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Carneiscus

(86 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (Καρνεΐσκος; Karneískos). Pupil of  Epicurus, originating in Asia Minor, perhaps from Cos or Rhodes. In his work Φιλίστας ( Philístas), comprising at least two volumes, he wrote on the Epicurean concept of friendship. The end of the 2nd volume (extant in PHercul. 1027) is dedicated to one Zopyrus, otherwise unknown. C. expresses his disagreement with the Peripatetic philosopher  Praxiphanes, criticizing his writing on friendship for suggesting improper forms of relationship between friends.  Epicurean School Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bibliography T. Dorandi,…

Cartonnage

(132 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] Cardboard or papier mâché made from used pieces of papyrus for making mummy bandages (for humans or animals). Common in Egypt during the Ptolemaic period (find spots: necropoleis of Ghoran, Madīnet al-Nuḥās, Al-Ḥība); a number of examples can be dated to the end of the Augustan period (find spots: Abū Ṣīr al-Malaq). Numerous 3rd-cent. BC fragments of Greek literary texts (e.g. Callimachus, Menander, Plato; list in [1]) and copies of documents (petitions or submissions/ enteúxeis to the Ptolemaic court) have been recovered from dismantled cartonnage. Dorandi, Tizia…

Copy

(2,225 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] A. Introductory comments Copy should be understood in two ways: on the one hand, it refers to the copying of a literary work beginning with the first version and throughout the various writing phases, including the alteration of the text into book form. On the other hand, it refers to the copies of a book intended for its systematic, ‘publisher driven’ dissemination. Copy thus refers to both the working methods of ancient authors and to the realm of book production. Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) [German version] B. Copying-techniques There are only few indirect records a…

Herculanean papyri

(884 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] A. Definition Papyri with Latin and Greek texts found during the Bourbon excavations in the middle of the 18th cent. in a villa near  Herculaneum (with site map). These were part of the library of the poet and philosopher  Philodemus of Gadara, who had gone from Athens to Italia during the period 80-70 BC and maintained a friendly relationship there with L.  Calpurnius [I 19] Piso Caesoninus, the owner of the villa in Herculaneum. In this luxurious villa, Philodemus collected an ext…

Manuale

(138 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] Portable wooden reading desk. Manuale was probably originally an adjectival attribute of lectorium. Substanticised it then took on the meaning of (reading) desk [1]. The sole written reference is found in Mart. 14,84. A manuale is illustrated on two reliefs from Neumagen [1. fig. 15-16] and in Vergil's Codex Romanus (Cod. Vaticanus Latinus 3867, VI). Two kinds of reading desk are attested: one with a base and one without. Only the latter can be defined as a manuale as such. This is a wooden board with ends so bent as to hold in depressions both rolled-up e…

Correction marks

(412 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] An ancient text could be corrected in at least two ways: a) a διορθωτής ( diorthōtḗs), a professional c orrector, collated the copy with the original. This intervention was sometimes indicated by the monogram δι = δι(ώρθωται), ‘corrected’ [1. 15. n. 85,13] ( Publication). b) A reader (not necessarily a professional corrector, but often a lay man) collated the copy with another sample. Two or more correctors could work on the same copy [3]. A wrong correction was indicated as ἀποδιόρθωμα ( apodiórthōma) (PSI 12, 1287,11-14). The intervention of an ancient correcto…

Anaxarchus

(169 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (᾿Ανάξαρχος, Anáxarchos) of Abdera. Democritean philosopher ( Democriteans, c. 380-320 BC). He accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaign to the East. After Alexander's death, A. was taken prisoner and then pounded to death in a mortar by Nicocreon, the tyrant of Salamis on Cyprus, with whom he had quarrelled. In the ancient records, A.'s attitude towards Alexander the Great wavers between adoration and irony. A. was the author of a treatise Περὶ βασιλείας ( Perì basileías), of which only two fragments are preserved (fr. 65-66). The assessments of h…

Scheda

(204 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] ( schida, scida) has various meanings in Latin authors: (1) a sheet or piece of papyrus or parchment (Pugillares) for notes or short messages (Cic. Att. 1,20,7; Quint. Inst. 1,8,19; Mart. 4,89,4; CGL IV 422,52; V 243,10 and 482,57;  cf. [1. 4920]). (2) In Late Antiquity s./ schedula is the term for a 'rough draft' of a literary work; cf. Isid. Etym. 6,14,8 “scheda est quod adhuc emendatur, et necdum in libris redactum est” ("scheda describes a text which still has to be corrected and is not yet finished"; the interpretation i…

Kepos

(120 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] The philosopher Epicurus owned a house in the Attic deme of Melite (Diog. Laert. 10,17) and a garden (κῆπος; kêpos), the seat of his school (Cic. Fin. 5,1,3; Sen. Ep. 21,10; Plin. HN 19,50; Diog. Laert. 10,11). The localization of this garden is disputed. It was either outside the city between the Dipylon Gate and the Academy (Heliodorus, Aethiopica 1,16,5) [2], or in the city itself ( in ipsa urbe, Plin. HN 19,50), adjoining the house in the deme of Melite or very close by [1]. Epicurus; Epicurean School Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bibliography 1 E. Wycherley, The Garden of E…

Epicurean School

(1,973 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] A. School of Epicurus The school, founded in Athens in 307/6 or 305/4, survived as an institution until the 1st cent. BC. After a period of obscurity we again come across references, from the 2nd cent. AD, to some Epicurean philosophers. It was between the 4th and 1st cents. BC that the Epicurean School received its strength and vitality, extending both its range of thought and its structure. That happened under a series of school heads from Epicurus to Patron who assured its fate and…

Autograph

(557 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] The existence in antiquity of MSS of literary texts written ‘in the author's own handwriting’ is still a controversial subject in current times and is closely connected with the individual authors' ways of working ( Copy). The MSS under consideration are those which were claimed to be a copy in the author's own hand, as well as the evidence of indirect tradition which lead to the conclusion that a literary work was written in the author's own hand. The only texts which can be said with absolute certainty to have been written in the author's own hand are th…

Punctuation

(2,578 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
I. Greek [German version] A. General The common practice of ancient Greek copyists to write prose as well as poetry in scriptio continua, that is without grouping individual letters into words to delineate units of meaning, must have given rise to serious reading and comprehension difficulties. Punctuation was introduced as a remedy but only sporadically and without fixed rules. On some Greek inscriptions from the 5th/4th cent. BC, words are separated by a horizontal row of dots [4]. Dots are also frequently document…

Hermarchus

(496 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (Ἕρμαρχος; Hérmarchos). Born in Mytilene on Lesbos, a contemporary of  Epicurus. In his youth he was trained in rhetoric and encountered Epicurus in Mytilene in about 310 BC. H. did not immediately turn to philosophy, but only followed his teacher Epicurus to Athens after he had founded a school (306 BC). From 290 to 270 BC he went to Lampsacus to visit the Epicurean school there. Before his death in 270 BC, Epicurus transferred the leadership of the Athenian school to H. despite h…

Chaeredemus

(58 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (Χαιρέδημος; Chairédēmos). One of the three brothers of  Epicurus, who, like him, devoted themselves to philosophy (Diog. Laert. 10,3). He predeceased Epicurus, who bestowed funerary gifts in his memory (Diog. Laert. 10,18) and dedicated a book to him (Diog. Laert. 10,27 and Plut. An recte dictum sit latenter esse vivendum 1129a). Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)

Siron

(89 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (Σίρων; Sírōn). Epicurean philosopher, 1st cent. BC, who lived and worked in Neapolis. Known only from sparse testimonies [1]. It is uncertain whether he wrote at all. S. was an acquaintance of Philodemus (fr. 1) and a friend of Cicero (fr. 2-5). His most famous student was doubtlessly the Roman poet Vergilius who in his youth had studied Epicurean philosophy with him and remained close to him throughout his life (fr. 6-13). Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bibliography 1 M. Gigante, I frammenti di Sirone, in: Paideia 45, 1990, 175-198.

Anaxarchos

(165 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[English version] (᾿Ανάξαρχος), aus Abdera. Demokritischer Philosoph (Demokriteer, ca. 380-320 v. Chr.). Begleitete Alexander den Großen auf seinem Zug in den Orient. Nikokreon, der Tyrann von Salamis auf Zypern, mit dem sich A. verfeindet hatte, ließ ihn nach dem Tod Alexanders verhaften und in einem Mörser zerstampfen. Die Haltung des A. zu Alexander d. Gr. schwankt in der ant. Überlieferung zwischen Anbetung und Ironie. A. war Autor eines Traktats Περὶ βασιλείας, von dem nur zwei Fr. erh. sind …

Manuale

(136 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[English version] Tragbares Lesepult aus Holz. M. war urspr. wahrscheinlich Adjektiv zu lectorium; substantiviert nahm es dann die Bed. (Lese)Pult an [1]. Den einzigen schriftlichen Beleg bietet Mart. 14,84. Ein M. wird auf zwei Reliefs von Neumagen [1. Abb. 15-16] und im Cod. Romanus des Vergil (Cod. Vaticanus Latinus 3867, VI) dargestellt. Zwei Arten von Lesepulten sind bezeugt: eine mit Sockel und eine ohne. Nur letzteres kann als M. i.e.S. definiert werden. Hier handelt es sich um ein Holzbrettchen, des…

Epikureische Schule

(1,857 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[English version] A. Epikurs Schule Die Schule, die in Athen im J. 307/6 oder 305/4 gegr. wurde, überlebte als Institution bis zum 1. Jh.v.Chr. Nach einer dunklen Periode haben wir aus dem 2. Jh.n.Chr. erneut Notizen von einigen epikureischen Philosophen. Zw. dem 4. und 1. Jh.v.Chr. erhielt die e.S. ihre Kraft und Vitalität, indem sie einige Aspekte ihres Gedankenguts und ihre Struktur weiterentwickelte. Das geschah unter einer Reihe von Schulhäuptern von Epikur bis Patron, die ihr Geschick bestimmte…

Philodemos

(2,193 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
(Φιλόδημος). [English version] A. Leben und Werk Geboren in Gadara um 110 v.Chr.; in Athen Schüler des epikureischen Philosophen Zenon von Sidon; nach dessen Tod kam Ph. etwa in der Mitte der 70er Jahre nach Italien. In Rom befreundete er sich mit L. Calpurnius [I 19] Piso Caesoninus (vgl. Cic. Pis. 68-72) und ließ sich in der Pisonenvilla (auch als “Villa dei Papiri” bekannt) in Herculaneum nieder, wo er mit Siron und den Dichtern Quinctilius Varus, L. Varius Rufus, Plotius und Vergilius zusammentraf. Ph. starb nach 40 v.Chr. Vor der Entdeckung der Bibliothek in der “Villa dei Pa…

Korrekturzeichen

(398 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[English version] Ein antiker Text konnte auf mindestens zweierlei Weise korrigiert werden: a) Ein διορθωτής ( diorthōtḗs), ein professioneller corrector, kollationierte die Abschrift mit der Vorlage. Dieser Eingriff wurde gelegentlich mit dem Monogramm δι = δι(ώρθωται), “korrigiert”, angezeigt [1. 15. Anm. 85,13] (Ausgabe). b) Ein Leser (nicht notwendig ein professioneller Korrektor, sondern oft eine Privatperson) kollationierte die Kopie mit einem anderen Exemplar. Zwei oder mehrere Korrektoren konnten an dersel…
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