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(399 words)

Author(s): Danz, Christian
[German Version] (Lat. proiectio, “throwing forward”) is used in different ways in epistemology, psychology, and philosophy of religion. In the realm of Cartesian epistemology, the term has the following function: knowledge is understood as reaction to received stimuli, whereby the conscious mind projects what is received in the direction from which a stimulus comes. In psychology, projection encompasses a broad spectrum of meaning. It was used by S. Freud in psychoanalysis from 1894 to describe pa…

Transcendental Theology

(376 words)

Author(s): Danz, Christian
[German Version] ¶ The term transcendental theology comes from the transcendental philosophy of I. Kant. A theology that addresses its object, primordial being, through “pure reason, using nothing but transcendental concepts ( ens originarium, realissimum, ens entium)” Kant calls “transcendental theology” ( Kritik der reinen Vernunft [ KrV ], 21787, B659; ET: Critique of Pure Reason, 1881); he associates it with natural theology, which can take the form of “cosmotheology” or “ontotheology.” Transcendental theology, identified by Kant with deism, is …

Speculative Theology

(1,024 words)

Author(s): Danz, Christian
[German Version] Speculative theology arose in the context of the speculative philosophy of F.W.J. Schelling and G.W.F. Hegel; it represented a distinct form of primarily modern Protestant theology, based on the deep-rooted conviction of a positive relationship between philosophy and theology…


(965 words)

Author(s): Enskat, Rainer | Danz, Christian
[German Version] I. Philosophy Until the late Middle Ages, transcendentals ( transcendentalia, also known as transcendentia) belong to a type of attributes which go beyond the attributes of what has being (Being) that Aristotle fixed with his ten categories. What has being ( das Seiende) itself was taken as the first of the transcendentals because, together with the One, the True…

Absolute Necessity

(881 words)

Author(s): Danz, Christian | Sandkaulen, Birgit
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion – II. Philosophy I. Philosophy of Religion The German word das Unbedingte (lit. “the unconditional”) is first found in philosophical texts from the last third of the 18th century, as a translation of the Latin absolutum. It was I. Kant (see II below) who gave this concept its specific connotation, which had a long-lasting influence on subsequent theology and the philosophy of religion. The absolute necessity is the ultimate principle, which is not conditioned by any…


(1,872 words)

Author(s): Angehrn, Emil | Danz, Christian | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Philosophy A system (from Gk σύστημα/ sýstēma, “combination”) is a structured entity made up of parts; the term can refer to all reality as well as to science and philosophy themselves. In an objective sense, the idea of an ordered arrangement was used in various domains in antiquity – the cosmos (World: II), organisms, medicine, music,ethics, politics. In a methodological sense, the term is important in the history of modern philosophy,…


(1,498 words)

Author(s): Figl, Johann | Schnepf, Robert | Danz, Christian
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. The use of the term speculation in religious studies is not divorced from its use in philosophy (see II below) and everyday language, but – especially in the phenomenology of religion – it has been used in a sense specific to religious studies, …


(1,541 words)

Author(s): Danz, Christian | Imorde, Joseph | Lundin, Roger
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion The term transcendentalism, preceded by earlier terminology (Transcendentals), goes back to the critical transcendental philosophy of I. Kant; following on his definition of the term transcendental, it denotes a method of thinking that “is not so much occupied with objects as with the mode of our cognition of these objects, so far as this mode of cognition is possible a priori” ( KrV, B 25). It implies a methodological program defined by a dual differentiation: in contrast to rationalism, it asserts that our concepts, to the extent that they go…


(2,772 words)

Author(s): Meyer-Abich, Klaus Michael | Danz, Christian | Kitschen, Friederike | Hurst, Matthias
[German Version] I. Philosophy Naturalism is a polysemous concept; its meaning depends on whether it is used (1) affirmatively or (2) with critical intention, depending on the presupposed understanding of nature. ¶ 1. Affirmative naturalism. When (a) the one nature of all things is contained in God in such a way that nothing can be contrasted with it, the gods and human beings are also (and unconditionally) conceived of as parts of this whole. The gods are then identical with the forces of nature (as in Greek religion [Greece: I, 1]), human history is a part of natural history, culture is the most specifically “human” contribution to it, while nature beholds itself in art. Religious revelations, for their part, represent processes of natural history (as in B. Spinoza’s Theological-Political Treatise, 1670) in which humans, by virtue of their naturally acquired faculty of reason, attain cognizance of how they can live. Since a normative conception of nature is presupposed here, the categories of human behavior may also be deemed more or less natural. Naturalists in this particular sense were: Anaximander, Heraclitus, Plato, G. Bruno, Spinoza, and J.W. v. Goethe. When, on the other hand, (b) the one all-embracing nature is seen as the object studied by the natura…

Transcendence and Immanence

(3,184 words)

Author(s): Gregersen, Niels Henrik | Figl, Johann | Steinmann, Michael | Danz, Christian
[German Version] I. Natural Sciences The natural sciences themselves do not work with a concept of transcendence as the opposite of nature. They consider “nature” or the “cosmos” (Cosmology) the totality of reality.…