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(13,779 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Clemens, Lukas | Faveri, Lorena De | Gastgeber, Christian | Klopsch, Paul
Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) I. Material Remains (CT) A. General (CT) [German version] 1. Introduction (CT) The present article offers a survey of the ways in which material remains from the ancient world have been transmitted to the modern age. Not included are the active acquisition of antiquities for display or their representation in art museums, or the systematic post-Classical acquisition of remains for research purposes (cf. Antiquarianism; Antiquities, collections of; Classical Archaeology;  Art works, acquisition of/ Art theft; Museum). Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) …


(11,785 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph | Clemens, Lukas | Faveri, Lorena De | Gastgeber, Christian | Klopsch, Paul
Höcker, Christoph I. Materielle Überreste (RWG) A. Allgemein (RWG) [English version] 1. Einleitung (RWG) Im folgenden finden sich die möglichen Wege der Ü. materieller Relikte aus der Ant. in die mod. Welt kursorisch nachgezeichnet. Nicht erfaßt wird hierbei die auf museales Kunstinteresse oder Repräsentation fokussierte aktive Aneignung von Ant. sowie ihre systematische, auf forscherische Erkenntnisgewinnung ausgerichtete Inbesitznahme in nach-ant. Zeiten (vgl. hierzu Altertumskunde, Antikensammlung, Klassische Archäologie, Kunsterwerb/Kunstraub, Museum). Höc…

Discovery, Rediscovery

(10,607 words)

Author(s): Gastgeber, Christian (Wien) | Erben, Dietrich (München) | Ruby, Sigrid (Gießen)
A. Greek literature A.1. Access to Greek The rediscovery of Greek literature in Italy necessarily began  ab ovo. The division of the two halves of the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity had led not only to the gradual disappearance of Greek texts (partly because they were not copied to minuscule manuscripts to replace papyrus and parchment majuscule texts in scriptura continua), but also to a declining knowledge of Greek as a literary language, although sporadic interest in Greek did persist in the West under certain conditions and at certain centres [3]. It remained a firm linguistic …
Date: 2016-11-24

Forgery, literary

(2,247 words)

Author(s): Gastgeber, Christian (Wien)
A. Definition Literary forgeries were in circulation from Antiquity [6] and throughout the Middle Ages [2]. Modern methodology has sought to establish differentiation and typologies for the general phenomenon of F. based on criteria of authorial or recipient (readership) intention [5]. This would suggest a distinction between pseudepigraphy (inventions from the field of rhetoric, clerical and student writings and transcripts, errors arising from homonymy or anonymity, copyists' errors, misattributions by ancient or medieval litera…
Date: 2016-11-24


(1,535 words)

Author(s): Gastgeber, Christian (Wien)
A. 15th centuryHumanism in V. gravitated to the university founded on March 12, 1365 by the Habsburg Duke Rudolf IV [5]; [6]; [19]. The key event in the turn towards Humanism was the 1445 arrival of Enea Silvio Piccolomini, the future Pope Pius II, whose coronation as poeta laureatus at the Diet of Frankfurt (1442) gave him the requisite aura and authority. As well as working at the Imperial court, he was also a guest lecturer at the University of Vienna. In his accession oration for law students in the academic year 1445, he emphasized the importance of the artes liberales in developing i…
Date: 2016-11-24


(3,360 words)

Author(s): Gastgeber, Christian (Wien)
A. Humanist libraries A.1. Motives, content and directionBecause well-stocked, publicly accessible libraries in the Renaissance drew scholars from near and far, they had an important role not only through their function of collecting, but also through their stimulus to literature and scholarship. The libraries of magnates or patrons, and of those in their environs, also in turn served to symbolize their affinity with the Muses, which earned their founders panegyric and created a favourable public image…
Date: 2016-11-24