, teacher of rhetoric, late 2nd cent. Active probably in the late 2nd cent. AD as a tutor of princes and later in Vesontio (modern Besançon) and Lugdunum (modern Lyon) as a teacher of rhetoric, T. was the author of numerous (non-surviving) works. He was famous for his prose ' Letters of Famous Women' written on the model of Ovidius' Heroides (on the choice of the letters of Cicero as a stylistic model: Sid. Apoll. Epist. 1,1,2). …


(1,389 words)

Author(s): Simons, Roswitha (Düsseldorf) | Lehnardt, Andreas | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] I. Greek (Σύμμαχος/ Sýmmachos). [German version] [I 1] Author of a commentary on Aristophanes, 1st half of the 2nd cent. No later than the first half of the 2nd cent. AD (citation in Herodian. 2,945-946 Lentz); author of a commentary on Aristophanes [3], frequently used in Late Antiquity and Byzantine scholia literature ( subscriptio Schol. Aristoph. Av.; Nub.; Pax). It remains unclear whether S. also commented on comedies which do not survive [2. 1138 f.]. Of the 41 (factual) explanations attributed to S. by name in the Aristophane…