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Orthodox churches

(6,355 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
1. GeneralUntil the Reformation, both the Eastern and Western churches called themselves both orthodox (“believing correctly”) and catholic (“universal”). Until the beginning of the 20th century, as a rule people still spoke of the “Orthodox Catholic Church of the East.”  The gradual fixation on the word  Orthodox in the self-designation of the churches discussed here did not prevail everywhere – for example not in the Apostolic Church of the East and the Armenian Apostolic Church.If  Orthodox originally referred primarily to the correct faith of the Ecumenical Counc…
Date: 2020-10-06

Greek Orthodox Church

(856 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
A Greek Orthodox Church in the strict sense has existed only since 1833, when the church in Greece withdrew from the jurisdiction of Constantinople or since 1850, when the patriarchate recognized the ecclesiastical independence (autocephaly) of the Greek Orthodox Church. Until then Greece had been subject to the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Orthodox churches), though the see of Thessaloniki was second only to Constantinople in importance within the purview of the patriarchate.After the Ottoman conquest (Expansionism 2.), essentially completed in 14…
Date: 2019-10-14


(2,602 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian | Fischer, Michael | Felmy, Karl Christian
1. IntroductionFrom the perspective of the academic study of religion, prayer (Latin  oratio, preces) is the “dialogical approach of an individual to his or her God, in order to represent their own existence to him in its neediness or satisfaction as the sphere of action of  this God” [3. 32]; it is a fundamental form of human communication. Prayer is an expression of both personal, individual practice (private prayer) and institutionally organized practice (liturgical prayer; see Worship). Both types of prayer influence and partially shape…
Date: 2021-03-15


(4,076 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Straßberger, Andres | Felmy, Karl Christian
1. Overview Preaching (from Latin  praedicatio, “proclamation”) denotes public proclamation in the setting of Christian worship. It can be divided into two genres: (1) the homily (Greek  homilía; Latin  tractatus, “speech,” “exposition”), that is, the interpretation of previously read Bible texts (“lections”) – a practice adopted by Christianity from Judaism – and (2) the sermon (Latin  sermo, “speech”), which develops a topic systematically and is based on the church year (Latin  sermo de tempore, “sermon on the season”), the feasts of the saints ( de sanctis, “on the sai…
Date: 2021-08-02


(12,506 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Beutel, Albrecht | Felmy, Karl Christian | Grözinger, Karl Erich
1. IntroductionThe Greek word  theología (discourse/teaching concerning God and divinity) was used by Aristotle for the highest level of philosophy, so-called metaphysics ( Metaphysics 11.  7, 1064 b 1–3). In late antiquity, Christians used it initially for statements about the nature of God, while using the Greek word  oikonomía (household management) in the sense of “order of salvation” for God’s action in the world as Creator and Redeemer [2. 1081 f.]. In the 12th century, when theology was used for Christian theology rather than purely philosophically as…
Date: 2022-11-07


(5,036 words)

Author(s): Bärsch, Jürgen | Wendebourg, Dorothea | Felmy, Karl Christian | Loeser, Martin
1. Catholic 1.1. Scope and meaningIn the Catholic context, public worship, specifically liturgy (Greek leitourgía, "congregational act of worship"; German Gottesdienst, "divine service"), is a general term referring to gatherings in which the Church performs rituals to commemorate salvation granted by God through Jesus Christ and offers him worship, thanks, and prayer. The Mass (re-enacting in sacramental form the death and resurrection of Christ) is the central focus and epitome of this practice. The term "ac…
Date: 2023-11-22

Religious iconography

(7,713 words)

Author(s): Wolter-von dem Knesebeck, Harald | Warland, Rainer | Strohmaier-Wiederanders, Gerlinde | Felmy, Karl Christian
1. Introduction 1.1. Concept and historical backgroundReligious iconography in the current sense is the study of the meanings of religious images and, as distinct from profane iconography, refers generally to engagement with the content of works of art on religious themes. It also denotes the method for studying the content of the religious images found in (mostly Christian) early modern Europe (“Christian iconography”; but see also Islamic art and architecture).Christian-themed art underwent profound structural changes in the early modern period. For the Greek …
Date: 2021-08-02