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Anonymus de herbis

(74 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Several MSS of Dioscorides contain an anonymous poem of 215 hexameter verses about the qualities of herbs, which was written probably in the 3rd cent. in highly stylized Greek. It refers back to Nicander, Dioscorides and Andromachus [4, the Elder] According to [1], the poetic language shows similarities with the Orphica (newest edition: [1; cf. 2]). Nutton, Vivian (London) Bibliography 1 E. Heitsch, in: AAWG 1964, 23-38 2 NGAW 1963, 2, 44-49.

Largius Designatianus

(98 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Medical writer, 4th cent. AD, author of a Latin paraphrase of a Greek letter to (an undefined) king Antigonus that is passed down under the name of Hippocrates [6] and that contained a dietetic plan and advice on treating diseases of the head, chest, belly and kidneys. This paraphrase is extant in the introduction to a medical treatise of Marcellus Empiricus, where it is preceded by a letter of L. to his sons. Both texts probably belonged to the introduction to a medical work by L. that is lost today. Nutton, Vivian (London)

Iacobus Psychrestus

(108 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Physician, the son of Hesychius of Damascus, changed his residence in the early 6th cent. AD in order to join his father's medical practice in Constantinople. He treated emperor Leo, whereupon he became a   comes and   archiatros (Chron. pasch. 8254a; Malalas, Chronographia 370 Dindorf; Photius, Bibliotheca 344A). As a pagan philosopher who was honoured in Athens and Constantinople with statues, he ordered the rich to help the poor. The latter he incidentally treated without charging a fee. His nic…

Galenism

(389 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Whereas between about AD 500 and 1100,  Galen was almost unknown in Western Europe, the orthodox  medicine of the Byzantine and Muslim world was substantially based on his concepts that were increasingly systemized and put into a logical order, with a particular focus on their theoretical content.  Galen's monotheism and teleology commended his works also to an environment dominated by religion. From the 12th cent. on, Galenism reached Western Europe in an Arabic guise where it s…

Salpe

(75 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Σάλπη/ Sálpē). Midwife of the Hellenistic era, whose medical and cosmetic recipes were quoted by Plinius [1] in his Historia naturalis (Plin. HN 28,38; 28,66; 28,82; 28,262; 32,135; 32,140). Athenaeus [3] (Ath. 322a) knows a S. as the author of παίγνια/ paígnia (‘light poems’), but it is problematic to consider the two identical [1]. Nutton, Vivian (London) Bibliography 1 D. Bain, Salpe's ΠΑΙΓΝΙΑ; Athenaeus 322a and Plin. H. N. 28,38, in: CQ 48, 1998, 262-268.

Iatrosophistes

(216 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Originally meaning a teacher of medicine (esp. in Alexandria), iatrosophistes could later refer to any experienced practitioner ( medicus sapientissimus, Corpus Glossatorum Latinorum 3,600,32 Goetz), either in orthodox medicine (e.g.  Agnellus, In Galeni De sectis commentarium 33) or in the magical arts of healing (Ps.-Callisthenes, Vita Alexandri 1,3) [1]. Contrary to the emendation by von Arnim in Dion. Chrys. 33,6, the term was probably not coined before the late 4th cent. AD (Epiphanius, Adversu…

Phanostrate

(79 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Φανοστράτη; Phanostrátē). Greek-Athenian midwife and doctor, depicted on Attic grave stelae from the end of the 4th cent. BC (IG II/III2 6873; Clairmont, 2. 890). The inclusion of the professional title midwife suggests a certain degree of specialisation in medicine and shows at the same time that women were able to work as doctors and earn a considerable income, as is suggested by the quality and individual designs of the stone mason’s craftsmanship. Nutton, Vivian (London)

Melancholy

(534 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (μέλαινα χολή/ mélaina cholḗ, ‘black bile’). The fourth humour in the tradition of Hippocratic medicine represented by De natura hominis, ch. 4, and later by Rufus of Ephesus and Galen. It was predominant in autumn, associated with the element earth, and cold and dry. It was viewed as the antithesis of blood, having many deadly properties [1]. According to Galen (De atra bile 5,104-148 K.) in its purest form it was highly destructive to everything it touched, and had its origin in the spleen. Not ev…

Phlebotomy

(371 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] In Babylonian, Egyptian and also Greek medicine, blood-letting was part of standard medical practice. This procedure was carried out either by directly opening a vein, by scarification or by using a cupping vessel. Considering how often the latter are depicted on monuments connected with physicians, cupping may have been the most common method [1]. Two notions seem to have favoured phlebotomy: on the one hand, it supposedly prevented the stagnating of the blood and its transformat…

Acesidas

(59 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Ἀκεσίδας; Akesídas). According to Paus. 5,14, A. was considered a hero in Olympia and was elsewhere known under the name Idas. His name offers the assumption that he was worshipped as a healing god, who possibly shared a healing cult, which was very common on the Peloponnese, with  Paeonius,  Iason and  Heracles. Nutton, Vivian (London)

Erotianus

(328 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Greek grammarian, middle or end of the 1st cent. AD, author of a glossary of Hippocratic words, which he dedicated to  Andromachus [4 or 5], a doctor at the imperial court in Rome [2; 3]. The alphabetic structure of the glossary, in its surviving form, does not go back to E. since, in his preface (9), he expressly emphasizes that he had explained the words in the sequence of their appearance in c. 37 Hippocratic texts which in turn could be classified into 1) semiotic, 2) physiological-aetiological, 3) therapeutic texts, 4) miscellaneous, 5) texts on…

Acesias

(50 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Ἀκεσίας; Akesías). Greek doctor of 3rd cent. BC (?). According to an intentionally ambiguous proverb, he only treated those who suffered the worst (suffering or doctor) (Aristoph. Byz., Zenob. 1,52). It is possible that he also wrote about culinary art (Ath. 12, 516c). Nutton, Vivian (London)

Praxagoras

(541 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Πραξαγόρας; Praxagóras) of Cos. Doctor, at the end of the 4th cent. BC, teacher of Herophilus [1], Phylotimus, Pleistonicus and Xenophon. His family claimed its descent from Asclepius; his grandfather who shared the same name and his father, Nicarchus, were likewise doctors. His family continued to be very prominent on Cos for generations [1]. A poem composed by Crinagoras still survives on a statue in his honour (Anth. Plan. 273). Amongst the works of this doctor are a treatise on therapy in at least 4 books, a work about diseases in at least 3 bo…

Callianax

(110 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Καλλιάναξ; Kalliánax). Doctor, adherent of  Herophilus [1] and member of his ‘house’, which possibly refers to the fact that he worked in the mid 3rd cent. BC [1].  Bacchius [1] in his memoir on the early followers of Herophilus (Galen in Hippocratis Epidemiarum 6 comment. 4,10 = CMG V 10,2,2,203), mentions that C. quoted Homer and the Greek tragic writers if his patients told him that they were afraid of dying. He gave them to understand by this that only the immortals could esca…

Acron [of Acragas]

(131 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Ἄκρων; Ákrōn) [of Acragas] Son of a doctor of the same name (Diog. Laert. 8,65), older contemporary of Hippocrates. He was supposed to have rid Athens of the pest by lighting big fires in 430 BC (Plut. De Is. et Os. 80 [cf. 1]). The  Empiricists (Ps.-Gal. 14,638) considered A. as founder of their school and as such he entered the doxographic tradition [2]. It is possible that he participated in the debates regarding the epistemological value of sensory perception (he was familiar …

Euryphon of Cnidus

(339 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Greek physician, mid 5th cent. BC. The story recounted in Sor. Vita Hipp. 5, that E. cured Perdiccas II of Macedonia of an illness caused by unrequited love, arose comparatively late and is rather fantastical. According to Galen (17a,886), he provided the most important contributions to the so-called ‘Cnidian Sentences’, which have survived only in fragments [1. 65-66; 2. 14-26]. In the opinion of some ancient scholars some of his works, especially those dealing with dietetics, were taken up into the Hippocratic Corpus (Gal. 6,473; 7,960; 16,3). E. regarded disea…

Summaria Alexandrinorum

(296 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] In Late Antiquity in Alexandria [1] writings by Galenus and to a lesser extent by Hippocrates [6] were assembled into a medical compendium. Known as the '16 Books of Galen', it covers the basic areas of medicine  (including anatomy, physiology and therapeutics). According to Arab sources [1], a number of teachers ( Iatrosophistḗs ) in Alexandria are supposed to have written a series of summaries or abridgements of the books contained in this compendium, which were then collected under the title SA and translated into Arabic and perhaps also into Hebrew [2]. In…

Philagrius

(127 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Φιλάγριος; Philágrios). Doctor from Epirus, fl. 3rd-4th cents. AD; he practised in Thessalonica and was the author of more than 70 books: treatises on dietetics, gout, dropsy and rabies as well as a commentary on Hippocrates [1]. He is often cited by later authors, especially in Arabic, for his treatment of diseases of the liver and spleen. Doctrinally, he often follows Galen, but pays particular attention to pneuma (Pneumatists) as the co-ordinating force in organisms. His name appears often in garbled form as Filaretus (e.g. frr. 131-133: Rhazes, Continens, V…

Lippitudo

(175 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] An eye disease characterized by exudation, covering a variety of specific diseases like trachoma and conjunctivitis. A dry variety of lippitudo, xerophthalmía, in which the purulent eyes become stuck shut over night is also described (Celsus, De medicina 6,6,29). Celsus [7] (ibid. 6,6,2) reports a large number of ointments and other agents against lippitudo, an extremely common condition; this is confirmed by many ‘oculists' stamps’ for eye ointments ( Kollyrion) with the inscriptions ‘against lippitudo’ and by the large number of manufacturers of such …

Adamantius

(110 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] [1] Doctor Doctor and iatrosophist, who as Jew was expelled from Alexandria in c. AD 412, converted to Christianity in Constantinople and returned to Alexandria. Author of an abridged version of the Physiognomy of  Polemon of Laodicea, (ed. R. Förster 1893). Some prescriptions, which are ascribed to him, are handed down by Oribasius (Syn. ad Eustathium 2,58-59; 3,24-25; 9,57). He is probably not the author of the treatise ‘About the Winds’, Ed. V. Rose 1864), which refers to Peripatetic meteorology and apparently dates from the 3rd cent. AD.  …

Vulva

(163 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] According to Varro [2] (Rust. 2,1,19) derived from Latin volvere, 'roll', by which is meant the swathing of a fetus. In the early Imperial Period, vulva, like matrix, was used in addition to the technical term uterus as a term for the womb [1]. All three terms remained in use throughout Antiquity; in late Latin medical authors, vulva seldom occurs. In the course of time the term changed in meaning, in that it also included the vagina (Celsus, De medicina 4,1,12) and even the clitoris (Iuv. 6,129). In his Etymology (Isid. Orig. 11,1,137), Isidorus [9] of Seville connec…

Archiatros

(357 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (ἀρχιατρός; archiatrós). In the original use of the name during Hellenistic times, archiatros was the title of the king's personal physician. The term first appeared in connection with the Seleucids (IDelos 1547, cf. TAM V 1,689). A similar title, wr sinw, ‘supreme physician’, is documented in pre-Ptolemaic Egyptian texts; it is missing from early Ptolemaic papyri purely by accident. Dating to 50 BC, documentations are extant from Egypt (Athenagoras, SB 5216) and Pontus (IDelos 1573) [2. 218-226]. A physician known at t…

Pneumatists

(494 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (πνευματικοί/ pneumatikoí, Latin pneumatici). Greek medical sect, founded by Athenaeus [6] of Attaleia under the influence of Stoicism. Galen (De causis contentivis 2) makes Athenaeus a pupil of Posidonius [2], which might indicate a date in the latter half of the 1st cent. BC. However, Cornelius Celsus [7] who wrote in Rome in the mid-1st cent. AD, seems not to have been aware of this sect at all, and its most famous representatives - Agathinus, Herodotus [3], Antyllus [2] and Archi…

Mustio

(169 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (also Muscio) Translator and adapter into Latin of two gynaecological treatises by  Soranus of Ephesus.One of these, now lost in Greek, was a shorter manual of questions and answers; the second the celebrated Gynaikeîa (‘Gynaecology). Some MSS of M.'s compendium end with an appendix listing vaginal pessaries. Although not a faithful translation of Soranus, M.'s adaptation does offer help in the constitution of the Greek text, and it was the most popular treatise on gynaecology to survive from Antiquity into the …

Archigenes

(340 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Ἀρχιγένης; Archigénēs) of Apamea. Physician, student of  Agathinus, lived under Trajan (AD 98-117) and died at the age of 63 (Suda s. v. Archigenes). He was an eclecticist and had close ties to the Hippocratic view that disease is caused by the dyscrasia of hot, cold, moist and dry. A. was predominantly influenced by the Pneumatists and wrote extensively about the study of the pulse. Galen (8,625-635) criticized his list of eight different pulse qualities as too tenuous. Some of t…

Agathinus

(219 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Ἀγαθῖνος; Agathînos) of Sparta (Ps.-Gal. 19,353). Greek doctor of the first cent., student of Athenaeus of Attaleia, teacher of Archigenes and the Pneumatist  Herodotus. Even though he was mostly counted among the Pneumatists, some believed that he had founded his own, the Episynthetic or Eclectic School. The handed-down fragments of his writings allow connections to the Empiricists and Methodists to be recognized. He wrote about medicines (a fragment about stinking hellebore is i…

Callimorphus

(80 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Military doctor, who according to Lucian (Quomodo historia 16,24 = FGrH II 210), wrote, in a highly tragic and stilted style, a history of the Parthian Wars of Lucius Verus in the years AD 162-166 that bore the title Parthica. Unless this was a figment of Lucian's imagination, it appears that he served in the Parthian War, either in the legio VI Ferrata, or in an ala contariorum (a troop division of pike-bearers). Nutton, Vivian (London)

Penis

(165 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (φαλλός/ phallós, lat. mentula (for synonyms, see [1]). Its anatomy, including the glans, scrotum, and testicles, was established by 250 BC, but its physiology, especially its capacity as to achieve an erection, was harder to explain. Galen ( De usu partium 15,3) called it a 'nerve-like part', and in De motibus dubiis discussed the possible effects of imagination on the process. Although circumcision (Circumcisio) was seen as essentially Jewish, infibulation was widely practised. Medical and surgical texts offer a variety of treat…

Melancholy

(1,547 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Blamberger, Günter
Nutton, Vivian (London) [German version] I. Medicine (CT) In the 5th cent. AD, the originally Galenic notion (Galenism) that melancholy was a temperament ruled by black bile, one of the four main humours, irreversibly merged with the older notion of a specific illness by that name. In that way, black bile had come to be seen as the most dangerous bodily fluid, and melancholics seemed more than ever afflicted with all kinds of diseases. Isidorus [9] Etymologiae X 176, derived the term malus from an excess of black bile, which caused melancholics to avoid human company and mad…

Arsenios

(201 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἀρσένιος). [English version] [1] Heiliger Heiliger, aus Adelsfamilie, geb. 354 n.Chr. in Rom, 445 gest. in Troia bei Memphis in Ägypten. Kaiser Theodosius I. lud ihn nach Konstantinopel ein, um seine Kinder Arcadius und Honorius zu erziehen. Nach vielen Jahren im Kaiserpalast zog sich A. nach Ägypten zurück und lebte als Eremit. Eine biographische Legende findet sich bei Simeon Metaphrastes. Die Authentizität der Belehrungen für Mönche und der Apophthegmata, die ihm zugeschrieben wurden, ist recht zweifelhaft. Montanari, Franco (Pisa) Bibliography A. Jülicher, RE 2, 1273 ODB I …

Medizin

(5,687 words)

Author(s): Böck, Barbara (Madrid) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] I. Mesopotamien Magische Formen - wie Beschwörungen, Apotropaea und Prophylakteria - und rationale Elemente, d.h. empirisch gewonnene Behandlungsmethoden mit pflanzlichen, mineralischen und tierischen Substanzen, bestimmen das Bild altmesopot. M. Die Behandlung von Krankheiten, welche man als von Dämonen hervorgerufen, als von den Göttern gesandte Strafe und als Folge von Behexung verstand oder auch auf natürliche Ursachen zurückführte, oblag zwei Experten, dem eher kräuterkundigen asû, der bereits Mitte des 3. Jt.v.Chr. bezeugt ist, und dem…

Aristoxenos

(794 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
( ̆Αριστόξενος). [English version] [1] von Tarent, Musiker, Musiktheoretiker, Philosoph und Biograph, 4. Jh. v. Chr. von Tarent, Musiker, Musiktheoretiker, Philosoph, Biograph, μουσικός genannt. Nach Suda Sohn des Mnesias oder des Musikers Spintharos, Schüler des Vaters, eines Lampros von Erythrai, des Pythagoreers Xenophilos und zuletzt des Aristoteles. In Mantineia wandte A. sich der Philos. zu. In Korinth will er vom Tyrannen Dionysios II. (nach dessen Verbannung aus Sizilien 344) die Geschichte von Damon un…

Alexion

(160 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[English version] [1] Arzt und Freund Ciceros, gest. 44 v. Chr. Arzt und Freund Ciceros (Cic. Att. 15,1-3), der im Jahre 44 v. Chr. plötzlich an einer undefinierbaren Krankheit starb. Sein Kummer über den Verlust dieses summus medicus hielt Cicero nicht davon ab, sich zu erkundigen, wen A. in seinem Testament bedacht hatte. Nutton, Vivian (London) [English version] [2] griech. Grammatiker 1. Jh. n.Chr. (Ἀλεζίων). Griech. Grammatiker der 2. H. des 1. Jh. n. Chr., genannt χωλός (der Hinkende): er verfaßte eine Epitome der Symmikta des Didymos, die von Herennius Philon zitiert und…

Andromachos

(657 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἀνδρόμαχος). [English version] [1] Inhaber einer doreá in Ägypten (Mitte 3. Jh. v. Chr.) Zwischen 253 und 249 v. Chr. in Ägypten als Inhaber einer δωρεά von 10 000 Arurai bezeugt. “Vater” des Ptolemaios Andromachu (?) [1]. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [English version] [2] Stratege Syriens und Phoinikiens (Ende 3. Jh. v. Chr.) Aspendier, befehligte 217 v. Chr. bei Raphia die Phalanx, anschließend Stratege Syriens und Phoinikiens. PP 2, 2150. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [English version] [3] Ptolemäischer Beamter (1.H. 2. Jh. v. Chr.) Sohn der Eirene, Enkel des Ptolemaios Agesarchu; ca.…

Polybos

(647 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Πόλυβος). [English version] [1] Name zahlreicher Nebenfiguren im griech. Mythos Name zahlreicher Nebenfiguren im griech. Mythos, u. a. ein Troer, Sohn des Antenor [1] (Hom. Il. 11,59), von Neoptolemos [1] getötet (Q. Smyrn. 8,86); ein Ithakesier, Freier der Penelope, von Eumaios getötet (Hom. Od. 22,243 und 284), sowie auch dessen Vater (Hom. Od. 1,399); ein Phaiake (Hom. Od. 8,373); myth. König in Theben (Hom. Od. 4,126). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [English version] [2] myth. König von Korinth Myth. König von Korinth, Gatte der Merope [4] oder Periboia [4]. Sie ziehen den vo…

Mantias

(245 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Μαντίας). [English version] [1] Athenischer Stratege, 360/359 v.Chr. Sohn des Mantitheos aus Thorikos; 377/76 v.Chr. Tamias der Werften (IG II2 1622,435f); 360/359 v.Chr. athenischer Stratege einer Flottenabteilung und Hilfstruppe, die dem maked. Prätendenten Argaios gegen Philippos II. zur Hilfe geschickt wurde; M. war durch sein Warten in Methone an der Niederlage des Argaios mitschuldig (Diod. 16,2,6 und 16,3,5; ca. 358/7); durch diabolḗ (“böse Verleumdung, Verunglimpfung”) verzerrt sind Details über seine Familie bei Demosthenes (or. 39 und 40). Zu s…

Alkon

(255 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Princeton) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἄλκων). [English version] [1] Sohn des Erechtheus Sohn des Erechtheus, der nach Chalkis floh. Vater der Chalkiope (Proxenos FGrH 425 F 2), oder Sohn des euböischen Heros Abas (Ephoros F 33). Seinen Sohn Phaleros, der in Phaleron als Heros verehrt wird, schickt er zur Argofahrt mit (Apoll. Rhod. 1,95; Hyg. fab. 14); nach Orph. Arg. 144 kommt Phaleron vielmehr von Mysien und gründet die thessalische Stadt Gyrton. Graf, Fritz (Princeton) [English version] [2] Sohn Hippokoons von Amyklai, von Herakles getötet Sohn des Hippokoon von Amyklai (Apollod. 3,124), von Herakles getöte…

Epainetos

(218 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Verf. toxikologischer Schriften Heilpflanzenkundiger und Verfasser toxikologischer Schriften, der zwischen dem 1. Jh.v.Chr. und dem 3. Jh.n.Chr. lebte. Seine Ansichten über die gefährlichen Eigenschaften des Eisenhuts, Schierlings, Opiums, der Alraune, des Bilsenkrauts, giftiger Pilze, des schwarzen Chamaeleons (einer Pflanze, deren Blätter die Farbe wechseln können), des Stierbluts, der Bleiglätte und des Seehasen sowie seine Mittel gegen diese Gifte werden in Ps.-Aelius Promotus' De venenis (ed. princeps, S. Ihm, 1995) ausführlich wiede…

Archagathos

(342 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἀρχάγαθος). [English version] [1] Sohn des Agathokles [2] (Ende 4. Jh. v. Chr.) Vor seiner Rückkehr nach Sizilien 308/7 v. Chr. übergab Agathokles [2] das afrikan. Kommando seinem ältesten Sohn A. trotz dessen geringer mil. Begabung. Da dieser die Invasionsarmee zersplitterte, errangen die Karthager bald bedeutende Erfolge und schlossen A. in Tunes ein (Diod. 20,57-61). Auch Agathokles konnte nach seiner Rückkehr die Lage in Afrika nicht mehr wenden und floh unter Preisgabe des Heeres nach Sizilien. Infolgedessen erschlugen die erbitterten Soldaten A. (Diod. 20,68). Meister, K…

Bakcheios

(368 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Najock, Dietmar (Berlin)
(Βακχεῖος). [English version] [1] aus Tanagra, herophileischer Arzt, um 250-200 v. Chr. von Tanagra. Nach Erotian (31,10) Arzt und Schüler des Herophilos (Gal. 18 A, 187 K.), um 250-200 v.Chr. tätig. Neben seinen Schriften über Pulslehre, Pathologie und Pharmakologie verfaßte er auch Erinnerungen an Herophilos und dessen Schüler. Sein Ansehen verdankt er seinem Hippokratesglossar, in dem sich gelegentlich Lesarten erh. haben, die in den Mss. hippokratischer Schriften fehlen. Das drei B. umfassende Werk führ…

Hebamme

(570 words)

Author(s): Stol, Marten (Leiden) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] I. Alter Orient H. sind in Babylonien und Äg. nur aus Anspielungen in lit. Texten bekannt. Im Atraḫasis-Mythos öffnet die Muttergöttin die Gebärmutter, läßt die Frau auf dem “Ziegel” gebären (vgl. Ex 1,16) und bestimmt beim Abschneiden der Nabelschnur das Geschick des Kindes. Stol, Marten (Leiden) Bibliography E. Brunner-Traut, s.v. H., LÄ 2, 1074f.  M. Stol, Zwangerschap en geboorte bij de Babyloniërs en in de Bijbel, 1983, 84-86. [English version] II. Griechenland Die Gesch. von der ersten H. mit Namen Agnodike (Hyg. fab. 274), die angeblich als Ma…

Dogmatiker

(589 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] [1] Philosophen Ursprünglich skeptischer Ausdruck zur Bezeichnung derer, die sich eine Meinung ( dógma; vgl. S. Emp. P.H. 1,13) - vor allem eine philos. oder wiss. - zu eigen machen, welche sich, nach skeptischer Auffassung, nicht rechtfertigen, geschweige denn beweisen läßt (S. Emp. P.H. 1,3). Von Pyrrhoneern in einem erweiterten Sinn auch auf Akademiker angewendet, welche sich Meinungen zu eigen machen, z.B. die, daß nichts gewußt werden könne (vgl. das ἰδίως bei S. Emp., ebd.). Wegen der i…

Decimius

(195 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
Römischer Familienname, ältere Form und inschr. Decumus (Schulze, 159), abgeleitet von Decimus. Histor. Namensträger sind seit der 2. H. des 2. Jh.v.Chr. bezeugt. [English version] [1] D., C. Gesandter nach Ägypten 168 v.Chr. 171 v.Chr. Gesandter nach Kreta, 169 praetor peregrinus, 168 Gesandter nach Ägypten. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [2] D., Num. Bundesgenossenführer im Krieg gegen Hannibal 217 v.Chr. aus Bovianum in Samnium, brachte 217 bei Gereonium mit einem Kontingent der Bundesgenossen dem von Hannibal schwer bedrängten magister equitum Q. Minuci…

Philistion

(504 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Φιλιστίων). [English version] [1] Ph. von Lokroi griech. Arzt, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Arzt aus dem it. Lokroi, wirkte um 364 v.Chr. In diesem Jahr soll er dem 2. Brief Platons zufolge Arzt von Dionysios [2] II. in Syrakus gewesen sein. Ein Fr. des Komödiendichters Epikrates [4] (Athen. 2,59c) wurde überzeugend dahingehend interpretiert, daß er jedoch bald darauf nach Athen gekommen sei. Er schrieb über Diätetik, Pharmakologie und Chirurgie. Darüberhinaus enthält der Anonymus Londiniensis (20,25ff. = fr. 4 Wellmann)…

Philotas

(537 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Φιλώτας). [English version] [1] Vornehmer Makedone, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Ältester Sohn des Parmenion [1], stand nach Philippos' [4] Ehe mit Kleopatra [II 2] bei der Pixodaros-Affäre zu ihm gegen Alexandros [4] d.Gr. Nach Philippos' [4] II. Tod (336 v.Chr.) und der Ermordung Attalos' [1] durch Parmenion [1] avancierte Ph. zum Kommandeur über die hetaíroi , die er in den großen Schlachten gegen die Perser führte. Im Herbst 330 starb sein Bruder Nikanor [1]. Ph. blieb zur Leichenfeier zurück, während Alexandros den Marsch fortsetzte. …

Philaretos

(316 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Φιλάρετος). [English version] [1] griech. Medizinschriftsteller Griech. medizinischer Schriftsteller. Eine Schrift, die Ph.' Namen trägt und letztlich auf Galenos' Pulslehre zurückgeht, stellt eine byz. Überarbeitung (aus dem 9. Jh.?) der pneumatisch beeinflußten Schrift De pulsibus ad Antonium (= Gal. 19,629-642 K.) dar (Pneumatiker). Ob Ph. der Verf. der Originalschrift oder der Überarbeitung war, wird kontrovers diskutiert. Ein Zusammenhang mit Philagrios kann nicht ausgeschlossen werden, da dessen Name gelegentlich in Ph. en…

Antiochis

(263 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἀντιοχίς). [English version] [1] Zehnte att. Phyle Zehnte att. Phyle seit der Phylenreform des Kleisthenes (IG II2 1700 ff.); eponymer Heros der Heraklessohn Antiochos. A. umfaßte im 4. Jh. v. Chr. 1 Asty-, 6 Mesogeia- und 6 Paralia-Demen, die mit 28 Buleutai stärker vertreten waren als jede der beiden anderen Trittyen. 3 Demen wechselten 308/7 v. Chr. in die maked. Phylen Antigonis bzw. Demetrias (Atene, Kolonai, Thorai) und kehrten nach deren Auflösung 201/200 v. Chr. in die A. zurück; Atene fiel an die Atta…

Abas

(302 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἄβας). [English version] [1] Figur pelop. und zentralgriech. Mythen Mythos der Peloponnes und Zentralgriechenlands: a) Argos. Sohn des Lynkeus und der Hypermestra. Durch Aglaia, Tochter des Mantineus, Vater der Zwillinge Akrisios und Proitos (Apollod. 2,24; Hes. fr. 129 M-W; vgl. Paus. 2,16,2; 10,35,1) und der Idomene, Mutter von Bias und Melampous durch Amythaon (Apollod. 2,24). Lynkeus gab A. den Schild, den Danaos der Hera geweiht, und zu dessen Feier er den Agon ἄσπις ἐν Ἄργει gegründet hatte (Hyg. …

Euenor

(202 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rom) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] [1] Bildhauer in Athen, um 490-470 v. Chr. Bildhauer in Athen. Auf der Akropolis tragen drei Basen um 490-470 v.Chr. seine Signatur. Mit einer davon wird die sog. Angelitos-Athena (Athen, AM Inv. Nr. 140) verbunden, nicht ohne Widerspruch. Neudecker, Richard (Rom) Bibliography A.E. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis, 1949, Nr. 14, 22, 23. B.S. Ridgway, The Severe Style in Greek sculpture, 1970, 29-30, Abb. 39. [English version] [2] aus Argos/Akarnanien, griech. Arzt, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Griech. Arzt aus Argos in Akarnania; er lebte in Athen, …

Onasandros

(538 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
(Ονάσανδρος). [English version] [1] Arzt auf Kos, ca. 250 v. Chr. Vom Gemeinwesen von Kos angestellter Arzt, ca. 250 v.Chr. Als Einwohner von Kos ohne Bürgerrechte ging er bei einem Gemeindearzt ( archiatrós ) in Halasarna in die Lehre, wurde dessen Assistent und folgte ihm nach Kos, wo er selbst vom Gemeinwesen als Arzt angestellt wurde. Dort eröffnete er eine eigene Praxis, behandelte aber weiterhin, mitunter ohne Honorar, seine alten Patienten aus Halasarna. Die Inschr., die seine Laufbahn bezeugt, gehö…
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