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Galla

(598 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] First wife of Julius Constantinus [4] 1st half 4th cent. AD First wife of Julius Constantius [4], a son of emperor Constantius [5] I. She was mother of Constantius Gallus, Caesar from AD 351-354 (Amm. Marc. 14,11,27). PLRE 1, 382 (G. 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Youngest daughter of Valentinianus I Youngest daughter of  Valentinianus I, sister of Valentinianus II. In AD 387 she fled, together with him and her mother Iustina, from the usurper Maximus to Constantinople, where she married Theodosius I (their da…

Bassianus

(184 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Originally the cognomen of  Caracalla Originally the cognomen of  Caracalla. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [2] Originally the cognomen of the future emperor M. Aurelius  Severus Alexander Originally the cognomen of the future emperor M. Aurelius  Severus Alexander. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [3] Caesar for Italy around 316 AD Married to  Anastasia [1], named Caesar for Italy by  Constantinus the Great shortly before the war against Licinus (AD 316), but was then spurred on by his brother Senecio to…

Mavia

(101 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Arabic princess who undertook raids in Palestine and Phoenicia c. AD 372. In 378 she made peace with Valens and requested the hermit Moses as bishop for her people (Socr. 4,36,1-12; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 6,38,1-9; Theod. Hist. eccl. 4,23). After the battle of Hadrianopolis [3] she supported the Romans with troops (Amm. Marc. 31,16,5; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 7,1,1). She married her daughter to the magister equitum Victor (Socr. 4,36,12). According to Theophanes (annus mundi 5869 = 1,64,12 deBoor) she was a Roman by birth who had been captured by the Saracens. PLRE 1, 569. Portmann,…

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Iovianus

(269 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Flavius I. (Jovian), Roman emperor AD 363-364, born in Singidunum in 331, the son of the Comes Domesticorum Varronianus. His father-in-law was the Magister Militum Lucillianus, his wife was possibly called Charito (cf. Zon. 13,14). He served as Protector Domesticus under Constantius [2] II (Amm. Marc. 21,16,20), and under Julian [11] as Primicerius Domesticorum (Amm. Marc. 25,5,4). The day after Julian's death in battle against the Persians, I. was proclaimed emperor on 27 June 363, while still on Persian territory. He ended the P…

Taurus

(850 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Southern Anatolian coastal mountain range Southern Anatolian coastal mountain range, today the Toros Dağları; it extends from Caria and Lycia in the west (Western T. with the Bey Dağları, 3086 m), through Cilicia (Middle T. with the Kalı Dağ, 3734 m), from where the Amanus branches off to the south-east and the Anti-T. to the north, while the main range stretches north-east to the Ararat highlands (Inner and Central Eastern T. with Ararat, 5165 m), beyond which a further Anti-T. (Ou…

Fortunatianus

(74 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] In AD 370-377 comes rerum privatarum in the East (Cod. Theod. 7,13,2; 10,16,3 and passim). In 371 he had subordinates who were accused of magic tortured (Amm. Marc. 29,1,5-7; Zos. 4,14,1). He may be identical with the pagan poet, rhetor, and philosopher of the same name (cf. Lib. Ep. 694,9; 1157; 1425), a correspondent of Libanius (Ep. 565; 644; 650 et passim). PLRE 1, 369 (F. 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin)

Flavianus

(513 words)

Author(s): Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio AD 222 or 223 Praefectus praetorio with (Geminius) Chrestus in AD 222 or 223. When upon the insistence of Julia Mamaea, Domitius  Ulpianus was put in charge by Severus Alexander as praetorian prefect, the guard mutinied, so Ulpianus had F. and Chrestus killed (Cass. Dio 80,2,2; Zos. 1,11,2). PIR2 F 180. Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) [German version] [2] Virius Nicomachus F. Pagan, aristorcrat in Rome; friend of Symmachus Dominant figure of the non-Christian aristocracy in Rome in the last quarter of the 4th cent. AD. He had a clo…

Miccalus

(47 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] (Μίκκαλος; Míkkalos). Antiochene, brother of the provincial governors Evagrius and Olympius. He was himself administrator of Thrace in AD 362. Libanius describes his dispute with his brother Olympius (Lib. Or. 63,30-35; cf. also Lib. Epist. 97-99, 149). PLRE 1, 602. Portmann, Werner (Berlin)

Artemius

(134 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Last Vicarius urbi Romae in 359 AD Was the last vic. urbi Romae, deputy praef. urbi Romae in the year AD 359 (Amm. Marc. 17.11.5; after 25 August: CIL VI 32004). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Flavius A. Dux Aegypti 360 AD Was an officer of the Arian religion under Constantine II. As dux Aegypti, he proceeded against the pagan cults in AD 360. In 362, he was condemned and sentenced to death by Julian due to his complicity in the murder of Gallus (Amm. Marc. 22,11,2ff.; Theod. Hist. eccl. 3,18,1). He was later honour…

Titianus

(300 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Iulius T. Tutor of princes, teacher of rhetoric, late 2nd cent. Active probably in the late 2nd cent. AD as a tutor of princes and later in Vesontio (modern Besançon) and Lugdunum (modern Lyon) as a teacher of rhetoric, T. was the author of numerous (non-surviving) works. He was famous for his prose ' Letters of Famous Women' written on the model of Ovidius' Heroides (on the choice of the letters of Cicero as a stylistic model: Sid. Apoll. Epist. 1,1,2). Furthermore, there is evidence of a collection of themata from Vergil for teaching rhetoric, a prose paraphrase …

Limenius

(167 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Choral lyric poet from Athens, 2nd cent. BC (Λιμήνιος; Limḗnios) from Athens. Choral lyric poet, composer of a paean to Apollo (127 BC), which is preserved in an inscription on the treasury of the Athenians at Delphi. Besides the text itself, the notes of the tune for the kithara accompaniment are also provided: Paeonic-Cretan rhythm, the word accent taken up by the melody, highest variability in the use of keys. Metre; Athenaeus [7] Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography E. Pöhlmann, Denkmäler altgriech. Musik, 1970, 68-76 M. L. West, Ancient Greek Music, 1992, 293-301 L. …

Clearchus

(1,254 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Κλέαρχος; Kléarchos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Rhegion Bronze sculptor from Rhegion. Because of his statue of Zeus Hypatus in Sparta, a   sphyrelaton according to the description, C. was wrongly considered the inventor of bronze statues by Pausanias. According to tradition he was a student of  Dipoenus and Scyllis or of  Daedalus as well as the teacher of  Pythagoras and, therefore, was active in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck No. 332f., 491 P. Romanelli, in: EAA 4, 365f. J. Papadopoulos, Xoana e sphyrelata, 1980, 82 F…

Bonosus

(199 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Appointed emperor in AD 280 Appointed emperor in Cologne, together with Proculus, in AD 280, soon thereafter defeated by  Probus (Eutr. 9,17,1; Aur. Vict. Caes. 37,3; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 37,2). His vita in the  Historia Augusta (Probus), is largely fictitious; no genuine coins of his are known. PIR2 B 146; PLRE 1, 163 no.1. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [2] Consul in AD 344 Flavius B. was consul in AD 344 but was acknowledged only in the West and even there he is attested only until April/May. According to [1], however, he …

Eusebius

(2,172 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Et al.
(Εὐσέβιος; Eusébios). [German version] [1] Flavius Eusebius Consul AD 347 Mention is made in the statute Cod. Theod. 11,1,1 of AD 360 of the former cos. et mag. equitum et peditum Eusebius. This probably refers to cos. E. of 347, who may perhaps be identified as the father of the empress Eusebia [1] (cf. Julian Or. 3,107d-110d). PLRE 1, 307f. Eusebius (39). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Eusebius Roman official about AD 355 Son of E. [1]. Like his brother Hypatius, he enjoyed the patronage of his sister  Eusebia [1] (cf. Julian Or. 3,116a). In AD 355 he was consularis Hellespon…

Procopius

(2,667 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Προκόπιος/ Prokópios). [German version] [1] Usurper, AD 365-366 Usurper, AD 365-366 Usurper in AD 365-366. He was born in 326 in Corycus (Them. Or. 7,86c; cf. Amm. Marc. 26,9,11) and was a relative of the emperor Iulianus [11] (Amm. Marc. 23,3,2). In 358 he was a delegate to Persia with the rank of a tribunus (Amm. Marc. 17,14,3), later he held a high position at the schola notariorum (Amm. Marc. 26,6,1). During Julian’s Persian campaign, he commanded a division as a comes (Amm. Marc. 23,3,5). After Julian's death (363) he retired to private life (Zos.…

Dracontius

(636 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] [1] Christian, murdered in 361 AD by the heathen mob Praepositus monetae in Alexandria. On 24 December AD 361 he was murdered as a Christian by the heathen mob because he had knocked over an altar (Amm. Marc. 22,11,9f.; Historia acephala 8). PLRE 1, 271 D. (1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Antonius D. Vicarius Africae 364-367 AD Attested only epigraphically (ILS 758; 763 et al.) and as a recipient of laws (Cod. Theod. 11,7,9; 11,30,33), vicarius Africae from AD 364 to 367 PLRE 1, 271f. D (3). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [3] Blossius Aemiliu…

Musonius

(364 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] [1] C. M. Rufus Stoic philosopher, c. AD 30-100 Stoic philosopher, who influenced Epictetus [2]. Born into the equestrian class in Etruria before AD 30. He taught in Greek. Exiled by Nero for his links to Stoic senators, he was recalled after Nero's death, but exiled and recalled again under the Flavians. By his death (c. AD 100), he had become a symbol of the philosophical life. He wrote nothing, but accounts of his lectures were published after his death, probably by Lucius [2]; Twenty-one extracts of these are preserved by Stobaeus and one on papyrus. His works focuses on…

Decentius

(188 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Magnus D. Caesar 350-353 AD Caesar during AD 350-353. A relative (possibly brother) of the usurper Magnus Magnentius ([Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 42,2; Zon. 13,8,2) who made him Caesar in Milan at the end of 350 when the German tribes, encouraged by Constantius [2] II, had invaded Gaul. Commanding an insufficient force, he suffered a defeat against the Alamannic king Chnodomar (Julian Or. 1,35A; Amm. Marc. 16,12,4f.). When he heard of Magnentius' death, he committed suicide in Sens on 18 August 353 (Eutr. 10…

Dagalaifus

(63 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Was appointed comes domesticorum by Julian in AD 361 (Amm. Marc. 21,8,1) and magister equitum by Jovian; in 364 he was influential in the elections of Jovian and Valentinian I (Amm. Marc. 25,5,2; Philostorgius 8,8). In 364-366 as magister peditum( equitum?) he fought against the Alemanni (Amm. Marc. 26,5,9), in 366 he was consul. PLRE 1, 239. Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
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