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Polydora

(206 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
(Πολυδώρα/ Polydṓra). [German version] [1] Oceanid One of the Oceanids (Hes. Theog. 354). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of Danaus Daughter of Danaus, by the river god Spercheius (Nicander fr. 41 Schneider) or by Peneius (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 8); mother of Dryops. Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [3] Half-sister of Achilles Daughter of Peleus and Antigone [2], (half-)sister of Achilles [1] (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 61; Apollod. 3,163. The river god Spercheius fathered Menesthius [2] on her, but the latter is nonetheless regar…

Thoon

(127 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
(Θόων; Thóōn). Name, appearing several times in Greek epics and myths: [German version] [1] Trojan, son of Phaenops Trojan, son of Phaenops [2] and brother of Phorcys [2] and Xanthus, killed by Diomedes [1] (Hom. Il. 5,152). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Trojan killed by Odysseus Trojan, killed by Odysseus (Hom. Il. 11,422). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan killed by Antilochus Trojan, killed by Antilochus (Hom. Il. 12,140; 13,545). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [4] Phaeacian One of the Phaeaces (Hom. Od. 8,113). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) …

Staphylus

(175 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
(Στάφυλος/ Stáphylos from σταφυλή/ staphylḗ, 'grape'; Σταφυλίτης/ Staphylítēs and Εὐστάφυλος/ Eustáphylos are epithets of Dionysus). [German version] [1] Son of Dionysus and Ariadne Son of Dionysus and Ariadne (Apollod. 1,9), brother of Oenopion, Thoas and Peparethus, husband of Chrysothemis [1], father of Rhoeo, Molpadia [1] and Parthenus (Diod. 5,62,1), considered the inventor of viticulture (EM 742,48). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of the Silen Son of the Silen; inventor of the custom of mixing wine and water (Sall. fr. inc. 87 Dietsch; Plin HN 7,199). Binder…

Thersilochus

(63 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
(Θερσίλοχος; Thersílochos). [German version] [1] Paeonian Paeonian, follower of Asteropaeus, killed by Achilles [1] at Scamander (Hom. Il. 21,209). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Trojan, son of Antenor in Vergil Trojan, according to Verg. Aen. 6,483 f. the son of Antenor [1], companion of Hector in battle (Hom. Il. 17,216), later killed by Turnus [1]  (Verg. Aen. 12,363). Binder, Carsten (Kiel)

Virbius

(140 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] Male deity from the circle of Diana in the context of her little-known cult of Aricia (Serv. Aen. 5,95; 7,84); the road from Aricia to the sanctuary was also described as Clivus Virbi after V. (Pers. 6,56 with schol.). The earliest evidence for V. can be found in his identification with Hippolytus [1], the interpretation being based solely on the fact that horses were forbidden in his sanctuary in Aricia (Verg. Aen. 7,774-779; Ov. Fast. 3,266). The only piece of evidence of worship of V. outside Aricia is a burial inscription in Naples, which mentions a flamen Virbialis (CIL …

Vindemitor

(48 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] Name of a satyr, a catamite of Dionysus, after he became a star (formerly Ampelus [4]; Ov. Fast. 3,407 f.). V. has been since the time of Augustus the usual Latin translation of the star Protrygeter (Προτρυγητήρ; Protrygētḗr) (modern: ε Virginis; Vindemiatrix). Binder, Carsten (Kiel)

Salmacis

(174 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] (Σαλμακίς/ Salmakís, Lat. Salmacis). Name of a Greek nymph and a spring in Caria (Cares, Caria) not far from Halicarnassus; the city had a homonymous suburb with a sanctuary to Hermaphroditus. The name is probably derived from a local language of Asia Minor. The myth of S. is associated with a late and secondary version of the legend of Hermaphroditus: S. falls in love with the son of Hermes and Aphrodite (for the first time in this form in Diod. Sic. 4,6). He, however, resists her c…

Securitas

(108 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] Imperial Roman personification of general public and political 'security', based upon stable rule and the governing continuity of the Imperial house (frequent motif in times of domestic political crisis). Alongside the sparse literary and epigraphic attestations (Vell. Pat. 2,103,4; Tac. Agr. 3,1; CIL VI 2051,1,30), coins and medallions of the Emperor are particularly prominent sources. Earliest secure evidence: bronze coin of Nero (AD 54-68) inscribed Securitas Augusti (other customary addenda Securitas Augg., perpetua, publica, temporum etc.). Securit…

Rhadine and Leontichus

(169 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] (Ῥαδίνη, Λεόντιχος; Rhadínē, Leóntichos). Unfortunate pair of lovers in a Greek folk legend, which according to our main source, Str. 8,3,20, was treated by Stesichorus (PMGF Spur. 278 Davies). As the only discussion there is of παῖδες Σάμιοι/ paîdes Sámioi ('children of Samos'), we cannot decide with certainty where the plot is set. Strabo places the legend in Triphylian Samos, but Pausanias knows of a gravestone of the lovers- a place of pilgrimage for unhappy lovers - on the Ionian island of Samos, on the route from…

Syleus

(96 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] (Συλεύς; Syleús). Son of Poseidon, who forces passing strangers in Aulis to dig his vineyards. Heracles [1], in the service of queen Omphale of Lydia, punishes him by uprooting his vines and killing him and his daughter Xenodoce (Apollod. 2,132; Diod. Sic. 4,31; Tzetz. Chil. 2,429-435). There is a deviating version in a satyr play by Euripides (TGF2 575), in which Heracles - not S., who has purchased him as a slave - appears as the actual monster (other variants: Speusippus, Epistolae Socraticorum 30; Konon FGrH 26 F 1,17). Binder, Carsten (Kiel)

Iphiclus

(129 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
(Ἴφικλος; Íphiklos). [German version] [1] Son of Phylacus Son of  Phylacus [1] (or of Cephalus: Paus. 10,29,6) and  Clymene [4], husband of Astyoche (or Diomede), father of  Podarces and  Protesilaus (Hom. Il. 2,704 f.; 13,698; Hom. Od. 11,289-297; 15,225-239). His father promised  Melampus [1] a large herd of cattle if he freed I. from his infertility, for which the sacrilege of the father was to blame (Paus. 4,36,3; Apollod. 1,98-102). The speed of I. was proverbial (Hom. Il. 23,636; Paus. 5,17,10). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Thestius Son of  Thestius from …

Theophane

(50 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] (Θεοφάνη; Theophánē). Beautiful and desired daughter of Bisaltes [2], turned by Poseidon into a sheep with which he in the form of a ram fathers the golden ram which carries Phrixus and Helle over the sea (Hyg. Fab. 3; 188; Ov. Met. 6,117). Binder, Carsten (Kiel)

Pyraechmes

(137 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] (Πυραίχμης/ Pyraíchmēs). Commander of the Paeonians (Paeones) in the Trojan War; he leads them from Amydon to the aid of his allies the Trojans (Hom. Il. 2,848-850, Apollod. Epit. 3,34). He kills Eudorus [1] (Timolaus FHG 4,521) and is then killed by Patroclus [1]. P. was buried in Troy (tomb epigraph Aristot. Peplos 47). The fact that Asteropaeus, the grandson of the river god Axius, is also named as the leader of the Paeonians (Hom. Il. 21,140 f.; 21,154-160), but is not mentioned in the catalogue of Trojans - although he plays a disproportionately larger role in the Iliad -…

Philomelus

(290 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Φιλόμηλος; Philómēlos). [German version] [1] Son of Iasion and Demeter Son of Iasion and Demeter, brother of the wealthy Pluto (different Hes. Theog. 969f.) and father of Pareas, the founder of Parium (but Parios, son of Iasion, is more frequently named as the founder). P. lived in extreme poverty and was regarded as the inventor of the wagon, which he harnessed to two oxen. In recognition of his ingenuity his mother placed him amongst the stars as Bootes (Petellides of Knossos in Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,4, s. FHG 4, p. 472). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Leader of the Phocian League S…

Pylades

(340 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
(Πυλάδης/ Pyládēs, Doric form Πυλάδας/ Pyládas, Pind. Pyth. 11,23). [German version] [1] Friend of Orestes Phocian hero, son of Strophius and Anaxabia (e.g. Eur. Or. 764 f.; other mothers: schol. Eur. Or. 33, Hyg. Fab. 117). P. and Electra [4] (Eur. Or. 1092; 1207 ff.; Eur. IT 716 among others) were the parents of Strophius and Medon [4] (Paus. 2,16,7; Hyg. Fab. 119 f.) or Medeon (Steph. Byz. s. v. Μεδεών). P. grew up together with Orestes [1] and partakes in the latter's revenge on his mother and Aegisthus. F…

Tisamenus

(313 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough)
(Τεισαμενός/ Teisamenós, Lat. Tisamenus). [German version] [1] Son of Thersander Son of Thersander, the king of Thebes and of Demonassa [1] (Paus. 9,5,15) and therefore a grandson of Polyneices (Hdt. 6,52). After the death of his father in Mysia, Peneleus at first led the Theban contingent to Troy in place of T. who was still too young (Hom. Il. 2,494). T. became king of Thebes only after Peneleus died. Under his rule, the curse on his lineage was supposedly dormant. His son Theras is said to have settled the island of Thera (Hdt. 4,147; Paus. 3,15,6 f.). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) …

Phaedimus

(423 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
(Φαίδιμος/ Phaídimos, 'Radiant One'). [German version] [1] Son of Amphion and Niobe One of the sons of Amphion [1] and Niobe shot by Apollo (Apollod. 3,45; Ov. Met. 6,239; Hyg. Fab. 11; Lact. ad Stat. Theb. 3,191-193; Mythographi Vaticani 1,156). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] King of the Sidonians King of the Sidonians who hospitably received Menelaus [1] on his wanderings during his return from Troy; P. presented him with a cup made by Hephaestus (Hom. Od. 4,617-619; 15,117-119). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [3] One of the 50 Thebans who enticed Tydeus …

Thessalus

(1,026 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Θεσσαλός/ Thessalós). [German version] [1] Eponym of the Greek territory of Thessaly Eponym of the Greek territory of Thessaly (Thessalians, Thessalia; Plin. HN 4,28), son of Haemon [1] (Rhianus FGrH 265 F 30), of the Heraclid Aeatus (Charax FGrH 103 F 6) or of Iason [1] and Medea (Diod. Sic. 4,54 f.). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Of Athens, son of Peisistratus [4] Athenian, son of Peisistratus [4]. Not named in Herodotus, T. first appears in Thucydides (1,20,2; 6,55,1) as a childless full brother of Hippias [1] and Hipparchus [1] from t…

Thoas

(739 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Θόας/ Thóas). [German version] [1] Mythical ruler of Lemnos Mythical ruler of Lemnos (Hom. Il. 14,230; 23,745), son of Dionysus and Ariadne, brother of Oenopion and Staphylus [1] (Apollod. Epit. 1,9). Through his daughter Hypsipyle (Ov. Ep. 6,114), T. is connected with the legend of the Argonauts, because she saved him from the murder of the men by the Lemnian women (Apollod. 1,114 f.); nevertheless, he was killed later (ibid. 3,65) or, according to another version, escaped to Oinoie (= Sicinos) or Chio…

Polydorus

(886 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Πολύδωρος/ Polýdōros, Lat. Polydorus). [German version] [1] King of Thebes, son of Cadmus King of Thebes, son of Cadmus [1] and Harmonia (Hes. Theog. 978; Eur. Phoen. 8; Hyg. Fab. 179), husband of Nyctis who was one of Nycteus' daughters (Apollod. 3,40). According to Pausanias, P. succeeded Cadmus to the Theban throne (Paus. 9,5,3). In Euripides, on the other hand, P. is not the heir apparent - there, an aged Cadmus hands the Theban throne to his grandson Pentheus (Eur. Bacch. 43 f. and 213). Although early…