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Capaneus

(154 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Καπανεύς; Kapaneús). Son of Hipponous [3], married to  Evadne [2] and father of  Sthenelus. C. is one of the  Seven against Thebes (and is therefore to be included in the Theban epics even if he does not appear in the surviving fragments). His boastful statement that not even the strike of a thunderbolt from Zeus could prevent him from taking part in the conquest of Thebes provokes Zeus to strike him down just so (Aesch. Sept. 423ff.). According to Stesichorus (fr. 194 PMG),  Ascl…

Coeranus

(203 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Κοίρανος; Koíranos). [German version] [1] Descendant of Melampus Belongs to the family tree of  Melampus (Hes. Cat. 136,3), but his exact position therein is not certain; father of the seer  Poly(e)idus (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 112; Paus. 1,43,5). Nünlist, René (Basle) [German version] [2] Charioteer of Meriones Charioteer for  Meriones; he saves  Idomeneus' [1] life by bringing a chariot to him at exactly the right moment, so that he instead of Idomeneus is hit by  Hector's spear (Hom. Il. 17,611-614). The motif of ‘substitution death’ is typical of Homer's epics [1]. Nünlist, René (Bas…

Polydamas

(428 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Πολυδάμας/ Polydámas, in Homer with metrical lengthening Πουλυδάμας/ Poulydámas). [German version] [1] Trojan Trojan, son of Panthous. On the basis of his experience P. possesses an understanding of the past and the future. As an astute and level-headed counsellor he represents the pessimistic alter ego of Hector, the town’s defender, who was born on the same day as P. Nevertheless, at the decisive moment P.’ sensible advice (retreat into the town) is not taken heed of. At this occasion, his character is (n…

Sisyphus

(349 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Σίσυφος; Sísyphos). Mythical fraudster and penitent in the Underworld. Son of Aeolus [1], father of Glaucus [2], grandfather of Bellerophon, founder and king of Corinth (Corinthus), legendary and proverbial fraudster, who as a punishment in the Underworld has to roll a rock up a mountain, but every time just before reaching the summit it rolls back down into the valley (Hom. Od. 11,593-600). S. earns the punishment by conquering death (i.e. abandoning the boundaries placed on huma…

Teichoscopy

(119 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (τειχοσκοπία/ teichoskopía, ‘viewing from the walls’). Term, coined already in Antiquity (Schol. Eur. Phoen. 88), for the scene in the Iliad in which Helen (Helena [I 1]) identifies for Priamus the most important leaders of the Greek army (Agamemnon, Odysseus, Menelaus, Ajax [1], Idomeneus [1]) from the Trojan walls (Hom. Il. 3,161-244, imitated e.g. by Eur. Phoen. 88-192). The Homeric narrator has Helen observe an event happening elsewhere at the same time and present it verbally toPriam (and hence …

Hekatoncheires

(196 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Ἑκατόγχειρες, centimani = ‘hundred-handed’). Briareus (also called Aegaeon: Hom. Il. 1,403f.), Cottus and Gy(g)es (for the name forms see [1]) are powerful monsters (hundred arms, fifty heads: Hes. Theog. 147ff.), offspring of  Uranus and  Gaia. They were chained by their father and thrown into Tartarus (617ff.). Zeus frees them and, on account of their hundred arms, makes them allies in the battle with the  Titans (626ff.). The belief that the H. later guarded the defeated Titans…

Tithonus

(219 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Τιθωνός; Tithōnós). Member of the Trojan royal family, grandson of Ilus [1], son of Laomedon [1] and hence a brother of Priamus. Eos, the  goddess of dawn, abducted the extremely attractive T. and makes him her lover (cf. Cephalus [1], Cleitus [1], Orion [1]). According to the Homeric formula Eos brings light in the morning, by rising from "T.' bed" (Hom. Il. 11,1 et passim). The result of their union is the Aethiopian king Memnon [1]. Eos asks Zeus for immortality for T., but neg…

Pheme

(83 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Φήμη/ Phḗmē; Latin Fama ). Goddess or personification of public speech, rumour and (helpful or malicious) gossip (Hes. Op. 760-764; Bacchyl. 2,1; 10,1). Aeschines (Aeschin. In Tim. 128 with schol.; Aeschin. Leg. 144f.; cf. Paus. 1,17,1) mentions an altar of P. (built after the Battle on the Eurymedon [5]), making the distinction that P. appeared in person, while Diabolḗ ('Calumny') could be traced to individual people. However, Ach. Tat. (6,10,4-5) makes P. the daughter of Diabole. Nünlist, René (Basle)

Hector

(755 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Ἕκτωρ/ Héktōr; Lat. Hector). Son of the Trojan royal couple  Priamus and  Hecabe, husband of  Andromache and father of  Astyanax. As the strongest fighter of Priamus' sons, H. (and not Paris, who is to blame for the war) is responsible for the defence of the besieged city in The Iliad. He is most successful on the third day of battle: after Agamemnon's wounding (Hom. Il. 11,200ff.), H. breaks through the Achaean wall (12,445ff.), and - despite a set-back (14,409ff.) - he pushes them back to their ships and sets one of them on f…

Philoetius

(86 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Φιλοίτιος; Philoítios). Odysseus’ cowherd (Hom. Od. 20-22); like the swineherd Eumaeus he epitomizes the loyal retainer. After Odysseus has revealed his identity to them and has assured himself of their loyalty, the two of them, who are largely cast in the same mould [1], assist him in killing the suitors. In doing so, the two of them take their revenge on their counterpart, the disloyal goatherd Melanthius [1]. Nünlist, René (Basle) Bibliography 1 B. Fenik, Studies in the Odyssey (Hermes ES 30), 1974, 172-173.

Stentor

(108 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Στέντωρ/ Sténtōr, aptonym: 'roarer' [1]). Greek warrior at Troy, whose powerful voice is equivalent to those of 50 men. In his guise Hera gives the Greeks a dressing-down (Hom. Il. 5,784-792). S. himself does not appear anywhere. This 'lacuna' was increased in ancient exegesis by scholarly speculations (Schol. AbT Hom. Il. 5,785): he had to lose his life because he had challenged Hermes to a competition in shouting (for the motif cf. Thamyris), and is the inventor of the war trump…

Dolon

(126 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Δόλων/ Dólōn, cf. δόλος/ dólos, ‘guile’). Son of the Trojan herald Eumedes. During a night reconnaissance raid in the Greek camp, for which he had volunteered in order to gain Achilles' immortal horses, he fell into the hands of the Greek scouts Diomedes and Odysseus. In an (unsuccessful) bid to save his skin, he readily betrayed his own cause, which cost the life of the Trojan ally, the Thracian King Rhesus (Hom. Il. 10, so-called Doloneia, probably post- Iliad [1]; [Eur.] Rhes.). By contrast with this portrait of D. ─ for the Stoa he was the archetypical…

Pandarus

(805 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Πάνδαρος; Pándaros, Lat. Pandarus). [German version] [1] Trojan troop commander Trojan troop commander, son of Lycaon (but cf. also Carcabus);Verg. Aen. 5,495-497 mentions Eurythion [5] as his brother. According to Hom. Il. 4,103 and 121, P. lived in Zelia (Troas) the contingent of which was under his command (Hom. Il. 2,824-827), whilst Hom. Il. 5,105 and (implicitly) 173 identifies Lycia (Lycii, Lycia) as his country of origin eventhough the Lycian troop contingent was led by Sarpedon and Glaucus [4] (…

Calchas

(284 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Κάλχας; Kálchas, Lat. Calchas). Son of Thestor, seer and augur for the Greeks during the Trojan War who ‘knew what is, what will be, and what was’ (Hom. Il. 1.70). To the army gathered in  Aulis awaiting departure, C. correctly prophesied, based on the flight of birds, that Troy would be defeated in the tenth year of the war (Hom. Il. 2.303ff.; Kypria argumentum p. 40 Bernabé). When the Greek fleet was prevented from departing due to lack of wind, C. explained that Artemis was ang…

Copreus

(173 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Κοπρεύς; Kopreýs). [German version] [1] Servant of Eurystheus Son of  Pelops. He transmits to  Hercules the tasks ordered by  Eurystheus, who fears personal contact. For this reason, Homer reverses the normally descending genealogical line in hero epics and refers to C. as ‘the worse father of the better son’ (Hom. Il. 15,639-641). In Eur. Heracl., C. demands in Eurystheus' name the release of the  Heraclidae, who are seeking asylum from the Attic king  Demophon [2]. According to Apollod. 2,5,1, Eurystheus had cleansed C. from a blood guilt. The name is not originally derived from kópro…

Lichas

(502 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Λίχας; Líchas). [German version] [1] Messenger of Hercules Herald of Hercules [1]; he brings Hercules the garment which Deianira, jealous of Iole, had painted with the blood of the centaur Nessus (Hes. Cat. fr. 25,20-25 M-W; Soph. Trach.; Bacchyl. 16; for possible precursors and variants, see [1]). The supposed love charm causes the death of Hercules, who, in his agony, smashes the innocent L. against a rock in the sea (Soph. Trach. 772ff.; Apollod. 2,7,7? corrupt text). Later sources (Ov. Met. 9,2…

Thersites

(222 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Θερσίτης; Thersítēs). Greek warrior at Troy. In the Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,211-277) T. is a physically deformed (the corresponding description is unique in the Iliad) and quarrelsome grumbler, hated by all for his sarcastic remarks - esp. by Achilles [1] and Odysseus. After the latter has stopped the army from returning home, T. attacks Agamemnon with arguments consciously referring to those of Achilles (Hom. Il. B. 1) but also criticizing him. Odysseus silences him by attacking him verbally and physically, …

Idaeus

(243 words)

Author(s): Willi, Andreas (Basle) | Nünlist, René (Basle) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἰδαῖος; Idaîos). [German version] [1] Epithet of Zeus Epithet of  Zeus from the Ida on Crete (Eur. fr. 472 TGF; Inscr. Creticae 1,12,1) or near Troy (Hom. Il. 24,291; Verg. Aen. 7,139; in Celaenae: Plut. Mor. 306e f.) and of  Heracles as Daktylos I. and founder of the Olympic Games (Paus. 5,7,6ff.; 8,31,3; also in Elis and Erythrae: Paus. 6,23,3; 9,27,8). Willi, Andreas (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Chryse and Dardanus Son of Chryse and  Dardanus [1] with whom he emigrates from Arcadia across Samothrace to the  Ida mountains [2], which are said to be named af…

Leiodes

(75 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Ληώδης, Λειώδης; Lēṓdēs, Leiṓdēs). The son of Oenops, priest. He is one of Penelope's suitors, whom he loathes, however, keeping to himself. L. is the first suitor to try his luck in the archery contest and is then reproached by Antinous [1] for his supposedly defeatist advice (Hom. Od. 21,144ff.). When Odysseus slays the suitors, L. points out his detached relationship to the others in vain (ibid. 22,310-329). Nünlist, René (Basle)

Talthybius

(130 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Ταλθύβιος; Talthýbios). Herald and follower of Agamemnon (Hom. Il. 1,320 f.), at whose command he and Eurybates [1] unenthusiastically go and fetch from Achilles [1] the object of their dispute, Briseis (ibid. 1,327-347). T. also acts in the service of all Greeks, e.g. when he and the Trojan herald Idaeus [3a] interrupt the single combat between Ajax [1] and Hector (ibid. 7,273-312); as a general Greek herald he also appears in Euripides (Hec., Tro.), who makes the idea of the "un…
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