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(8,094 words)

Author(s): Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Meßner, Reinhard | Schattauer, Thomas H. | Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Historical Development – II. The Roman Mass – III. The Mass and Protestant Worship – IV. Music I. Historical Development The roots of the mass go back to Jewish communal meals and New Testament accounts of Jesus' table fellowship (Eucharist/Communion) with his followers from different backgrounds, including sinners and outsiders. Finally his instruction to “do this in remembrance of me” points to future consummation beyond death. The structure of remembrance ( zakar) means more than just recollection; it brings the salvation wrought through Chr…

Liturgical Formulae

(242 words)

Author(s): Hofhansl, Ernst W.
[German Version] Liturgical formulae (see also Formulas, Liturgical) can be brief acclamations consisting of a single word such as amen, formulaic responses and affirmations, or longer penitential or credal formulae. Doxologies (III) and eulogies can ¶ lead to hymnic development as well as sacramental formulae (benedictions, blessings). The significance of such formulae includes both their association with the liturgical tradition of the Jewish covenant people and undivided Christianity and their linguistic role in forming the ide…

Liturgy of the Hours

(3,593 words)

Author(s): Häußling, Angelus A. | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Meßner, Reinhard | Plank, Peter | Kreuels, Matthias
[German Version] I. History – II. Liturgical Practice – III. Catholicism – IV. Orthodox Church – V. Protestantism – VI. Music I. History Praying “at all times” reflects belief in a God who is always present as Lord of every time and all time. The Early Church continued the practice of Israel, but soon enriched the anamnestic remembrance of God's saving work at certain times (deliverance in the morning, preservation of the creation in the evening) with the remembrance of experiences of salvation in the life of th…

Marriage Ceremonies

(4,074 words)

Author(s): Idelberger, Petra | Grethlein, Christian | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Steck, Wolfgang | Winter, Jörg | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Church History – III. Practical Theology – IV. Liturgics – V. Law – VI. Orthodox Church – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. History of Religion In Christendom marriage was considered a secular act until well into the Middle Ages, before it was declared a sacrament in 1184. Many religions view marriage as a religious duty, and nuptial rites (Rites of passage; see III below) often have sacral character, but civil marriages are also obligatory in certain countries. Regulations gover…


(1,422 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard Ludwig | Felmy, Karl Christian | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Germann, Michael
[German Version] I. Catholic Church – II. Orthodox Church – III. Protestantism – IV. Canon Law I. Catholic Church The term consecration is used to render various liturgical and canon law terms: ordinatio, dedicatio, consecratio, benedictio. This demonstrates that the content of the notion of consecration extends broadly. Common is the conviction of faith that an object of earthly reality is connected in a particular way with God and the saving work in Christ. This connection is related to the theology of …


(802 words)

Author(s): Hochegger, Hermann | Hofhansl, Ernst W.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. In Christian Worship I. Religious Studies Ritual gestures are among the oldest elements of human religious faith and behavior. Prehistoric burial objects, objects from cultic sites and rock paintings (Prehistoric Art) attest to the oldest ritual communication in the history of religion. In order to understand the complex symbolic language of gestures, the rich ritual symbolism of still living non-literate peoples must be analyzed. Especially in the tropical zones…

Formulas, Liturgical

(466 words)

Author(s): Hofhansl, Ernst W.
[German Version] Christian worship draws from the wealth of forms in the biblical/Judeo-Christian tradition, so that Hebrew and Aramaic acclamations such as Amen, Alleluia, Hosanna, Maranatha have also been preserved and are part of the original liturgical stock alongside formulas of blessing, greeting and confession. Doxologies, e.g. Gloria Patri as a Trinitarian reinforcement at the conclusion of psalms and in Responsories and eulogies (Eulogy) have led both to development in hymn form and also to formulas used in the celebration of the sac…


(165 words)

Author(s): Hofhansl, Ernst W.
[German Version] Rubrics (from Lat. ruber, “red”) were originally the headings on Roman legal documents, written in red ink. From the 11th century on, the red titles in ¶ liturgical books were joined by directions for celebrating mass and other forms of worship. Rubrical studies developed as a subdivision of Roman canon law, specifying the precise rules for conducting worship correctly and commenting on them; since Vatican II, this field has been replaced by the General Instruction of the Roman Missal (1970). The Evangelisches Gottesdienstbuch (2000) also includes brief directi…

Liturgical Space

(468 words)

Author(s): Hofhansl, Ernst W.
[German Version] Every age places different emphases on its understanding and use of space, as we see reflected in varying architectural styles (Church architecture, Church buildings) and theologically defined church building programs. Modern liturgical use of historical architectural spaces (in churches) must follow pertinent regulations in meeting practical liturgical needs, in the Evangelical Church in Germany as formulated in the Evangelisches Gottesdienstbuch (2000), its 2002 supplement, and the guidelines of Der evangelis-¶ che Kirchenraum (1991). For Roman Cat…


(1,697 words)

Author(s): Bieritz, Karl-Heinrich | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Rinderspacher, Jürgen P.
[German Version] I. History 1. Sunday (Lat. dies solis, Ger. Sonntag, Dutch zondag, Danish Søndag) is the second day of the Greco-Roman planetary week, which displaced the original Roman eight-day week in the 2nd century ce. Influenced by the model of the Jewish seven-day week but also by astrological notions from the Near East, it associated the days of the week with the seven known “planets” (including the sun and moon). As Mithraic religion and the cult of sol invictus (celebrated on Dec 25; introduced by the emperor Aurelian in 274 ce) gained influence, Sunday took on special sign…

Evangelische Michaelsbruderschaft

(210 words)

Author(s): Hofhansl, Ernst W.
[German Version] (EMB; “Evangelical Brotherhood of [St.] Michael”) was established in 1931 in the Chapel of the Cross in the University Church in Marburg/Lahn by 22 men (including W. Stählin and K.B. Ritter) of various professions as an association within the region of Berneuchen for service to the church. Spiritual battle (Eph 6) was to be waged personally and communally in prayer, Bible reading, and spiritual exercises, on which written and oral reports were given annually. Sacramental renewal of the church was to be guided by the key concepts of leitourgia, martyria, and diakonia. Pr…


(3,649 words)

Author(s): Idelberger, Petra | Grethlein, Christian | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Steck, Wolfgang | Winter, Jörg | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionsgeschichtlich Das Wort »T.« bzw. »trauen« wird im dt. Sprachraum seit dem 13.Jh. auch im Sinne von »anvertrauen«, »ehelich verbinden«, urspr. »dem Manne zur Frau geben« verwendet. Im christl. Kontext wurde die Vermählung bis ins MA als weltl. Akt betrachtet, bevor die Ehe zum Sakrament erklärt wurde (1184). In vielen Rel. wird die Ehe als rel. Pflicht angesehen, und die Hochzeitsriten (rite de passage/rite de confirmation; s.u. III.) haben häufig einen geheiligten Char…


(429 words)

Author(s): Hofhansl, Ernst W.
[English Version] Raum, liturgisch und praktisch-theologisch. Jede Epoche setzt neue Akzente im Verstehen und der Nutzung des R., wie dies an den verschiedenen Baustilen (Kirchenbau, Kirchengebäude) und an den theol. bestimmten kirchl. Bauprogrammen abzulesen ist. Die heutige liturgische Verwendung hist. geprägter (Kirchen-) Räume hat sich im Einklang mit einschlägigen Rechtsbestimmungen an praktischen gottesdienstlichen Erfordernissen zu orientieren, wie das im »Ev. Gottesdienstbuch« (2000), Ergänzu…


(1,466 words)

Author(s): Bieritz, Karl-Heinrich | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Rinderspacher, Jürgen P.
[English Version] I. Historisch 1. Der S. (lat. dies solis, engl. Sunday, niederländisch zondag, dänisch Søndag) ist der zweite Tag der griech.-röm. Planetenwoche, die im 2.Jh. n.Chr. die urspr. röm. Acht-Tage-Woche verdrängte. Beeinflußt vom Vorbild der jüd. Sieben-Tage-Woche, aber auch von astrologischen Vorstellungen aus dem vorderasiatischen Raum, ordnete sie die Wochentage den damals bekannten sieben »Planeten« (unter Einschluß von Sonne und Mond) zu. Als Mithrasreligion und Kult des Sol invic…


(3,126 words)

Author(s): Häußling, Angelus A. | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Meßner, Reinhard | Plank, Peter | Kreuels, Matthias
[English Version] I. Historisch Das Gebet »zu jeder Zeit« entspricht dem Glauben an einen Gott, der Herr jeder Zeit und alle Zeit gleich nahe ist. Die Alte Kirche verblieb bei der Praxis Israels, bereicherte aber bald das mit Gebetszeiten verbundene anamnetische Gedenken der Heilstaten Gottes (Rettung am Morgen, Bewahren der Schöpfung am Abend) durch das Gedenken von mit Tagzeiten verbundenen Widerfahrnissen des Heils im Leben des Herrn und der Apostel. Noch in der Spätantike entwickelte sich die k…


(164 words)

Author(s): Hofhansl, Ernst W.
[English Version] (von lat. Ruber, »rot«) bez. urspr. die mit roter Tinte geschriebenen Überschriften röm. Rechtsurkunden. Ab dem 11.Jh. kamen zu den roten Titeln in den liturgischen Büchern auch Anweisungen zur Feier der Messe und anderer Gottesdienste dazu. Daraus entwickelte sich die Rubrizistik als Teilgebiet des röm. Kirchenrechtes, welches die genauen Regeln für die rite vollzogenen Gottesdienste festlegte und kommentierte; sie wird seit dem Vaticanum II durch die »Allg. Einführung in das Rö…


(1,256 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard Ludwig | Felmy, Karl Christian | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Germann, Michael
[English Version] I. Katholisch Mit dem Begriff Weihe (W.) werden unterschiedliche liturgische und kirchenrechtliche Termini wiedergegeben: ordinatio, dedicatio, consecratio, benedictio. Dies zeigt, daß der Inhalt des Weiheverständnisses weit gespannt ist. Gemeinsam ist die Glaubensüberzeugung, daß ein Objekt der irdischen Wirklichkeit in bes. Weise mit Gott und dem Heilswirken in Christus in Verbindung steht. Diese Verbindung ist schöpfungstheol. angelegt, sie wird durch eine Weihehandlung (Wh.) s…