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Nephele

(200 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Νεφέλη/ Nephélē). [German version] [1] Personification of a cloud No evidence exists concerning her ancestry, probably because originally she is the personification of a ‘cloud’. Nephele is the wife of Athamas, mother of Helle and of Phrixus. Because Ino (Leukothea), the second wife of Athamas, caused a drought and wanted to kill Nephele's children, Nephele put the two children onto a golden ram, which flew away with them (Apollod. 1,9,1-6; Hyg. Fab. 1-3; 21; Ov. Met. 11,195). According to schol. Aristo…

Polycaste

(130 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Πολυκάστη/ Polykástē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Lygaeus in Acarnania Daughter of Lygaeus in Acarnania, wife of Icarius [2], mother of Penelope, Alyzeus and Leucadius. The two last were eponyms of Alyzeia and Leucas (Str. 10,2,24; 10,2,8). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) [German version] [2] Daughter of Nestor Youngest daughter of Nestor [1] (Hom. Od. 3,465) and Eurydice (cf. ibid. 3,451 f.). According to Apollod. 1,1,9, her mother was Anaxibia. She bathed Telemachus when he was received as a guest in the house of her father (Hom. Od. 3,464-468). …

Stheneboea

(136 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Σθενέβοια/ Sthenéboia). Called Antea in Hom. Il. 6,160, daughter of the Lycian king Iobates (Apollod. 2,25; Hyg. Fab. 57) or Amphianax (Apollod. 2,25; schol. Hom. Il. 6,200 Rekker) or the Arcadian king Aphidas [3] (Apollod. 3,102), wife of Proetus and mother of the Proetids and of Megapenthes [1] (Apollod. 2,26; 2,29; Aristoph. Ran. 1043 with Schol. et al.). After failing to seduce Bellerophontes she accuses him of raping her to Proetus (Potiphar motif, Joseph; cf. Phaedra). Bellerophontes is sent away by Proetus with the intention of …

Laodameia

(298 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Λαοδάμεια; Laodámeia). Ep. feminine name (‘Ruler over the People’) of various mythological figures. [German version] [1] Daughter of Bellerophon and a daughter of the Lycian king Iobates Daughter of Bellerophontes and a daughter of the Lycian king Iobates, mother by Zeus of Sarpedon (Hom. Il. 5,196-199; Apollod. 3,1,1; Serv. Aen. 1,100). According to Hom. Il. 5,205 she is killed by the enraged Artemis. Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) [German version] [2] Wife of Protesilaus Daughter of king Acastus of Iolcos, wife of Protesilaus, who goes off immediately after the wed…

Philomele, Philomela

(27 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Φιλομήλη, Φιλομήλα; Philomḗlē, Philomḗla). Daughter of the Attic King Pandion [1], sister of Procne. For her myth, see Procne. Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)

Clytia, Clytie

(113 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Κλυτία, Κλυτίη; Klytía, Klytíē, Lat. Clytia). [German version] [1] Daughter of Oceanus and Tethys Daughter of Oceanus and Tethys (Hes. Theog. 352). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) [German version] [2] Daughter of Pandareus from Crete Daughter of  Pandareus from Crete, represented according to Pausanias (10,30,1f.) in the Cnidic  lesche in Delphi. Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) [German version] [3] Beloved of Helios Beloved of Helios (possibly identical to [1]), whom the latter abandons for  Leucothoe. The jealous C. betrays Leucothoe to her father, who has h…

Maia

(446 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Tochter des Atlas [2] und der Pleione (Μαῖα, Μαίας, Μαίη; Maîa, Maías, Maíē). Daughter of Atlas [2] and Pleione, by Zeus mother of Hermes, who is called Maiadeús or Maías hyiós or paîs for this reason (e.g. H. Hom. 4,2f.,73; Aesch. Cho. 814). Nymph of the Arcadian Cyllene mountains. Homer only mentions her once as the mother of Hermes (Hom. Od. 14,435). Hesiod calls her the daughter of Atlas (Hes. Theog. 938) and counts her as one of the Pleiades (Hes. Cat. fr. 169; cf. also Simon. PMG fr. 555). The most deta…

Lysimache

(48 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Λυσιμάχη; Lysimáchē). Daughter of Abas [1], granddaughter of Melampus (according to Antimachus in schol. Eur. Phoen. 150, daughter of Cercyon, granddaughter of Poseidon), wife of the Argive king Talaus, mother of Adrastus [1], Parthenopaeus, Pronax, Mecisteus, Aristomachus and Eriphyle (Apollod. 1,103). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)

Tethys

(231 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Τηθύς; Tēthýs). In Hom. Il. 14,200 f., Hera calls T. and her brother Oceanus as the ancestors of all the gods. According to Hesiod and others, T. is the daughter of Gaea and Uranus, sister of Oceanus and by him mother of all rivers and the Oceanids (Hes. Theog. 337-370; Apollod. 1,8;  cf. Diod. Sic. 4,69,1; 4,72,1). During the battle between Zeus and Kronos, Rhea takes the young Hera to safety with T. and Oceanus (Hom. Il. 14,202-204). Hera is therefore able to pretend to want to …

Tisiphone

(229 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Τεισιφόνη/ Teisiphónē, Latin Tisiphone). [German version] [1] Erinys, avenger of murder 'Avenger of murder'. Besides Al(l)ecto and Megaera the third Erinys (Lat. Furiae ; e.g. Hyg. Fab. praef. 3) identified by name. The triad is documented from Euripides onwards (Eur. Or. 408; Eur. Tro. 457) and plays an important role in the Orphic tradition (Orph. H. 69,2; Orph. Arg. 966-969; Orphism). The name T. first appears in literature in Lucil. 4, fr. 169 f., but is attested on an Apulian lekythos [1] a…

Hypermestra

(263 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(also Hypermnestra; Ὑπερμήστρα; Hypermḗstra, Ὑπερμνήστρα; Hypermnḗstra). [German version] [1] Daughter of Danaus Daughter of  Danaus, wife of  Lynceus (or Lyrceus). The only daughter of Danaus who, against her father's orders, did not kill her husband in their wedding night (Pind. Nem. 10,6; Aesch. PV 866; Apollod. 2,1,5). She spares him because she loves him (Aesch. PV 865-868; schol. Pind. Pyth. 9,195b; cf. Hor. Carm. 3,11,33-52) or because he does not touch her (Apollod. 2,1,5; cf. Ov. Epist. 14,64). H. …

Ilione

(126 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἰλιόνη; Iliónē). Oldest daughter of  Priamus and  Hecabe, wife of Polymestor, the Thracian (Verg. Aen. 1,653f. mentions her sceptre which Aeneas brings from Ilion; cf. Hyg. Fab. 90). She raises her youngest brother  Polydorus along with her and Polymestor's son  Deipylus. After the end of the Trojan War, Agamemnon induces Polymestor to kill Polydorus. He unknowingly kills his own son, since I. had passed Deipylus off as her brother. The real Polydorus then instigates I. to kill he…

Oschophoria

(441 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (ὠσχοφόρια/ ōschophória, ὀσχοφόρια/ oschophória, in inscriptions also *ὠσκοφόρια/* ōskophória). Athenian festival. Its course of events can be reconstructed from Plut. Theseus 22-23 and Procl. Chresthomateia 87-92 Severyns [1]: a procession with two youths (ὠσχοφόροι/ ōschophóroi, 'carriers of grapevines') dressed up as girls carrying grape stalks and a choir walked from a temple of Dionysus to the temple of Athena Skiras in Phaleron, where sacrifices were offered. Women participated in the festival as δειπνοφόροι/ deipnophóroi ('food carriers') and to…

Herse

(166 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἕρση; Hérsē). Daughter of  Cecrops and  Aglaurus [2] (or Agraulus) (Paus. 1,2,6; Apollod. 3,14,2). In Athens, H. and her sisters Aglaurus (or Agraulos) and  Pandrosus constitute the Cecropids. Despite the prohibition of Athena, who had entrusted it to them, they open a basket containing the new-born  Erichthonius [1]. Then in madness H. and Aglaurus hurl themselves from the Acropolis (Eur. Ion, 268-274; Paus. 1,18,2; cf. 1,2,6; 27,2; Apollod. 3,14,6; Ov. Met. 2,552-561). H. and he…

Io

(541 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἰώ; Iṓ). Daughter of  Inachus, king of Argus (Aesch. PV 589f.; Bacchyl. 19,18 et al.), or of  Peiren (or Peras or Peirasus), king of Tyrins (Hes. Cat. fr. 124), and Melia (Johannes Antiochenus FHG IV 544 fr. 14). Zeus falls in love with her and seduces her in the form of a bull. Out of jealousy, Hera transforms I. into a cow (Aesch. Supp. 299). According to Hes. Cat. fr. 124, I. is transformed by Zeus himself only after their affair in order to deceive Hera (so also Apollod. 2,1,3…

Cassiepea, Cassiopea, Cassiope

(158 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Κασσιέπεια, Κασσιόπεια, Κασσιόπη, Kassiépeia, Kassiópeia, Kassiópē). [German version] [1] Mistress of Zeus Daughter of Arabus, wife of the son of Agenor  Phoenix, mother of  Phineus, Cilix and Doryclus, by Zeus of  Atymnius [2] (Hes. Cat. fr. 138; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 86; Apollod. 3,1,2). According to Antoninus Liberalis (40), also the mother of  Europe [2] and  Carme (cf. Hes. Cat. fr. 140). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) [German version] [2] Wife of Epaphus, son of Zeus Wife of Epaphus, son of Zeus and  Io, mother of Libya, after whom the country of Libya is named (Hyg…

Nicostrate

(107 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Νικοστράτη/ Nikostrátē). Arcadian nymph, prophetess, mother by Hermes of Evander [1], with whom she moved, 60 years before the Trojan War, from Pallantium in Arcadia to Italy, where Evander founded on the Palatine the first city (Str. 5,3,3; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,31,1;  Plut. Quaest. Graec. 56; Ov. Fast. 1,462; 618; 627; 634; Serv. Aen. 8,51; 130; 336). According to Plut. Romulus 21, she was the wife of Evander. Outside this Hellenizing tradition, the mother of Evander is called Carmentis (cf. Str. 5,3,3; Plut. Romulus 21). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) Bibliography H.…

Pelopeia

(259 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
(Πελόπεια/ Pelópeia, Πελοπία/ Pelopía). [German version] [1] Daughter of Pelias Daughter of Pelias and Anaxibia or Phylomache (Apollod. 1,95; Hyg. Fab. 24). With Ares mother of Cycnus [1] (Apollod. 2,155). Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) [German version] [2] Daughter of Thyestes Daughter of Thyestes, with him mother of Aegisthus, who takes revenge on Atreus for the killing of Thyestes' sons. The story of Thyestes' incest is part of the complex of myths about the descendants of Pelops. This incest is mentioned frequently (e.g. Ov. Ib. 359…

Theano

(496 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) | Frede, Michael (Oxford)
(Θεανώ/ Theanṓ). [German version] [1] Priestess of Athena in Troy Priestess of Athena in Troy, daughter of Thracian King Cisseus and of Teleclia, daughter of Ilus [1] (Hom. Il. 6,298-300; 11,223-224; schol. Eur. Hec. 3; Lucian. Imagines 19), since Euripides, sister of Hecabe as well (Eur. Hec. 3 and schol.; schol. A Hom. Il. 16,718; cf. Verg. Aen. 7,320). Mother of many children with Antenor [1] (the so-called Antenorids). As a priestess of Athena, she was of crucial importance for the Greeks in the battl…

Leda

(439 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Λήδα; Lḗda). Daughter of the Aetolian king Thestius and of Eurythemis (Apollod. 1,7,10), sister of Althaea [1] and Hypermestra [1] (Hes. Cat. fr. 23a, 3-5; Apollod. ibid.), wife of the Lacedaemonian king Tyndareos. She is credited with different children: Timandra, Clytaemnestra, Phylonoe (Hes. Cat. fr. 23a, 7-10; Apollod. 3,10,6), Phoebe (Eur. IA 49-51), especially Helene [1] and the Dioscuri Castor and Polydeuces. According to Homer, these are the sons of Tyndareos (Hom. …
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