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Ḳi̊zi̊l-Bās̲h̲

(2,829 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
(t. “Red-head”). The word is used in both a general and a specific sense. In general, it is used loosely to denote a wide variety of extremist S̲h̲īʿī sects [see g̲h̲ulāt ], which flourished in ¶ Anatolia and Kurdi…

Asīr

(127 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, the tak̲h̲alluṣ of Mīrzā Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Mīrzā Muʾmin, Persian poet and pupil of Faṣīḥī Harawī. Born at Iṣfahān: probable date of death 1049/1639-40, though some sources give later dates. Unlike many of his contemporaries, he did not migrate to the Mug̲h̲al court, but became a boon companion and close relative (according to one account the son-in-law) of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I. He composed most of his poetry under the influence of alcohol, from an excess of which he died. His

Iʿtimād al-Dawla

(142 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, literally: “trusty support of the state”, a title of Persian wazīrs during the Ṣafawid period and subsequently. The title iʿtimād al-dawla

Asad Allāh Iṣfahānī

(109 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, celebrated Persian sword-maker ( s̲h̲ams̲h̲īrsāz ) of the time of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I. It is said that the Ottoman Sultan presented a helmet to S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās, and offered a sum of money to anyone who could cleave the helmet in two with a sword. Asad made a sword with which he achieved this feat, and, as a reward, S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās remitted the tax of the sword-makers, who continued to obtain exemption until Ḳād̲j̲ār times (see A. K. S. Lambton, Islamic Society in Persia , London 1954, 25). For a description of Asad Allāh’s work, see Survey of Persia…

K̲h̲ūzistān

(1,842 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, a province of south-western Persia, and the land of the Hūz/Ḥūz/K̲h̲ūz (Hussi/Kussi), the Oὔξιοι/Uxii of Strabo and Pliny. The province of K̲h̲ūzistān corresponds more or less to the ancient Elam and to the classical Susiana, and the names of its present capital, Ahwāz [ q.v.], its ancient capital, Susa [ q.v.], and the town of Ḥawīza [ q.v.], all reflect the name of its …

K̲h̲urrams̲h̲ahr

(590 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, chief town (population in 1966: 88,536) of the s̲h̲ahristān of the same name (population in 1966: 156,281) in the Iranian province of K̲h̲ūzistān ( ustān 6), and situated in long. 48° 09′ E., lat. 30° 25′ N. Its elevation above sea-level is 8 m./26 ft., and the climate is hot and humid, with summer temperatures rising to 58° C./136° F., and a winter minimum of 8° C./46° F.…

Ibrāhīm b. S̲h̲āhruk̲h̲

(176 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
( Abu ’l-Fatḥ Mīrzā Ibrāhīm Sulṭān Bahādur ), Tīmurid prince, second son of S̲h̲āhruk̲h̲ [ q.v.], born 28 S…

K̲h̲urramābād

(264 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, chief town of the s̲h̲ahristān of the same name in the Iranian province of Luristān ( ustān 6), situated in long. 48° 21′ E., lat. 33° 29′ N.; population of the s̲h̲ahristān (1966): 259,000, elevation above sea-level: 4,700 feet. The town is first mentioned under its present name in the 8th/14th century by Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, who states: “this was fine town, but it is now in ruins” ( Nuzhat al-ḳulūb , 74). To the south-east of the town, along the banks of the K̲h̲urramābād river, and also to the south-west, are remains dating from the time w…

Ṣadr al-Dīn Ardabīlī

(324 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
(S̲h̲aykh Ṣadr al-Milla wa ’l-Dīn Mūsā), second son of Ṣafī al-Dīn Ardabīlī [ q.v.], born 1 S̲h̲awwāl 704/26 April 1305 (S̲h̲aykh Ḥusayn b. Abdāl Zāhidī, Silsilat al-nasab-i Ṣafawiyya , Iranschähr Publications no. 6, Berlin 1924-5, 39). Designated by his father as his successor and vicegerent ( k̲h̲alīfa wa nāʾib-munāb ), Ṣadr al-Dīn assumed the leadership of the Ṣafawid Order in 735/1334. He expanded the Ṣafawid mausoleum complex at Ardabīl, adding rooms for private meditation ( k̲h̲alwat-k̲h̲āna ), a residence for Ḳurʾān-readers ( dār al-ḥuffāẓ ), and a room ( čīnī-k̲h̲āna

Ḥamza Mīrzā

(339 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, Ṣafawid prince, second son of Muḥammad K̲h̲udābanda, born ca. 973/1565-6. In 985/1577 S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl II ordered that Ḥamza Mīrzā be put to death at S̲h̲īrāz, together with his father and brother, Abū Ṭālib, but Ismaʿīl II was assassinated before the order could be carried out. After the accession of his weak and purblind father, as Sulṭan Muḥammad S̲h̲āh, in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 985/February 1578, Ḥamza Mīrzā was made heir-apparent at the instance of his mother, Mahd-i ʿUlyā, who, until her murder by the ḳi̊zi̊lbās̲h̲ [ q.v.] in 987/1579, was the real power behind the throne; …

Iskandar Beg al-s̲h̲ahīr bi-Muns̲h̲ī

(249 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, born ca. 968/1560, died probably ca. 1042/1632, author of the Tārīk̲h̲-i ʿĀlam-ārā-yi ʿAbbāsī , one of the greatest works of Persian historiography. The muḳaddima , on the origins of the Ṣafawids and the reigns of Ismaʿīl I and Ṭahmāsp I, is followed by a detailed history of the reign of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I. The bulk of the work ( Ṣaḥīfas I and II, or, according to another reckoning, Ṣaḥīfa I and Ṣaḥīfa II, Maḳṣad i) was completed in 1025/1616. A later portion, variously termed Ṣaḥīfa III, or Ṣaḥīfa II, Maḳṣad ii, was completed in 1038/1629, the year of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās’s death. In the sa…

K̲h̲ōī

(352 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
K̲h̲ūy , Iranian town (population in 1951: 49,000), situated in long. 45° 02′ E., lat. 38° 32′ N., in the s̲h̲ahristān of the same name in the ustān of West Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān; the Kurdish district of Quṭūr is included in the s̲h̲ahristān of K̲h̲ōī. The town lies at an elevation of 1040 m./3,444 ft., in a plain known locally as K̲h̲ōī čukūri̊ (“the K̲h̲ōī depression”), because all the surrounding areas are at a higher elevation. The mountains surrounding the K̲h̲ōī plain protect the city from the cold winter winds (the Harāwīl range a…

Ḳūrčī

(463 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
(from the Mongolian ḳorči , “an archer”, from ḳor , “quiver”; Tad̲h̲kirat al-mulūk , translated and explained by V. Minorsky, London 1943, 32, ¶ n. 2), a military term with a variety of different meanings: “he who bears arms, the sword, chief huntsman” (Pavet de Courteille, Dict

Ḳāsim-i Anwār

(898 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, the laḳab of muʿīn al-dīn ʿalī ḥusaynī sarābī tabrīzī , mystic, poet and leading Ṣafawid dāʿi . Born in 757/1356 in the Sarāb district of Tabrīz …

Faraḥābād

(464 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, the name of a place in Māzandarān, situated 36° 50′ N., 53° 2′ 38″ E., 17 m. north of Sārī and 26 m. north-west of As̲h̲raf [ q.v.], near the mouth of …

Ismāʿīl II

(641 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, born 940/1533-4 (this is conjectured from the available evidence; 110 chronicle gives his date of birth), died 13 Ramaḍān 985/24 November 1577, second son of S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp [ q.v.], shah of Persia (984-5/1576-7) of the Ṣafawid dynasty. After the rebellion of his uncle Alḳāṣ [ q.v.], Ismāʿīl was appointed governor of S̲h̲īrwān (954/1547), and conducted several successful campaigns against the Ottomans in the Caucasus and eastern Anatolia. In 962/1555 he married a daughter of the marriage between a sister of Ṭahmāsp and S̲h̲āh Niʿmat Allāh Walī [ q.v.]. The following year, in S̲h̲a…

ʿAbbās I

(1,331 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, styled the Great, king of Persia of the Ṣafawī dynasty, second son and successor of Muḥammad Ḵh̲udābanda, was born on 1 Ramaḍān 978/27 January 1571, and died in Māzandarān on 24 Ḏj̲umāḍā I 1038/19 January 1629, after a reign of 42 solar (43 lunar) years. In 980/1572-3 he remained at Harāt when his father moved to S̲h̲īrāz. In 984/1576-7 Ismāʿīl II put to death the lala (tutor) o…

Čūbānids

(830 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
( Čobanids ), a family of Mongol amīr s claiming descent from a certain Sūrg̲h̲ān ¶ S̲h̲īra of the Suldūz tribe who had once saved the I life of Čingiz Ḵh̲ān.…
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