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Salmakis

(147 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[English version] (Σαλμακίς, lat. Salmacis). Name einer griech. Nymphe und einer Quelle in Karia unweit von Halikarnassos; die Stadt besaß einen gleichnamigen Stadtteil mit einem Hermaphroditos-Heiligtum. Der Name stammt anscheinend aus kleinasiatischem Sprachgut. Der Mythos der S. ist mit einer jungen und sekundären Sagenversion des Hermaphroditos verbunden: S. verliebt sich in den Sohn des Hermes und der Aphrodite (so zum ersten Mal Diod. 4,6), der sich aber ihrem Werben widersetzt. Beim Baden in …

Polydoros

(805 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Πολύδωρος, lat. Polydorus). [English version] [1] König von Theben, Sohn des Kadmos König von Theben, Sohn des Kadmos [1] und der Harmonia (Hes. theog. 978; Eur. Phoen. 8; Hyg. fab. 179), Gatte der Nykteis, einer Tochter des Nykteus (Apollod. 3,40). Nach Pausanias wird P. Nachfolger des Kadmos auf dem theban. Thron (Paus. 9,5,3), während Euripides ihn nicht als Thronfolger erwähnt, sondern den greisen Kadmos seinem Enkel Pentheus den theban. Thron übergeben läßt (Eur. Bacch. 43 f. und 213). Obwohl die Ahne…

Phaidimos

(394 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi (Latina))
(Φαίδιμος, “der Strahlende”). [English version] [1] Sohn des Amphion und der Niobe Einer der von Apollon erschossenen Söhne des Amphion [1] und der Niobe (Apollod. 3,45; Ov. met. 6,239; Hyg. fab. 11; Lact. ad Stat. Theb. 3,191-193; Mythographi Vaticani 1,156). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [English version] [2] König der Sidonier König der Sidonier, der den auf der Rückkehr von Troia umherirrenden Menelaos [1] gastfreundlich aufnimmt und ihm einen von Hephaistos gefertigten Becher schenkt (Hom. Od. 4,617-619; 15,117-119). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [English version] [3] einer der 50 Th…

Pylades

(300 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
(Πυλάδης, dorische Namensform Πυλάδας, Pind. P. 11,23). [English version] [1] Freund des Orestes Phokischer Heros, Sohn des Strophios und der Anaxabia (z. B. Eur. Or. 764 f.; andere Mütter: schol. Eur. Or. 33, Hyg. fab. 117). P. und Elektra [4] (Eur. Or. 1092; 1207 ff.; Eur. Iph. T. 716 u. a.) sind Eltern des Strophios und des Medon [4] (Paus. 2,16,7; Hyg. fab. 119 f.) oder Medeon (Steph. Byz. s. v. Μεδεών). P. wächst zusammen mit Orestes [1] auf; beide galten schon in der Ant. als klassisches Freundespaar (schon nahezu sprichwörtlich: πυλάδαι/ pyládai, Kall. epigr. 59; Cic. Lael. 24 u…

Philomelos

(256 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Beck, Hans (Köln)
(Φιλόμηλος). [English version] [1] Sohn des Iasion und der Demeter Sohn des Iasion und der Demeter, Bruder des reichen Plutos (anders Hes. theog. 969f.) und Vater des Pareas, des Gründers von Parion (häufiger wird aber Parios, Sohn des Iasion, als Gründer genannt). Ph. lebt in höchster Armut und gilt als Erfinder des Wagens, den er mit zwei Ochsen bespannt. Aus Bewunderung hierfür versetzt seine Mutter ihn als Bootes unter die Sterne (Petellides Knossios bei Hyg. astr. 2,4, s. FHG 4, p. 472). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [English version] [2] Anführer des Phokischen Bundes Sohn des Theotimos…

Pyraichmes

(121 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[English version] (Πυραίχμης). Führer der Paiones im Troianischen Krieg, die er als Verbündeter der Troer diesen aus Amydon als Hilfe zuführt (Hom. Il. 2,848-850, Apollod. epit. 3,34). Er tötet den Eudoros [1] (Timolaos FHG 4,521) und fällt daraufhin durch Patroklos [1]. P. wird in Troia begraben (Grabepigr. Aristot. peplos 47). Der Umstand, daß auch Asteropaios, der Enkel des Flußgottes Axios, als Führer der Paioner genannt (Hom. Il. 21,140 f.; 21,154-160), aber im Troerkatalog nicht erwähnt wird…

Polydora

(206 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
(Πολυδώρα/ Polydṓra). [German version] [1] Oceanid One of the Oceanids (Hes. Theog. 354). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of Danaus Daughter of Danaus, by the river god Spercheius (Nicander fr. 41 Schneider) or by Peneius (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 8); mother of Dryops. Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [3] Half-sister of Achilles Daughter of Peleus and Antigone [2], (half-)sister of Achilles [1] (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 61; Apollod. 3,163. The river god Spercheius fathered Menesthius [2] on her, but the latter is nonetheless regar…

Philomelus

(290 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Φιλόμηλος; Philómēlos). [German version] [1] Son of Iasion and Demeter Son of Iasion and Demeter, brother of the wealthy Pluto (different Hes. Theog. 969f.) and father of Pareas, the founder of Parium (but Parios, son of Iasion, is more frequently named as the founder). P. lived in extreme poverty and was regarded as the inventor of the wagon, which he harnessed to two oxen. In recognition of his ingenuity his mother placed him amongst the stars as Bootes (Petellides of Knossos in Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,4, s. FHG 4, p. 472). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Leader of the Phocian League S…

Thoon

(127 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
(Θόων; Thóōn). Name, appearing several times in Greek epics and myths: [German version] [1] Trojan, son of Phaenops Trojan, son of Phaenops [2] and brother of Phorcys [2] and Xanthus, killed by Diomedes [1] (Hom. Il. 5,152). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Trojan killed by Odysseus Trojan, killed by Odysseus (Hom. Il. 11,422). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan killed by Antilochus Trojan, killed by Antilochus (Hom. Il. 12,140; 13,545). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [4] Phaeacian One of the Phaeaces (Hom. Od. 8,113). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) …

Staphylus

(175 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
(Στάφυλος/ Stáphylos from σταφυλή/ staphylḗ, 'grape'; Σταφυλίτης/ Staphylítēs and Εὐστάφυλος/ Eustáphylos are epithets of Dionysus). [German version] [1] Son of Dionysus and Ariadne Son of Dionysus and Ariadne (Apollod. 1,9), brother of Oenopion, Thoas and Peparethus, husband of Chrysothemis [1], father of Rhoeo, Molpadia [1] and Parthenus (Diod. 5,62,1), considered the inventor of viticulture (EM 742,48). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of the Silen Son of the Silen; inventor of the custom of mixing wine and water (Sall. fr. inc. 87 Dietsch; Plin HN 7,199). Binder…

Thersilochus

(63 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
(Θερσίλοχος; Thersílochos). [German version] [1] Paeonian Paeonian, follower of Asteropaeus, killed by Achilles [1] at Scamander (Hom. Il. 21,209). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Trojan, son of Antenor in Vergil Trojan, according to Verg. Aen. 6,483 f. the son of Antenor [1], companion of Hector in battle (Hom. Il. 17,216), later killed by Turnus [1]  (Verg. Aen. 12,363). Binder, Carsten (Kiel)

Phaedimus

(423 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
(Φαίδιμος/ Phaídimos, 'Radiant One'). [German version] [1] Son of Amphion and Niobe One of the sons of Amphion [1] and Niobe shot by Apollo (Apollod. 3,45; Ov. Met. 6,239; Hyg. Fab. 11; Lact. ad Stat. Theb. 3,191-193; Mythographi Vaticani 1,156). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] King of the Sidonians King of the Sidonians who hospitably received Menelaus [1] on his wanderings during his return from Troy; P. presented him with a cup made by Hephaestus (Hom. Od. 4,617-619; 15,117-119). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [3] One of the 50 Thebans who enticed Tydeus …

Virbius

(140 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] Male deity from the circle of Diana in the context of her little-known cult of Aricia (Serv. Aen. 5,95; 7,84); the road from Aricia to the sanctuary was also described as Clivus Virbi after V. (Pers. 6,56 with schol.). The earliest evidence for V. can be found in his identification with Hippolytus [1], the interpretation being based solely on the fact that horses were forbidden in his sanctuary in Aricia (Verg. Aen. 7,774-779; Ov. Fast. 3,266). The only piece of evidence of worship of V. outside Aricia is a burial inscription in Naples, which mentions a flamen Virbialis (CIL …

Vindemitor

(48 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] Name of a satyr, a catamite of Dionysus, after he became a star (formerly Ampelus [4]; Ov. Fast. 3,407 f.). V. has been since the time of Augustus the usual Latin translation of the star Protrygeter (Προτρυγητήρ; Protrygētḗr) (modern: ε Virginis; Vindemiatrix). Binder, Carsten (Kiel)

Salmacis

(174 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] (Σαλμακίς/ Salmakís, Lat. Salmacis). Name of a Greek nymph and a spring in Caria (Cares, Caria) not far from Halicarnassus; the city had a homonymous suburb with a sanctuary to Hermaphroditus. The name is probably derived from a local language of Asia Minor. The myth of S. is associated with a late and secondary version of the legend of Hermaphroditus: S. falls in love with the son of Hermes and Aphrodite (for the first time in this form in Diod. Sic. 4,6). He, however, resists her c…

Securitas

(108 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] Imperial Roman personification of general public and political 'security', based upon stable rule and the governing continuity of the Imperial house (frequent motif in times of domestic political crisis). Alongside the sparse literary and epigraphic attestations (Vell. Pat. 2,103,4; Tac. Agr. 3,1; CIL VI 2051,1,30), coins and medallions of the Emperor are particularly prominent sources. Earliest secure evidence: bronze coin of Nero (AD 54-68) inscribed Securitas Augusti (other customary addenda Securitas Augg., perpetua, publica, temporum etc.). Securit…

Rhadine and Leontichus

(169 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] (Ῥαδίνη, Λεόντιχος; Rhadínē, Leóntichos). Unfortunate pair of lovers in a Greek folk legend, which according to our main source, Str. 8,3,20, was treated by Stesichorus (PMGF Spur. 278 Davies). As the only discussion there is of παῖδες Σάμιοι/ paîdes Sámioi ('children of Samos'), we cannot decide with certainty where the plot is set. Strabo places the legend in Triphylian Samos, but Pausanias knows of a gravestone of the lovers- a place of pilgrimage for unhappy lovers - on the Ionian island of Samos, on the route from…

Syleus

(96 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] (Συλεύς; Syleús). Son of Poseidon, who forces passing strangers in Aulis to dig his vineyards. Heracles [1], in the service of queen Omphale of Lydia, punishes him by uprooting his vines and killing him and his daughter Xenodoce (Apollod. 2,132; Diod. Sic. 4,31; Tzetz. Chil. 2,429-435). There is a deviating version in a satyr play by Euripides (TGF2 575), in which Heracles - not S., who has purchased him as a slave - appears as the actual monster (other variants: Speusippus, Epistolae Socraticorum 30; Konon FGrH 26 F 1,17). Binder, Carsten (Kiel)

Pylades

(340 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
(Πυλάδης/ Pyládēs, Doric form Πυλάδας/ Pyládas, Pind. Pyth. 11,23). [German version] [1] Friend of Orestes Phocian hero, son of Strophius and Anaxabia (e.g. Eur. Or. 764 f.; other mothers: schol. Eur. Or. 33, Hyg. Fab. 117). P. and Electra [4] (Eur. Or. 1092; 1207 ff.; Eur. IT 716 among others) were the parents of Strophius and Medon [4] (Paus. 2,16,7; Hyg. Fab. 119 f.) or Medeon (Steph. Byz. s. v. Μεδεών). P. grew up together with Orestes [1] and partakes in the latter's revenge on his mother and Aegisthus. F…

Tisamenus

(313 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough)
(Τεισαμενός/ Teisamenós, Lat. Tisamenus). [German version] [1] Son of Thersander Son of Thersander, the king of Thebes and of Demonassa [1] (Paus. 9,5,15) and therefore a grandson of Polyneices (Hdt. 6,52). After the death of his father in Mysia, Peneleus at first led the Theban contingent to Troy in place of T. who was still too young (Hom. Il. 2,494). T. became king of Thebes only after Peneleus died. Under his rule, the curse on his lineage was supposedly dormant. His son Theras is said to have settled the island of Thera (Hdt. 4,147; Paus. 3,15,6 f.). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) …
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