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Abu ’l-D̲h̲ahab

(471 words)

Author(s): Holt, P. M.
, kunya of muḥammad bey , a grandee of Ottoman Egypt. Acquired as a mamlūk by Bulūṭ ḳapān ʿAlī Bey [ q.v.] (the date, 1175, given in D̲j̲abartī, ʿAd̲j̲āʾib , i, 417, is obviously incorrect), he became the chief officer in his master’s household as k̲h̲āzindār in 1174/1760. When in 1178/1764-5 he was raised to the beylicate, he obtained his kunya by distributing a largesse of gold. In 1184/1770 he commanded the expeditionary force sent by ʿAlī Bey to install a Hās̲h̲imite protégé in Mecca. As commander of the force sent by ʿAlī Bey in 1185/1771 to co-oper…

D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳāriyya

(627 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, (alternatively Faḳāriyya , Zulfaḳāriyya ); a Mamlūk household and political faction in Egypt during the 17th and 18th centuries. (1) Origin and first ascendancy. The eponymous founder of the household, D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳār Bey, is a shadowy figure, who seems to have flourished in the first third of the 17th century, but is not mentioned by contemporary chroniclers. The account (in Ḏj̲abartī, ʿAd̲j̲āʾib al-Āt̲h̲ār , i, 21-3) which makes D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳār and the rival eponym, Ḳāsim, contemporaries of sultan Selīm I is legendary. The political importance of the Faḳāriyya began with the amīr al-…

K̲h̲āʾir Beg

(581 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(K̲h̲āyir or K̲h̲ayr Bey), the last Mamlūk governor of Aleppo, subsequently first Ottoman viceroy of Egypt. He was the son of Malbāy b. ʿAbd Allāh al-D̲j̲arkasī ( sic), a Muslim Abaza trader in Circassian mamlūk s. He was born at Samsun (on the Black Sea coast within the Ottoman Empire), and his father presented him, although not a slave, with his four brothers to the Mamlūk Sultan al-As̲h̲raf Ḳāʾit Bāy [ q.v.]. He was enrolled in the Royal Mamlūks, and was formally “emancipated” by the grant of a steed and uniform. He became an amīr of Ten in 901/1495-6, and subsequently an amīr ṭablk̲h̲āna


(1,465 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, the third of the great neo-Mamlūk households of Ottoman Egypt. The Ḳāzdug̲h̲liyya differed from the D̲h̲u’l-Faḳāriyya and the Ḳāsimiyya [ qq.v.] in that it was founded and maintained in its first decades by officers of the Seven Corps of the Ottoman garrison, not by beys. Its eponym, Muṣṭafā al-Ḳāzdug̲h̲lī, is described by D̲j̲abartī as being Rūmī by origin, i.e., he was Rūm ūs̲h̲āg̲h̲i̊ , hence free-born and not a mamlūk (cf. Stanford J. Shaw (ed.), Ottoman Egypt in the eighteenth century: The Niẓâmnâme-i Mıṣır of Cezzâr Aḥmed Pasha , Cambridge, Mass. 1962; …


(617 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(commonly bazinger , bazingir , basinger , besinger ), slave-troops, equipped with firearms; a term current in the (Egyptian) Sudan during the late Khedivial and Mahdist periods. Etymology: The derivation is obscure. Sir Reginald Wingate’s assertion ( Mahdiism and the Egyptian Sudan , London 1891; 28, n. 1) that it was the name of a tribe may be rejected: it does not appear to come from any southern Sudanese language. Professor E. E. Evans-Pritchard’s statement (“A history of the kingdom of Gbudwe”, Zaire , Oct. 1956, no. 8; 488, n. 36) that it derives from a Nubian (?Dunḳulāwī) word, bezingr…

al-Muʾayyad S̲h̲ayk̲h̲

(754 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
( al-Malik ), Circassian Mamlūk sultan. He was brought to Egypt by the k̲h̲wād̲j̲ā Maḥmūd S̲h̲āh (732/1380-1), and bought by al-Ẓahir Barḳūḳ [ q.v.] whence his nisbas of al-Maḥmūdī al-Ẓāhirī. He was then about 12 or possibly (following Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī) some 10 years older, and was in due course emancipated and promoted in the sultan’s entourage. In 802/1400 he was appointed governor of ¶ Tripoli by al-Nāṣir Farad̲j̲ [ q.v.], and spent the next 12 years in Syria, holding various appointments. He was deeply involved in the factional politics in which the Ẓāhiriyy…


(340 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
( Khartum , Khartoum ), a city at the confluence of the Blue and White Niles, now the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan. The name is said to be derived from the resemblance of the site to an elephant’s trunk. At the time of the Turco-Egyptian invasion (1821), Khartum was a small village, the residence of a holy man. It was chosen as the military and administrative headquarters of the conquered territories by the governor, ʿUt̲h̲mān Bey D̲j̲arkas, in 1824. With the…


(8,817 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, the Mamlūk sultanate, i.e. the régime established and maintained by (emancipated) mamlūks [see preceding article] in Egypt from 648/1250 to 922/1517, and in Syria from 658/1260 to 922/1516; and with the role of their successors, the neo-Mamlūks, in Ottoman Egypt. It surveys (i) political history, and (ii) institutional history. On military history, see the relevant sections by D. Ayalon of the articles baḥriyya (i.e. navy), bārūd , ḥarb , ḥiṣār ; on the bureaucracy, see dīwān , ii. Egypt (H. L. Gottschalk). (i) Political History (a) Origins of the Mamlūk sultanate The Mamlūk sultanat…


(913 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, the name of two Mamlūk sultans. 1. al-Malik al-Kāmil , (son of al-Nāṣir Muḥammad b. Ḳalāwūn [ q.v.]), who succeeded his full brother, al-Ṣāliḥ Ismāʿīl, on the latter’s death on 4 Rabīʿ II 746/4 August 1345. His accession was brought about by a faction headed by his stepfather, Arg̲h̲ūn al-ʿAlāʾī, who had been in effect regent for Ismāʿīl. A rival faction led by the vicegerent of Egypt, Almalik, supporting his half-brother Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī, rapidly lost power, and Arg̲h̲ūn became the dominant magnate throughout the reign. His sound pol…

Dār Fūr

(4,079 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, “the land of the Fūr”, a province of the Republic of the Sudan, formerly a Muslim sultanate. Geography and inhabitants. Dār Fūr was one of the chain of Muslim states composing bilād al-Sūdān . Its eastern neighbour was Kordofān, from which it was separated by a tract of sand-hills. To the west lay Waddāī. The Libyan desert formed a natural boundary on the north, while the marshes of the Baḥr al-G̲h̲azāl [ q.v.] marked the southern limits. Dār Fūr comprises three main zones: a northern zone, the steppe fringe of the Sahara, providing grazing for camel-owning tribes …


(976 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(1) A group of tribes in the Republic of the Sudan. The principal tribes of this group, mainly sedentary in their way of life, inhabit the banks of the main Nile from the Dongola [ q.v.] region southwards to the Fifth (Sabalūka) Cataract. Other tribes and clans in Kurdufān (Kordofan) and elsewhere attach themselves to this group. The link among the tribes of the D̲j̲aʿaliyyūn is traditionally expressed in genealogical form: their eponymous founder (rather than ancestor) is said to have been a certain Ibrāhīm known as D̲j̲aʿal ( i.e., “he made”, because he made himself a following fr…

Ṭūmān Bāy

(573 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(al-Malik al-As̲h̲raf Abu ’l-Naṣr min Ḳānṣawh al-Nāṣirī), the last Mamlūk sultan of Egypt, r. 922-3/1516-17. Born ca. 878/1474-5, he was purchased as a mamlūk by his paternal uncle Ḳānṣawh al-G̲h̲awrī [ q.v.], and presented to the reigning sultan, Ḳāʾit Bay [ q.v.], by whose son and successor, al-Nāṣir Muḥammad [ q.v.] he was manumitted. During Ḳānṣawh al-G̲h̲awrī’s sultanate his career prospered. Appointed dawādār kabīr in 913/1507, he became in effect the sultan’s chief minister, acquiring also the great offices of high steward ( ustādār al-ʿāliya ) and kās̲h̲if al-kus̲h̲s̲h̲āf .

Emīn Pas̲h̲a

(891 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(Eduard Carl Oscar Theodor Schnitzer) was born on 28 March 1840 at Oppeln in Prussian Silesia. He graduated in medicine at Berlin in 1864. He entered the Ottoman service as a medical officer in Albania in 1865, and assumed the name of Ḵh̲ayr Allāh; later, in the Sudan, he became known as Meḥmed Emīn (Muḥammad Amīn, not al-A.). He went to Egypt in October 1875, whence he proceeded to khartoum, and (in May 1876) to Lado, the capital of the Equatorial Provinces, where he was appointed medical offic…

Ibrāhīm Bey

(807 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
al-Kabīr al-Muḥammadī (i.e., the mamlūk of Muḥammad Bey Abu ’l-D̲h̲ahab) was raised to the beylicate in 1182/1768-9, and held the appointments of amīr al-ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ in 1186/1772-3 and daftardār in 1187/1773-4. When Abu ’l-D̲h̲ahab went on campaign against S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Ẓāhir al-ʿUmar (Muḥarram 1189/March 1775), he left Ibrāhīm as his deputy in command of Cairo. On his death, the ascendancy in Egypt passed to his retainers (the Muḥammadiyya) headed by Ibrāhīm and Murād Bey, the former becoming s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-balad . The characters of the two men were str…

Ḳānṣawh al-G̲h̲awrī

(1,588 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(usually but incorrectly vocalized Ḳānṣūh al-G̲h̲ūrī), the penultimate Mamlūk sultan of Egypt, was of Circassian origin and a mamlūk of Sultan Ḳāʾitbāy. He was trained in the military school ( ṭabaḳa ) named al-G̲h̲awr. whence his nisba . He became governor ( kās̲h̲if ) of Upper Egypt (886/1481-2), was appointed an amīr of Ten (889/1484), and took part in operations against the Ottomans on the Syrian-Cilician frontier, during which time he was governor ( nāʾib ) of Ṭarsūs. In Rabīʿ II 894/March-April 1489 he was appointed grand chamberlain ( ḥād̲j̲ib al-ḥud̲j̲d̲j̲āb


(514 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(Arabic, Dunḳula, Dunḳulā; obsolete forms, Dumḳula, Damḳala), the name of two towns in Nubia; more generally, the riverain territory dependent on these towns. All lie within the present Republic of the Sudan. The arabized Nubians of Dongola are called Danāḳla, a regional, not a tribal, designation. (1) Old Dongola (Dunḳula al-ʿad̲j̲ūz), on the right bank of the Nile, is on the site of a pre-Islamic town, the capital of the Christian kingdom of al-Maḳurra. It was besieged by an army under ʿAbd Allāh b. Saʿd b. Abī Sarḥ [ q.v.] in 31/652, but the Muslims withdrew after concluding a convention ( b…


(830 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
6. In the Mamlūk Sultanate In the early Mamlūk sultanate, mawkib designates specifically the royal ride which formed an item in the sultan’s installation ceremonies. The term is explicitly used by Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī ( Nud̲j̲ūm , vii, 41) on the accession of al-Manṣūr ʿAlī b. Aybak: “He rode on Thursday, 2 Rabīʿ II [655/19 April 1257] with the insignia of the sultanate from the Citadel to Ḳubbat al-Naṣr in an awe-inspiring procession ( mawkib hāʾil ). Then he returned and entered Cairo by Bāb al-Naṣr. The amīr s dismounted and marched before him…. Then al-Manṣū…


(238 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, (Ḏj̲ird̲j̲ā; an obsolete form Dad̲j̲ird̲j̲ā is also found), a town and province of Upper Egypt. The name is said to be derived from a monastery of St. George (V. Denon, tr. A. Aikin, Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt , London 1803, ii, 25). The town originated in the late 8th/14th century ¶ as the tribal centre of Hawwāra [ q.v.], who dominated Upper Egypt for the following two centuries. About 983/1576, the power of this tribe was broken, and Girgā. became the seat of the governor of Upper Egypt, who was also kās̲h̲if of the Girgā district. The governors, who are variously referred to as ḥākim al-Ṣ…

Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a

(1,638 words)

Author(s): Kahle, P. | Holt, P.M.
, the eldest son of Muḥammad ʿAlī [ q.v.], general, and viceroy of Egypt. He is often described as Muḥammad ʿAlī’s “adopted” son. Amīna, a relative of his foster-father, the governor ( čorbad̲j̲i̊ ) of Kavalla in Macedonia, was certainly a divorced woman when Muḥammad ʿAlī married her in 1787, and it cannot be denied that Muḥammad ʿAlī had a certain preference for his son Ṭūsūn, who died on 28 September 1816; there was certainly also a rivalry between Ibrāhīm and Ṭūsūn. The year of his birth is decisive, h…


(1,359 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
Origins: The Fund̲j̲ appear in the early 10th/16th century as a nomadic cattle-herding people, gradually extending their range down the Blue Nile from Lūl (or Lūlū), an unidentified district, to Sinnār. The foundation of Sinnār, subsequently the dynastic capital, is ascribed to ʿAmāra Dūnḳas in 910/1504-5. Hypotheses of remoter Fund̲j̲ origins among the Shilluk, in Abyssinia, or among the Bulala, are unsubstantiated, while the Sudanese tradition of their Umayyad descent is a typical device for the legitimation of a parvenu Muslim dynasty. Fund̲j̲ kings to the establishment of…
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