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Maiphath

(45 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[English version] Nach Ptol. 6,7,10 (Μαιφάθ κώμη) Ort im Gebiet der Ἀδραμίται/ Adramítai (Küstenbewohner Ḥaḍramauts) nahe der Küste nordöstl. von dem Hafen Kane. Befand sich wohl im Wādı̄ Maifa und ist nicht zu verwechseln mit dem im Wādı̄ Maifaa gelegenen Maipha. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)

Prophet

(2,453 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen) | Wick, Peter (Basel) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[English version] I. Einleitung Der Begriff P. hat als Fremdwort über die griech. Bibelübersetzung Eingang in zahlreiche Sprachen gefunden. Die Septuaginta übersetzt mit prophḗtēs in der Regel das hebr. Subst. nābī, das etym. mit akkadisch nabû(m) = “Berufener” zusammenhängt. Seither hat sich ein sehr viel weiterer Gebrauch durchgesetzt. Zur Präzisierung bietet es sich an, Ciceros Unterscheidung zw. induktiver und intuitiver Mantik aufzunehmen ( genus artificiosum, genus naturale: Cic. div. 1,11,34; 2,26 f.) und nur die Vertreter der letzteren als P. zu bezei…

Arabisch-islamisches Kulturgebiet

(9,711 words)

Author(s): Strohmaier, Gotthard (Berlin) RWG | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg i. Br.) RWG
Strohmaier, Gotthard (Berlin) RWG I. Naher Osten (RWG) [English version] A. Entstehung und Charakter des arabisch-islamischen Kulturgebiets (RWG) In einem Machtvakuum zw. Byzanz und Persien gründete der Prophet Mohammed auf der arab. Halbinsel 622 ein neues theokratisches und militantes Staatswesen. In weniger als einem Jh. reichte es vom Atlantischen Ozean bis zum Indus. Erleichtert wurden die Eroberungen durch eine milde Steuergesetzgebung und eine tolerante Religionspolitik, welche die Juden und die Christen,…

Mazdak

(266 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[English version] Führer einer rel.-revolutionären Bewegung im sāsānidischen Iran unter König Cavades [1] (488-496, 498/9-531 n.Chr.). Wesentliches Merkmal ist ein starker sozialer Egalitarismus. Die Erforschung des Mazdakismus stößt auf die grundsätzliche Schwierigkeit, daß fast alle Nachr. aus Quellen stammen, die diesem feindlich gesinnt sind. Der einzige zeitgenössische Bericht ist in der syr. Chronik des Iošua Stylites enthalten; aus späterer Zeit stammen byz. (Prok. BP 1,5-11; 2,9; Agathias, Historiae 4,27-30; I…

Muza

(101 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Indienhandel (Μούζα ἐμπόριον, Ptol. 6,7,7; 8,22,6; peripl. maris Erythraei 6,10,12f; 16; Plin. nat. 6,104). Hafenstadt der Mapharitis (Maāfir) an der südarab. Küste des Roten Meeres nördl. von al-Muḫā an der Stelle des h. Maušiǧ. Der h. Ort Mauzaa landeinwärts trägt den alten Namen. M. wird von Plinius neben Ocelis und Kane als einer der Häfen erwähnt, die von Weihrauchhändlern angelaufen wurden. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography L. Casson, The Periplus Maris Erythraei, 1989, 147-148  H. von Wiss…

Ogyris

(58 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[English version] (Ὤγυρις). Insel im arab. Meer, auf der sich in ant. Zeit ein Grabmal des für das Meer eponymen Erythras befunden haben soll (Deinias FGrH 306 F 7; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὤ.). Vielleicht die Insel Maṣīra. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography F. Jacoby, FGrH, Komm. zu Nearchos FGrH 133 F 1,37,1-4  R.M. Burrell, s.v. Maṣīra, EI2 6, 729a.

Magie, Magier

(6,634 words)

Author(s): Wiggermann, Frans (Amsterdam) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Graf, Fritz (Princeton) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Thür, Gerhard (Graz) | Et al.
I. Alter Orient [English version] A. Allgemein Altoriental. und äg. M. beruht auf einem Weltbild, das der Religion entgegengesetzt ist. Im mag. Weltbild sind Menschen, Götter und Dämonen durch Sympathien und Antipathien miteinander und mit dem Kosmos verbunden, im rel. Weltbild wird alles durch die Götter zu ihrem eigenen Nutzen gestaltet; die Beziehungen zw. Mensch und Kosmos sind Folge bewußter Maßnahmen der Götter. In der rel. Praktik jedoch sind beide Weltbilder integriert und komplementär. Das rel…

Masonitai

(44 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[English version] Nach Ptol. 6,7,25 (Μασονῖται) Stamm südwestl. des Klímax óros (Κλῖμαξ ὄρος, h. Ǧabal Išbīl) in Arabia Felix. Hängt wohl mit maṣanī (“Festungen”) zusammen. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography H.v. Wissmann, Zur Gesch. und Landeskunde von Altsüdarabien (SAWW, Philos.-histor. Klasse 246), 1964, 415.

Sabe

(119 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] City in Arabia Felix (Σάβη/ Sábē: Ptol. 8,22,15). Unlocated city in the interior of  Arabia Felix. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Capital of Mapharitis in Arabia (Σάβη βασίλειον/ Sábē basíleion: Ptol. 6,7,42; Σάυη/ Sáuē: Peripl. m. r. 22; Save: Plin. HN 6,104; Šawwā, Šawwām: CIS 4,240,7; 314,14). Capital of  Mapharitis, in the hinterland of Muza, to the south of Taizz. At the time of the Periplous maris Erythraei it was the residence of a prince Χόλαιβος/ Chólaibos. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography L. Casson (ed.), Periplu…

Arabic-Islamic Cultural Sphere, The

(10,866 words)

Author(s): Strohmaier, Gotthard (Berlin RWG) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
Strohmaier, Gotthard (Berlin RWG) I. The Near East (CT) [German version] A. Origin and Development of the Arabic-Islamic Cultural Sphere (CT) In a power vacuum between Byzantium and Persia, the prophet Mohammed founded a new theocratic and militant state on the Arabian peninsula in 622. Within less than a century, it extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indus. These conquests were facilitated by mild taxation laws and tolerant religious policies: Jews and Christians, who for the most part belonged to national chu…

Malangitae

(70 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Μαλαγγῖται; Malangîtai). According to Ptol. 6,7,23, a people in central Arabia who lived on the Máreitha órē (Μάρειθα Ὄρη), i.e. on the Āriḍ. Probably corresponds to the tribe of the Maḏḥiǧ which was expelled by Imru al-Qais, the king of the Lakhmids in c. AD 300. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography H. v. Wissmann, Zur Geschichte und Landeskunde von Altsüdarabien (SAWW, Phil.-histor. Klasse 246), 1964, 175, 195f., 404-406.

Maephath

(52 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] According to Ptol. 6,7,10 (Μαιφάθ κώμη; Maipháth kṓmē), town in the region of the Ἀδραμίται/ Adramítai (coastal dwellers of Ḥaḍramaut) near the coast north-east of the harbour of Cane. Was probably situated in Wādı̄ Maifa and should not be confused with Maipha situated in Wādı̄ Maifaa. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)

Magic, Magi

(7,505 words)

Author(s): Wiggermann, Frans (Amsterdam) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Thür, Gerhard (Graz) | Et al.
I. Ancient Orient [German version] A. General The magic of the ancient Orient and of Egypt is based on a view of the world that runs counter to that of religion. In the world-view of magic, men, gods and demons are tied to each other and to the cosmos by sympathies and antipathies, whereas in the religious world view everything is created by the gods for their own purposes; the relations between men and the cosmos are the result of deliberate actions of the gods. In the practice of religion, however, b…

Malichae

(44 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Μαλῖχαι; Malîchai). According to Ptol. 6,7,23, a people of Arabia felix, in the hinterland of the Red Sea. The M. probably correspond to the Banū Malik in ʿAṣīr in modern Saudi Arabia (cf. Baramalacum, Plin. HN 6,157). Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)

Magulaba

(63 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] According to Ptol. 6,7,37 (Μαγουλάβα/ Magoulába, also Μαγούλαυα/ Magoúlaba), town in Arabia Felix between Silaeum and Menambis. Probably the identical to modern al-Maḥǧar al-Alā. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography H. v. Wissmann, Zur Geschichte und Landeskunde von Altsüdarabien (SAWW, Phil.-histor. Klasse 246), 1964, 417 (map) Id., M. Höfner, Beiträge zur historischen Geographie des vorislamischen Arabien (AAWM, Geistesund sozialwiss. Klasse), 1952, no. 4, 37.

Ocelis

(99 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Ὄκηλις/ Ókēlis, Ptol. Geog. 6,7,7; Peripl. m. r. 25; Acila, Ocilia, Plin. HN 6,104; Str. 16,4,5). Small monsoon harbour on the Arabian coast (Bāb al-Mandab). In the 3rd and 2nd century BC, O. belonged to Qatabān, then to the Ḥimyār kingdom. It probably corresponds to the modern harbour of Al-Šaiḫ Saīd. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography L. Casson, The Periplus Maris Erythraei, 1989, 157-158  A. Sprenger, Die alte Geographie Arabiens, 1966, 67, 77  H. von Wissmann, Zur Geschichte und Landeskunde von Altsüdarabien (SAWW, Philol.-histor. Kl. 2…

Macoraba

(76 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Μακοράβα; Makorába). According to Ptol. 6,7,32, city in north-western Arabia Felix, already at an early time equated with Mecca. Based on the southern Semitic root mkrb (‘temple’, ‘sanctuary’ but also ‘altar’). In pre-Islamic Mecca there was a temple to the moon god Hubal, who was worshipped by the tribes in the neighbourhood. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography H. v. Wissmann, Zur Geschichte und Landeskunde von Altsüdarabien (SAWW, Phil.-histor. Klasse 246), 1964, 185, n. 380.

Prophets

(2,681 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen) | Wick, Peter (Basle) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] I. Introduction The term P. has found its way as a loanword from the Greek translation of the Bible into numerous languages. The Septuagint regularly uses prophḗtēs to translate the Hebrew substantive nābī, which is etymologically connected with Akkadian nabû(m) = 'one who is called'. Since then a very much wider use has emerged. For a more precise demarcation of the concept, it is useful to adopt Cicero's distinction between inductive and intuitive divination ( genus artificiosum, genus naturale: Cic. Div. 1,11,34; 2,26 f.) and to describe as prophets onl…

Ritual

(8,221 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | von Lieven, Alexandra (Berlin) | Böck, Barbara (Madrid) | Haas, Volkert (Berlin) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Et al.
[German version] I. Term Ritual refers to an elaborate sequence of individual rites which, following an established ritual syntax, are logically connected within a certain functional context. Rituals are not limited to religious contexts but exist in other cultural contexts, political as well as social. The significance of rituals for those who participate in them can be reduced neither to an integrative function (legitimation ritual) nor to a temporary disabling of the regular structure - the two e…

Hispania, Iberia

(5,486 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) | Untermann, Jürgen (Pulheim/Köln) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
I. Geography and history [German version] A. Name Since the 1st cent. AD, H. has referred more and more to the entire Iberian Peninsula. Although the name Hispania is only attested since the time of the 2nd Punic War (218-201 BC; Liv. 21,2; Enn. Ann. 503), it is the oldest of all, because it is derived from Phoenician í-shephanním, ‘rabbit coast’ (according to a new interpretation ‘land of metal plates’). A further name was Ophioussa (‘land of the snakes’; Avien. 148; 152; 172; 196), which was probably coined by the Phocaeans when they came into contact with some reg…

Paradise

(1,180 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] I. Concept The Greek word parádeisos (παράδεισος/ parádeisos, Latin paradisus) or Hebrew pardēs comes from the ancient Iranian pairidaeza, meaning “surrounding walls, round enclosure, something that is enclosed,” and originally referred to an enclosed park. In the ancient Orient, gardens, particularly in conjunction with palace and temple grounds, “epitomized a wholesome living space” as well as representing a “visible domestication of "chaotic" powers” [4. 705] (especially when wild animals were k…

Wisdom literature

(3,886 words)

Author(s): Böck, Barbara (Madrid) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | S.SC. | Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
I. Ancient Near East [German version] A. Definition When applying the term wisdom literature (WL) to ancient Mesopotamian literature we need to distinguish between the idea of wisdom (Akkadian nēmequ, Sumerian nam.kù.zu, 'precious knowledge') [10; 11] as 'wealth of general human experience' and the concept of wisdom as expertise in a cult. On the one hand, there are a number of non-homogenous, formally different literary genres in which knowledge, procedures, advice and behavioural guidelines are passed on; on the other han…

Saraca

(190 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] City in Arabia Felix to the northwest of Adan (Σάρακα/ Sáraka). City in Arabia [II] Felix to the northwest of Adan. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Desert in the Sinai Peninsula (Σάρακα/ Sáraka, Σαρακήνη/ Sarakḗnē, Ptol. 5,17,3). Desert in the Sinai Peninsula (modern al-Tīḥ) inhabited by the Σαρακηνοί/ Sarakēnoí. There is probably a connexion with the Sarakēnoí who, according to Ptol. 6,7,21, lived in the Ḥiǧāz in Arabia. There has been no explanation of the etymology of this designation, used from the 3rd cent. AD on synonymously with Sceni…

Maccala

(79 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Μάκκαλα; Mákkala). According to Ptol. 6,7,41, a city in Arabia Felix. We should probably reject the obvious identification with the modern harbour town of Mukallā/Yemen on the south coast, as it is inconsistent with the sequence of place names in Ptolemy. It corresponds rather with Manqal in the hinterland of Mélan óros (Μέλαν ὅρος, Arabic as-Saudāʾ). Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography H. v. Wissmann, Zur Geschichte und Landeskunde von Altsüdarabien (SAWW, Phil.-histor. Klasse 246), 1964, 417 (map).

Macae

(297 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Μάκαι; Mákai). [German version] [1] People in eastern Arabia According to Ptol. 6,7,14, a people in eastern Arabia in the hinterland of the bays around modern Rāʾs Musandam on the road from Hormuz. Also mentioned in Str. 13,765f., Plin. HN 6,98.152 and Mela 3,79; according to them, the M. settled opposite the Carmanian foothills. According to Arr. Ind., Μακέτα/ Makéta (Rāʾs Musandam) was an important trading centre for the spice trade ( Spices) on the Persian Gulf. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Nomadic tribe or tribal league ( Macae). A large nomadic tribe o…

Zeeritae

(86 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Ζεερῖται/ Zeërîtai, Ζειρῖται/ Zeirîtai or Εἰρῖται/ Eirîtai). A people in Arabia mentioned in Ptol. 6,7,24 but still not unequivocally located. [1] places their territory in Wādī al-Irḍ (modern Wādī Banī Ḥanīfa near Al-Riyāḍ), and therefore central Arabia; [2] in the area of Oman as far as the Wādī al-Dawāsr, and therefore dispersed across the whole of the Al-Rub al-Ḫālī desert. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography 1 A. Sprenger, Die alte Geographie Arabiens, 1875 (repr. 1966), Nr. 395 2 E. Glaser, Skizze der Geschichte und Geographie Arabie…

Mission

(1,224 words)

Author(s): Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] I. General Since the 16th cent. the Latin term missio (‘sending’) has designated the efforts by Christians to spread their religion, by divine command. The term mission, unknown in antiquity, corresponds in essence to the instruction of the risen Christ to his disciples to make all peoples disciples (Mt 28:19). It is this commission that distinguishes Christian mission from similar manifestations of expansion (diffusion) in most other religions and cults. Only Manichaeism (Mani) and Islam (divine ‘summons’, dawa, to spread the religion) are acquainted wit…

Mamali

(91 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] Region in southern Arabia mentioned in a partly extant naval report of 323 BC in Theophr. Hist. pl. 9,4,2 (Μαμάλι/ Mamáli), probably Mamal near modern Aṣīr in Saudi Arabia on the coast. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography H. v. Wissmann, De mari Erythraeo (Stuttgarter Geogr. Stud. 69), 1957, 300 n. 42b Id., M. Höfner, Beiträge zur historischen Geographie des vorislamischen Südarabien (AAWM, Geistes- und sozialwiss. Klasse), 1952 no. 4, 76, 82, 85f., 95, 104, with maps Id., Zur Geschichte und Landeskunde von Altsüdarabien (SAWW, Philos.-histor…

Sicily

(3,857 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) | Kunz, Heike (Tübingen)
(Σικελία/ Sikelía, Sicily). The largest island in the Mediterranean (Mare Nostrum; cf. Str. 2,5,19; differently Hdt. 1,170 and Timaeus FGrH 566 F 65): 25,460 km2, including the offshore islands such as the Insulae Aegates, Ustica, the Aeoli Insulae, Cossura, Lopadusa (present-day Lampedusa), Aethusa (present-day Linosa) and Melite [7] 25,953 km2. [German version] I. Name The island was originally called Trinacria (Τρινακρία/ Trinakría, Hellanicus FGrH 51 F 79b), later Sicania (Σικανίη/ Sikaníē, Hdt. 7,170; Σικανία/ Sikanía, Thuc. 6,2,2) and only then Sicelia (Σικελία)…

Zamareni

(107 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] According to Plin. HN 6,158 a people in the interior of southern Arabia, which has not been successfully identified. It may be derived from the name of the modern town of Ḏamār, to the southeast of Ṣana'a. In Plinius the two (also unlocated) cities of Sagiatta and Canthace are classed as theirs. The context suggests that the Z. lived in the territory of the Homeritae at Sapphar (Ẓafār). Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography E. Glaser, Skizze der Gesch. und Geogr. Arabiens, vol. 2, 1890 (repr. 1976), 136, 142 f. J. Pirenne, Le Royaume Sud Arabe de Qataban et…

Chronography

(3,691 words)

Author(s): Rüpke | Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
I. General [German version] A. Notions of measuring time Most cultures have some method of measuring time, frequently based on periodical changes within nature or the stars. The oldest of these is the pars-pro-toto method, in which it is not a certain period of time as a whole that is connected, but a regularly recurring phenomenon within that time [1. 9 f.] (e.g. lunar phases). Metaphors of time or the measuring thereof play no great role in antiquity, with the exception of the field of  metrics. Usually, the focus was not on …

Sicily

(2,554 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) [German version] A. History from 1060 (CT) Sicily (S.) was under Norman rule until the end of the 12th cent., and, in adjusting to Western European conditions, especially from the time of William I (1154-1166), experienced an immense process of feudalization and an ecclesiastical and cultural reorientation to Latin Catholic Christianity. William II’s death without issue in 1189 introduced a period of instability, followed by the acquisition of the Sicilian throne by the Ho…

Pilgrimage

(2,830 words)

Author(s): Rutherford, Ian C. (Reading) | Merkt, Andreas (Mainz) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] I. Classical antiquity Pilgrimage, defined here as a journey of considerable length to a sacred place, undertaken for religious reasons, was a common practice in all of antiquity, not solely a Christian phenomenon. Rutherford, Ian C. (Reading) [German version] A. Greek world The best-documented form is the state pilgrimage ( theōría ), in which the Greek city-states sent out envoys ( theōroí) to attend religious festivals, announce their own festivals or consult oracles. However, festivals drew not only official theōríai but also private pilgrims; in general…

World, creation of the

(4,741 words)

Author(s): Merkt, Andreas (Mainz) | Sallaberger, Walther (Leipzig) | Felber, Heinz (Leipzig) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] I. Definition The term 'creation of the world' ('CW') (κτίσις/ ktísis, Lat. creatio) in the narrower sense should be distinguished from two similar concepts. Unlike 'cosmogony', 'CW' refers to a personal act. Secondly, unlike 'fashioning of the world' in the sense of the craft of a demiourgos [3] (cf. [1]), 'CW' does not mean the mere modelling of existing material in analogy to the creative intervention of an artist, but the absolute bringing-into-being of everything (the universe, i.e. 'the whole', τὰ πάντα/ tà pánta) out of the void. The concept of a creation…

Zames

(139 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Ζάμης/ Zámēs, also Ζάμητος/ Zámētos). According to Ptol. 6,7,20 a long mountain range in central Arabia. This is presumably not the Jurassic escarpment of Ğabal Ṭuwaiq (see [1. 213 f., 279], see also [2]), which extends across the Arabian peninsula, since that corresponds to the Μάρειθα/ Máreitha mentioned in Ptol. loc.cit., but rather, as in [3. no. 315] and [4. 192], the Šammar Mountains much farther to the north [5]. Cf. also [6] (with a map of pre-Islamic Arabia). Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography 1 E. Glaser, Skizze der Geschichte und Geogra…

Tolerance

(4,834 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Lindemaier, Hildegard (Tübingen) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Fitschen, Klaus (Kiel) | Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
I. Terminology and philosophy [German version] A. Modern concept The general modern meaning of the word 'tolerance' is the readiness of individuals, groups or states to permit the opinions, ways of life and philosophical and religious convictions of others to 'have validity' alongside their own. Today, the meaning of the word ranges from 'sufferance' (e.g. in the sense of constitutional law: the sufferance of immigrants, diverse confessions, religions) to the emphatic affirmation of the 'different' pheno…

Tunes

(381 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
(Τύνης/ Týnēs). [German version] I. Location, Punic to Roman period Libyan city in Africa proconsularis (Africa 3.; Str. 17,3,16; Tab. Peut. 5,5), 15 km south-west of Carthage, the modern Tunis. First mentioned in conjunction with the uprising of allied troops against Carthage in 396 BC (Diod. Sic. 14,77,3). In 310 BC, the city served Agathocles[2] as a base for his attack on Carthage [1. 190-193], and similarly in 256 BC during the First Punic War the Roman consul Atilius [I 21] Regulus [1. 235-237]. In …

Ogyris

(59 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Ὤγυρις; Ṓgyris). Island in the Arabian Sea. Ancient authors reported a monument to Erythras, the eponym of the Red sea, on O. (Deinias FGrH 306 F 7; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὤ.). Perhaps the island of Maṣīra. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography F. Jacoby, FGrH, Kommentar zu Nearchos FGrH 133 F 1,37,1-4  R.M. Burrell, s.v. Maṣīra, EI2 6, 729a.

Ḥimyar

(138 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Lat. Homeritae: Plin. HN 32,161). Arab tribe, attested epigraphically from about AD 100. The Ḥ. held the political hegemony in southern Arabia between AD 100 and 590. The centre of their kingdom was  Saphar (in Plin. HN 25,104: Sapphar) on the plateau south of modern Yarīm. From there the Ḥ. gradually conquered the ancient Southern Arabic kingdoms of  Qatabān,  Sabaʾ and  Ḫaḍramauṭ. In the mid-4th cent., Judaism and Christianity began to spread while simultaneously the attempts of the Sassanid and Byzantine empires to influence the Ḥ. kingdom increased (cf.   Leges Ho…

Omana

(112 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Ὄμανα/ Ómana, Ὄμμανα/ Ómmana, Ptol. Geog. 6,8,7; Periplus maris Erythraei 27,36). Bay on the south coast of Arabia. Its identification is uncertain, but it could be Chāh Bahār or Tiz, both of which are located in a small bay. Other suggestions have been Ṣuḥār between Masqaṭ and Musandam.  On this bay the eastern Arabian tribe of the Omani (᾿Ομανῖται, Plin. HN 6,149; Ptol. Geog. 6,7,24) is said to have founded the incense port of Omanon (Ὄμανον ἐμπόριον, Ptol. Geog. 6,7,36; 8,22,12), situated at the end of the trade route coming from Sabbatha. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Frei…

Nabataei, Nabataeans

(399 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Ναβαταῖοι/ Nabataȋoi, inscription NBṬW), Arabian people in north-west Arabia, with Petra as their capital, probably originating in the Ḥiǧāẓ. Their relationship with the Aramaic tribe of the Nabaiati (7th cent. BC [1]), attested in cuneiform texts, and the Neḇāyôṯ of the Bible (Gn 25:13; 28:9; 39:3; Is. 20:7) is disputed. According to Diod. Sic. (2.48f.; 19.94-100), Antigonus [1] I undertook two unsuccessful expeditions to the ‘land of the Arabs who are called Nabataeans’ in 312 BC. They appear at this time as tradin…

Magusum

(91 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] One of the cities that according to Plin. HN 6,160 was destroyed by Aelius [II 11] Gallus in 24 BC. M. was then situated in modern Ǧauf (in modern Yemen) and is probably identical with modern Maǧzı̄r south of Yaṯill in Wādī 'l-Farḍa. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography H. v. Wissmann, Zur Geschichte und Landeskunde von Altsüdarabien (SAWW, Phil.-histor. Klasse 246), 1964, 84 (map), 140 J. F. Breton, Les fortifications d'Arabie Méridionale du 7e au 1er siècle avant nôtre ère (Arch. Ber. aus dem Yemen 8), 1994, 100 (map).

Maepha

(161 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] According to Ptol. 6,7,41 (Μαίφα μητρόπολις; Maípha mētrópolis), city in the interior of Arabia Felix. Probably corresponds, with regard to the phonetic form, to epigraphically attested MYFT, once the capital of Ḥaḍramaut, the ruins of which are now called Naqab al-Ḥaǧar. M. owed its importance - the city had solid fortifications - to its strategic position on the trading route from the harbour of Cane to Inner Arabia. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography H. v. Wissmann, M. Höfner, Beitr. zur histor. Geogr. des vorislam. Südarabien (AAWM, Geiste…

Mamala

(51 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] According to Ptol. 6,7,6 (Μάμαλα κώμη; Mámala kṓm[e]), settlement of the Cassanitae on the west coast of Arabia. Probably the same as Ṣalīf or Lōḥiyya. Not to be confused with Mamali. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography H. v. Wissmann, De mari Erythraeo (Stuttgarter Geogr. Stud. 69), 1957, 300, 42b.

Moscha

(137 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with (Μόσχα Λιμήν/ Mόscha Limḗn, Ptol. 6,7,10; Peripl. maris Erythraei 32). Port on the south coast of Arabia Felix in the territory of the Adramitai tribe (Hadhramaut). It was probably situated on the present-day Ḫaur Rūri (Yemen), where recent excavations indicate a strongly fortified town. According to inscriptions on some finds, it was founded on the orders of the king of Hadhramaut. M. might have been the port of Zafar but Zafar appears to have been founded later. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliograph…

Mazdak

(270 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] Leader of a religious revolutionary movement in Sassanid Iran under King Cavades [1] (AD 488-496, 498/9-531). The fundamental characteristic is a strong social egalitarianism. A basic difficulty in researching Mazdakism is that almost all information originates from sources that are hostile to it. The only contemporary report is found in the Syriac chronicle of Joshua Stylites. Byzantine (Procop. BP 1,5-11; 2,9; Agathias, Historiae 4,27-30; Ioh. Mal. 465, 633 and 653 Migne) and Arabic sources from a late…

Mara

(64 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] see Mariaba see Mariaba Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) [German version] [2] City in Arabia Felix According to Ptol. 6,7,37 (Μάρα μητρόπολις; Mára mētrópolis), city in the interior of Arabia Felix, mostly identified with the Sabaean capital Mārib ( Mariaba). Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography City i H. v. Wissmann, Zur Geschichte und Landeskunde von Altsüdarabien (SAWW, Philos.-histor. Klasse 246), 1964, 417 (map).

Maranitae

(60 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Μαρανῖται; Maranîtai). According to Agatharchides (De Mari Erythraeo 88 GGM 1,177), Arab tribe that settled in the coastal strip of the Red Sea. Sources tell of their conflict with the Garindaneîs (Γαρινδανεῖς), who took advantage of an absence of the M. to seize for themselves, in an underhand manner, their possessions and estates. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)

Qataban

(231 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] ( Qatabān). Pre-Islamic people in south-western Arabia, known predominantly through inscriptions. They appear in the ancient sources as Kattabaneîs (Κατταβανεῖς, ἡ Κατταβανία, Str. 16,4,4), Kottabanoí (Κοτταβανοί, Ptol. Geog. 6,7,24) and Catapani (Plin. HN 6,153). According to Eratosthenes in Str. loc cit., the settlement area of the Q. extended across the entire hinterland from Saba to the straits; the inscriptions, on the other hand, record a limitation to the Wādī Baiḥān: a contradiction which probably results from v…

Taras

(1,524 words)

Author(s): Goldhahn, Tobias | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
(Τάρας/ Táras). [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and a South-Italian nymph Son of Poseidon and a South-Italian nymph (Paus. 10,10,8), or son of Heracles [1] (Serv. Aen. 3,551); hero and eponym of the town of Taranto ( cf. T. [2]) and of its river. He is considered to be the founder (Paus. l.c.), or at least the patron (Serv. l.c.) of Taranto. On a coin from Taranto, he is represented as a boy reaching out for Poseidon; the image of a dolphin rider appearing on other coins from Taranto, represents rather Phalantus [1], in spite o…
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