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(1,237 words)

Author(s): Pree, Helmuth | Oswalt, Julia | Hübner, Hans-Peter
[German Version] I. Catholicism – II. Orthodoxy – III. Protestantism The term parish comes from the Greek παροικία/ paroikía (“resident alien’s dwelling”), which in early Christianity expressed the foreignness of Christians in society. Resulting from this basic feeling, individual congregations were called παροικίαι/ paroikíai from the 2nd century. Until Late Antiquity, paroikía remained a technical term for a bishop’s congregation. Only after the rise of pastoral subcenters in large towns and rural areas, which became the main point of reference for ¶ believers’ religious li…

Registration, Church

(568 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Hans-Peter
[German Version] Today the church registration system in Germany has its legal basis in the federal civil registration law and the supplemental registration laws of the several Länder. Originally it served only the interests of the security police, making sure that the state could reach any citizen at any time; as the modern social state developed, it became primarily a tool for collecting and recording general personal information. As in the case of the civil registration system, the constitutional right of negative free…

Main Churches

(581 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm | Hübner, Hans-Peter
[German Version] I. Catholic Main Churches – II. Protestant Main Churches (Evangelical Church in Germany) I. Catholic Main Churches The expression “main church” or “principal church” is not found in the manual of canon law ( CIC 1983). It is used in two senses: 1. As a general expression for a church that stands out from a group of churches in a particular way. This position of prime importance is ¶ attributed particularly to episcopal churches (Cathedrals), and also to quasi-diocesan regional churches of equal ranking (cf. CIC 1983 c. 368 ). In the cathedral the bishop assumes his office ( C…

Lands, Church (in Germany).

(671 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Hans-Peter
[German Version] Land holdings as part of the property of the church can be traced back to the dotations of the Carolingian period. According to the Capitulatio de partibus Saxoniae (775-790), every newly erected church was to be endowed with two hides of land (= 7.6 hectacres); in the 819 ecclesiastical capitulary of Louis the Pious, the dotations were augmented by one so-called imperial hide. The lands were intended to serve the needs of the local church, i.e. its worship and maintenance (church lands) as well as to suppo…

Stipend, Ministerial

(601 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Hans-Peter
[German Version] Together with old-age pension and survivors’ benefits, the ministerial stipend is the heart of the adequate livelihood the churches owe their clergy, who can then devote themselves totally to their pastoral ministry as a full-time vocation and be financially independent to fulfill the duties assigned to them at ordination. This obligation to support the clergy follows from the decision made by the Early Church and consciously ratified by the churches of the Reformation that minist…

Immediate Parish

(154 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Hans-Peter
[German Version] An “immediate parish” (Ger. Immediatgemeinde) is a congregation outside the geographical parochial (Parish/diocese) structure that reports directly to the governing body of the church (Church governance) – formerly mostly palace and court congregations, since abolished, today only the cathedral parish in Berlin. Two factors make it unique: Protestants living anywhere in Berlin can be enrolled as members, and, despite its geographical association with the Evangelische Kirche in Berlin-…

Pulpit Rights

(156 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Hans-Peter
[German Version] Pulpit rights are part of the authority granted with appointment to preach the gospel, administer the sacraments, and provide pastoral care for a congregation. This authorization is thus a derivative of parish law. It gives the incumbent the exclusive right to preach from the pulpit of the parish church and – because he or she is responsible for scriptural and orthodox preaching of the gospel within the congregation – also regularly to decide who else may lead worship and officiat…


(13,709 words)

Author(s): Sundermeier, Theo | Frankemölle, Hubert | Feldtkeller, Andreas | Collet, Giancarlo | George, Martin | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Christianity – III. Judaism – IV. Buddhism – V. Islam I. Religious Studies 1. Overview. Mission is not a fundamentally universal phenomenon in the history of religions; neither is every form in which religion is passed on eo ipso mission. “Primary,” tribal religions are not missionary religions. Their domain is coterminous with their society and its way of life; they are handed down from one generation to the next in the course of natural life. The question of truth does not arise. An indivi…

Vermögensrecht, kirchliches

(461 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Hans-Peter
[English Version] . Allgemeines: Das V. beinhaltet Bestimmungen über die Träger (Kirchen- oder Pfarrgemeinden, Landeskirchen, Diözesen, kirchl. Stiftungen und Vereine [: II.]), die Quellen (Finanzwesen, kirchliches), den Erwerb, die Verwaltung (: IV.) und die Veräußerung von Kirchenvermögen (Kirchengut). Dieses umfaßt alle Vermögenswerte, die bestimmt sind, einem kirchl. Zweck zu dienen; auf die Eigentumsverhältnisse kommt es dabei nicht an. Zum V. gehören also nicht nur die beweglichen und unbeweg…


(1,012 words)

Author(s): Pree, Helmuth | Oswalt, Julia | Hübner, Hans-Peter
[English Version] I. Katholisch »Die P. ist eine bestimmte Gemeinschaft von Gläubigen, die in einer Teilkirche auf Dauer errichtet ist und deren Seelsorge unter der Autorität des Diözesanbischofs einem Pfarrer als ihrem eigenen Hirten anvertraut wird« (c.515 @ 1 CIC/1983; c.279 mit c.281 @ 1 CCEO). Verständnisgrundlage dieser Legaldefinition ist die Ekklesiologie des Vaticanum II. Demnach ist in allen rechtmäßigen Ortsgemeinschaften der Gläubigen die Kirche Christi wahrhaft anwesend (LG 26; vgl. LG 23; 28; SC 42; CD 30; PO 5f.; AA 10; 30…


(141 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Hans-Peter
[English Version] . In entsprechender Weise, wie es im staatl. Bereich der Regierung obliegt, dem Haushaltsgesetzgeber über alle Einnahmen und Ausgaben sowie über Vermögen und Schulden zu ihrer Entlastung Rechnung zu legen, sind auch die für die Haushalts- und Vermögensverwaltung zuständigen Leitungsorgane der ev. Landeskirchen gegenüber der (Landes-)Synode zur Rechnungslegung verpflichtet. Die Vorprüfung erfolgt in der Regel durch ein unabhängiges und in seiner Tätigkeit weisungsfreies landeskirc…


(516 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Hans-Peter
[English Version] . Die P. bildet mit der Alters- und Hinterbliebenenversorgung der Pfarrerschaft das Kernstück des angemessenen Lebensunterhalts, welchen die Kirchen ihren geistl. Amtsträgern schulden, damit diese sich der pfarramtlichen Tätigkeit ganz als Lebensberuf widmen und in wirtschaftlicher Unabhängigkeit die ihnen mit der Ordination übertragenen Aufgaben erfüllen können. Die so charakterisierte Alimentationsverpflichtung ist Konsequenz der bereits in der Zeit der Alten Kirche getroffenen…


(200 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Hans-Peter
[English Version] . O. ist in einigen dt. Landeskirchen die Bez. für die ständige, kollegial verfaßte Kirchenleitung und bzw. oder für die oberste kirchl. Verwaltungsbehörde; der Ev. O. in Baden und der Ev.-Luth. O. in Schwerin ist nur letzteres, der Ev.-Luth. O. in Oldenburg und der Ev. O. in Stuttgart beides unter dem Vorsitz des (Landes-)Bischofs. Von 1850 bis 1951 hat auch die oberste Verwaltungsbehörde der älteren Provinzen Preußens (seit 1922 Ev. Kirche der Altpreußischen Union) die Bez. Ev.…