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(933 words)

Author(s): Runia, David T. (Leiden) | Seibt, Klaus (Leonberg)
(Ἄρειος; Áreios) [German version] [1] Didymus Doxographer, possibly identical with the Stoic philosopher, 1st cent. BC Doxographer, possibly identical with the Stoic philosopher and confidant of Augustus of the 1st cent. BC,  Arius [3]. Several sources from later antiquity refer to the works of a Didymus or A. In his Praeparatio Evangelica, Eusebius quotes from ἐκ τῶν Διδύμῳ Περὶ τῶν ἀρεσκόντων Πλάτωνι’ συντεταγμένων (11,23,2-6) and also from several fragments concerning Stoic physics ἀπὸ τῶν Ἐπιτομῶν Ἀρείου’ Διδύμου (Book 15); Stobaeus names hi…


(429 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Seibt, Klaus (Leonberg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Ἀστέριος; Astérios). [German version] [1] Cretan epiclesis of Zeus A Cretan epiclesis of Zeus, attested to only in the Byzantine writers; it arose through euhemeristic interpretation of the myth of Asterion [1]. In contrast to this view, evolutionist interpretations regarded him the origin of that hero. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography H. Schwabl, s.v. Zeus I, RE 10 A, 281. [German version] [2] Sophis from Cappadocia Sophist from Cappadocia, belonged to the circle of students of Lucianus of Antioch (martyr AD 312) from whom came the spokesmen for the …

Apostolical Constitutions

(218 words)

Author(s): Seibt, Klaus (Leonberg)
[German version] The (Pseudo-) Apostolical Constitutions (AC) are a compilation and edition of older sources of canon law and liturgy that were probably created in the 2nd half of the 4th cent. AD in Syria. During the flowering of synodalism it postulated a gathering of all apostles at the Jerusalem Apostolic Council (Acta 15) that supposedly announced the AC, which are divided into eight books. The main sources are:  the Didascalia Apostolorum,  the Didache and the Traditio Apostolica (215) attri…


(623 words)

Author(s): Seibt, Klaus (Leonberg)
[German version] A. Definition Polemic collective term coined by the orthodox movement that prevailed in the Trinitarian disputes of the 4th cent. AD ( c. 318-381 [2]) for the opposition in theology and ecclesiastical politics, which existed in numerous shades. If handled in a critical manner, it is still useful for  Arius [3] and his surroundings as well as for neo-Arianism. The main characteristic is a clearly ranked hypostatic Trinity in which the second (Logos or Son) and third (Holy Spirit) hypostasis, even though called God, is separate from the Divinity. Seibt, Klaus (Leonberg) …