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Syennesis

(182 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Συέννεσις/ Syénnesis). Term for indigenous Cilician dynasts with their centre at Tarsus (Xen. An. 1,2,23). According to Hdt. 1,74, one S. is supposed to have mediated the accord between the Lydians and the Medes; in the war between Croesus and Cyrus [2], Cilicia was on the Persian side (Hdt. 1,28). Another S. took part in Xerxes's campaign against Hellas (Hdt. 7,98; Aesch. Pers. 326-328). It is generally assumed that the duplicity of the third known S., the husband of Epyaxa, duri…

Tissaphernes

(398 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Τισσαφέρνης/ Tissaphérnēs). Son of Hydarnes [4], grandson of Hydarnes [1]. After the removal of the rebellious satrap Pissuthnes T. became a satrap in 413 BC in Sardis and a káranos (Thuc. 8,5,4: stratēgòs tôn kátō, 'army leader of the lands on the coast') in the west of Asia Minor. As such he concluded a subsidy treaty with Sparta against Athens in 412 BC; in return Sparta entrusted the Greeks of western Asia Minor to the Great King (Thuc. 1,115,4; 8,5,4 f.; 8,17 f.; 8,43; 8,52 and 8,58; renewal of the treaty in…

Sima Qian

(214 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] ( Sīmǎ Qiān). C. 145 - c. 85 BC, author of the first Chinese dynastic history, the Shǐjì, which contains, primarily in chapter 123, important information on central Asia and Iran (e.g. on the decline of the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom and characteristics of the Parthian Empire). S. was born in Longmen (modern province of Shanxi, near Chang'an, the capital of the time). After early travels through the whole Empire he later held office at the court of the Han emperor Wu (140-87 BC) as court astrologer a…

Persis

(477 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Περσίς/ Persís, Str. 15,3,1, etc.; Old Persian Pārsa). Region in Southwest Iran, which (as Anshan) belonged to the kingdom of Elam and was later the home of the dynasty of the Achaemenids [2] and Sāssānids (see below). Greek and Roman authors as well as Arab geographers divided P. into different geographical and climatic zones: the hot and infertile coastal region (with ports), the rugged, cold and inhospitable mountain region and the highly fertile region of well-watered valleys (Curt. 5,4,5-9; Str. 15,3,1; Arr. I…

Elymaei

(144 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Ἐλυμαῖοι; Elymaîoi). [German version] [1] Inhabitants of the Elymais Inhabitants of the  Elymais, described by ancient authors mainly as mountain dwellers or rather, in a military context, as mounted archers (cf. i.a. App. Syr. 32; Str. 16,1,17; Liv. 37,40,9). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Inhabitants of the Elburz region According to Pol. 5,44,9 neighbours to the inhabitants of  Media Atropatene in the Elburz region along the south-western corner of the Caspian Sea. Plut. Pompeius 36 reports of a ‘king of the Elymaei and Medes…

Zadracarta

(61 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Alexander | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states (τὰ Ζαδρακάρτα/ tà Zadrakárta; Arr. Anab. 3,23,6; 25,1). Largest city and fortified Achaemenid residence in Hyrcania, whose precise location is not certain (Sārī?, Qale Ḫandān?). Alexander [4] the Great passed through Z. while pursuing Bessus in 331 BC. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)

Myci

(121 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Μύκοι; Mýkoi). Ethnic group in the Persian empire (Hdt. 3,93; 7,68; Hecat. FGrH 1 F 289) who, together with the Sagartii, Sarangae, Thamanaei, Utii and the island inhabitants of the Persian Gulf, were classed as belonging to the 14th nomos by Herodotus. It is probably correct to assume that they were  the inhabitants of the regions on both sides of the strait of Hormūz, corresponding to the Maciyā, i.e. the inhabitants of Maka, known from Achaemenid inscriptions and reliefs as well as the fortification and treasury ta…

Aryans

(327 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] The peoples of ancient India and ancient Iran, who spoke Aryan languages referred to themselves as A. (cf. Old Indo-Aryan árya-, Iranian arya-; etymology disputed). In the 19th cent. the until then purely linguistic terms A./Aryan were for a time used synonymously with Indo-Europeans/Indo-Germanic and in this way came to be used in anthropology and ethnology, which in the Nazi era perverted them with an anti-Semitic bias into the positive counterpart of Jews/Jewish. Linguistic and religious-historical reasons support the belief that the A. were an ori…

Elymais

(381 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ἐλυμαίς; Elymaís). Greek name of a region in south-west Iran ( Ḫūzestān) within the territory of the ancient empire of  Elam. Originally probably mainly used for the mountainous Baḫtı̄ārı̄ region (in contrast with the Susiana plains), the term increasingly also included the expanding territory of the Hellenistic-Parthian ‘kingdom’ of E. [1. 39-45; 2. 3-8]. E./Susiana was one of the political and economic core regions of the Achaemenid and Seleucid empires; however, for the actual E., it is to be expected that some special forms of…

Pahlawa

(162 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Indian name of the kings of the so-called Indo-Parthian dynasty, which is primarily known because of its coins. Gondophares, who ended the rule of the Shaka in Arachosia (Arachosia) and ultimately probably also in Gandhara (Gandaritis), is regarded as the founder of the dynasty. The inscriptions from Taḫt-i Bahī from the 26th year of this king established his rule quite precisely as from AD 20 to 46. In keeping with this, the apostle Thomas is said to have met Gondophares on his j…

Rhagae

(241 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (ἡ Ῥάγα/ hē Rhága: Str. 11,13,6; ἡ Ῥάγη/ hē Rhágē: Tobit 6,10; Ῥάγοι/ Rhágoi: Tobit 1,14 et alibi; (αἱ) Ῥάγαι/ (hai) Rhágai: Str. 11,9,1; Arr. Anab. 3,20,2 etc.). City (and district with a large population) of eastern Media, today an expanse of ruins south of Tehran. In the district of (Old Persian) Ragā (Elamic Rakka, Babylonian Raga), Darius [1] I captured the Median rebel Fravarti (Phraortes [3]) in 521 ([3. DB II 70 ff.]). In the summer of 330, Alexander [4] the Great rested his troops in R. for five days while in pursuit of Dariu…

Sar-e Pol-e Ẕahāb

(211 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Archaeological find site in Kurdistan, Iran (Old Persian Ḥulvān; Akkadian Ḫalmān), 20 km from the Iraqi border on the old Kermānshāh-Baghdad road. There, to both sides of the River Alvand, was found a total of four reliefs of the Lullubaean princes who reigned in the late 3rd or early 2nd millennium BC; among them, the triumphal relief of Anubanini [2. pl. 49], with the motif of trampling the enemy underfoot, provided the model for the relief of Darius [1] I at Bisutun. Below this image is …

Šīs

(205 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Place in Azerbaijan mentioned by Moslem authors. In the middle of the limestone interplateau projecting slightly over the plain was a more than 60 m deep (lifeless) lake. Š. is located about 30 km to the north of Takāb and identical with Taḫt-e Soleimān. During the Sassanid period, it was the location of one of the three main fire temples of the empire (Āzurgušnasp). The close relationship between this place and the Sassanid kings of the 5th-7th cents. (Sassanids) is documented by…

Zarama

(30 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ζαράμα; Zaráma). Not precisely locatable township, mentioned only in Ptol. 6,2,16, in the interior of Media, presumably to the southwest of Europus (Rhagae). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)

Carmania

(311 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Καρμανία, Karmanía, Latin Carmania; etymology unclear). Name of an Iranian area east of the Persis and west of the  Gedrosia. In western documents the inhabitants of C. are called Καρμάνιοι/ Karmánioi, Latin Carmanii. This tradition distinguishes at the same time the barren north (ἡ ἔρημος Κ., e.g. Ptol. 6,5,1) from C. proper, which is described as particularly fertile (Str. 15,2,14; Arr. Ind. 32,4f.; Amm. Marc. 23,6,48). In the Achaemenid royal inscriptions, C. is mentioned as the supplier of yakā wood for the palace of Darius I in Susa [2. 14…

Gundeshapur

(108 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] ( Ǧundı̄sābūr, ‘Place of the army of Šāpūr’; middle Persian Veh-Andiyōk-Šābūr, ‘Šāpūr [made this city] better than Antioch’; Syrian Bēṯ Lāpāṭ). City located about 30 km east of Susa in which the Sassanid Šāpur ( Sapor) I settled artisans and specialists deported from Syria in the 3rd cent. AD. The town soon became a cultural and scientific centre with its own ‘university’ (important especially in the field of medicine), a main location for Persian silk manufacturing and a centre for the Christians of…

Proskynesis

(645 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (προσκύνησις; proskýnēsis). Ancient gesture of reverence, a kind of blown kiss (cf. Lucian. Demosthenus enkomion 49; Apul. Apol. 56; Min. Fel. 2,4), often performed in connection with particular postures or bodily movements (turning, bowing, etc.) (Plut. Marcellus 6,11 f.; Plut. Numa 14,4; [9. 142 f.]). The term proskynesis (Aristot. Rh. 1361a 36) is derived from proskyneîn, 'kiss towards' (Aesch. Prom. 936 f.) and in content corresponds to Latin adorare and venerari (Plin. HN 28,2,25; Hier. Adversus Rufinum. 1,19; Nep. Conon 3,3; [10. 157 f., 171,…

Oxyartes

(80 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὀξυάρτης/ Oxyártēs). Sogdian nobleman; friend of Bessus and opponent of Alexander [4] the Great, father of Rhoxane. After his reconciliation with the Macedonians (his sons joined Alexander's army), he was involved in the subjugation of Sogdia and in 326/5 BC received the Paropamisad satrapy (confirmed in 323 and 321). In 317 BC, O. fought with Eumenes [1] against Antigonus [1] (Arr. Anab. 3,28,10; 4,18,4-7; 20,4; 26,6f.; 6,15,3f.; 7,6,4; Diod. Sic. 18,3,3; 39,6; 19,14,6; 48,2). Sogdiana Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)

Phraortes

(149 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Φραόρτης/ Phraórtēs, Old Persian Fravartiš). [German version] [1] Father of the Median king Deioces According to Hdt. 1,96, father of the Median king Deioces. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Deioces Son of Deioces, who, according to Hdt. 1,102, reigned for 22 years, subjugated the Persians and fell in battle against the Assyrians. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [3] Median rebel against Darius [1] I Median rebel against Darius [1] I, mentioned in the Bīsutūn inscription [1. DB II 13ff., 64ff., DBe] and depicted on the relief ther…

Callonitis

(76 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Καλλωνῖτις, Kallōnîtis, other form of the name Χαλωνῖτις/ Chalōnîtis). Area mentioned by Pol. 5,54,7 and considered part of Media, directly west of the great  Zagrus passes along the upper Diyālā; here  Antiochus [5] III had the corpse of the rioter  Molon impaled; neighbouring region of Apolloniatis. Str. 16,1,1 considers C. as still part of Ἀτουρία, i.e. Mesopotamia. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography H. H. Schmitt, Unt. zur Gesch. Antiochos d.Gr. und seiner Zeit, 1964, Index s.v. Chalonitis.

Family planning

(619 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Although a distinction was made in ancient gynaecology between abortion and contraception (Sor. 1,60), the corresponding methods and practices cannot be precisely separated the one from the other. On the one hand, conception was regarded as a process, and its interruption at an early stage of pregnancy was certainly regarded as contraceptive; on the other hand, in view of deficiencies in understanding as to the point of conception, a device used as a contraceptive could also produce an abortion.  Child Exposure must also be regarded as a form of family planning. If Hipp…

Pan Ku, Pan Chao

(57 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Siblings (1st cent. AD), authors of the Hanshu (Qian Hanshu), the official Chinese dynastic history of the Former or Western Han, containing information on the Parthian empire (Parthians; Parthia), among other subjects. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography D.D. Leslie, K.H. J. Gardiner, The Roman Empire in Chinese Sources, 1996, s.v. Pan Ku/Pan Ch'ao.

Geloni

(52 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Γελωνοί; Gelōnoí). According to Hdt. (4,102; 108f.; 120; 136), agricultural Scythian tribe in the neighbourhood of the  Budini and speaking a Graeco-Scythian hybrid language; descendants of Gelonus; originally Greek refugees from Greek trade settlements. They apparently took part in the battle against  Darius [1] I. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)

Nabarzanes

(70 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ναβαρζάνης; Nabarzánēs). The chilíarchos (commander) of the royal cavalry of king Darius [3] III.; described in admiring terms by Curt. (esp. 5,9-10). Nabarzanes was the only Persian commander who was successful at the battle of Issus and was with Bessos at the time of king Darius' murder. He later surrendered to Alexander [4] the Great in Hyrcania (Arr. Anab. 3,23,3f.). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography Berve, vol. 2, no. 543.

Megabates

(144 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Μεγαβάτης; Megabátēs). Name of several distinguished Persians, including: [German version] [1] Father of Megabazus [2] Father of Megabazus [2] (Hdt. 7,97), cousin of Darius [1] I and of the satrap Artaphernes [2]. He commanded the unsuccessful assault on Naxos (500 BC; Hdt. 5,30-35). He may be identical with the M. who was replaced by Xerxes as satrap of Hellespontian Phrygia in 477 (Thuc. 1,129,1), or the M. who is described as an ‘admiral’ in [1. 8,5-7]. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography 1 G. G. Cameron, Persepolis Treasury Tablets, 1948. [German version] [2] Son of Spithridates T…

Parni

(134 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ἄπαρνοι/Πάρνοι, Áparnoi/Párnoi, variant Πάρνοι/Σπαρνοι, Párnoi/Spárnoi: Str. 11,7,1; Lat. Aparni/Parni: etymology unclear). Part of the Dahae [1] tribe - aside from the Xánthioi/ Xantheíoi and Píssouroi (Str. 11,8,2; cf. 11,9,3) - who occupied the steppe of south-western Turkmenistan in the 3rd cent. BC (Str. 11,8,2f.; Justin. 41,1,10) and from there, under its leader Arsaces [1] I, invaded Parthia after 250 BC. The P. originally spoke an eastern Middle Iranian dialect (Parnian) whose nature can only be…

Avroman documents

(210 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] The Avroman documents, as they as known, were found in 1909 in a clay vessel in a grotto on the Kūh-i Sālān near the village of Pālāngān on the Kūh-i Avrōmān in the south-west of Iranian Kurdistan and are today kept in the British Museum. They consist of one Parthian and two Greek parchment documents. Whilst the Greek documents are contracts dating from 88/87 and 22/21 BC providing proof of the sale of half of the Dādbakān vineyard, the Parthian document tells (using heterographic…

Sagartii

(210 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Σαγάρτιοι/ Sagártioi; Old Persian asagarta 'Sagartia', asagartiya 'Sagartian', 'Sagartians'). In an inscription of Darius [1] I from Persepolis that lists the lands/peoples of the empire, the S. precede the Parthians, Drangianians, Arians and Bactrians [3. DPe 15-16]. In the inscription of Bīsutūn, the same ruler reports that two 'pretenders to the throne' - the Mede Fravartiš (Phraortes [3]) and the Sagartian Ciçantaḫma (who was later executed in Arbela) - had passed themselves off as …

Parthian shot

(103 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] A hail of arrows fired backwards by mounted Parthian archers while pretending to flee (cf. Just. Epit. 41,2,7: “saepe etiam fugam simulant, ut incautiores adversum vulnera insequentes habeant” ("often, too, they pretend flight, that they may make their pursuers less careful of being wounded"). There are also depictions of the Parthian shot, for instance on Chinese reliefs from the Han period (206 BC to AD 220). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography 1 H. von Gall, Das Reiterkampfbild in der iranischen und iranisch beeinflußten Kunst parthischer und sas…

Patizeithes

(86 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Πατιζείθης/ Pathizeíthēs Hdt. 3,61ff.; Πανζούθης/ Panzoúthēs Dionysius of Miletus, Schol. Hdt. 3,61 FGrH 687 F 2; identical to Παζάτης/ Pazátēs in Xanthus the Lydian; Πατζάτης/ Patzátēs Chron. pasch. 270?). According to Hdt. 3,61, a mágos who in 521 BC persuaded his brother Smerdis (Gaumāta) to rebel against Cambyses [2] II and was killed by Darius [1] I. Just. Epit. 1,9,9f. cites his name as Oropastes. P. should be interpreted as a title, although it is etymologically unclear (the same as the later πιτιάχης/ Pitiáchēs, Middle Persian btḥšy: "viceroy"?). Wiesehö…

Margiana

(202 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Μαργιανή/ Margianḗ < Ancient Persian Marguš > New Persian Marv). Fertile eastern Iranian country through which the Murġāb flows (Ptol. 6,10,1; Plin. HN 6,16; Str. 2,1,14; 11,10,1; in the Avesta M. is regarded as one of the most beautiful of countries created by Ahura Mazdā) in modern Turkmenistan. Ptol. 6,10 names the Derbicci, Massageti, Parni, Daae and Topuri as inhabitants of M. and also mentions individual cities, among which Antioch [7] Margiane (Giaur-Qala with the original Achaeme…

Nihāwand

(92 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Persian Nehāvand). City in Iran, south of the Alvand mountains in the Zagros range (Media). In this region (Tepe Giyan), which was already of importance in prehistoric times, the Seleucids founded the pólis Laodiceia(-N.), where a copy of the dynastic cult inscription of Antiochus [5] III was found. A Sassanid army was defeated by the Arabs near N. in AD 642, when N. was the main city of the district and diocese. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography L. Robert, Inscriptions séleucides de Phrygie et d'Iran, in: Hellenica 7, 1949, 5-22.

Rhodogune

(226 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Ῥοδογούνη/ Rhodogoúnē). [German version] [1] Mother of Darius I Wife of Hystaspes [2], mother of Darius [1] I (Suda and Harpocr., s. v.). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of Darius [1] I Daughter of Darius [1] I? (Hier. Adversus Iovinianum 1,45; PL 23, p. 287). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [3] Daughter of Xerxes I Daughter of Xerxes I (Ctes. FGrH 688 F 13). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [4] Daughter of Artaxerxes [2] II Daughter of Artaxerxes [2] II, wife of Orontes [2] I (Plut. Artaxerxes 27,7; cf. Xen. An. 2,4,8) an…

Samī

(104 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Site of ruins high in the Baḫtiyiārī Mountains (in Iran), c. 25 km north of the city of Īẕe (Malāmīr), in ancient Elymais. Among the numerous Hellenistic marble and bronze fragments found in a sanctuary, a bronze statue, somewhat over life size and almost completely preserved, is particularly noteworthy: it is as yet the only surviving large-scale representation in three dimensions of an Arsacid dignitary (prince?) (2nd cent. AD). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography 1 V.S. Curtis, The Parthian Costume and Headdress, in: J. Wiesehöfer (ed.), Das Partherreic…

Yuezhi

(205 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Chinese name of a 'nomadic people' with an original settlement area between the Qilian chain of mountains and Dunhuang, the starting point of the Silk Road in northwestern China. Driven from there between 176/174 and 161 BC at the command of Maodun, khan of the Xiongnu, the Y. turned west and in turn subjugated the Sai tribes (Sacae). Shortly afterwards, expelled from the Sai pasture lands in the Ili Basin and on Lake Ysyk by the Wusun, a subject people of the Xiongnu, the Y. foll…

Kuh-e Khwaja

(188 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] ( Kūh-ī Xvāgah, Kūh-i Ḫvāǧah). Basalt mountain on an island in Lake Hāmūn in Drangiana/Iran. On its south-eastern slope is a site with ruins of impressive courtyards, gates, towers and rooms, at the earliest from the Parthian period but probably rather from the Sassanid and post-Sassanid period (Ġāga Šahr). Numerous rooms were richly decorated with stucco ornaments and above all with colourful frescos showing Graeco-Roman, Iranian and Indian stylistic elements and representing religi…

Sataspes

(103 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Σατάσπης; Satáspēs). According to Hdt. 4,43 a maternal nephew of Darius [1] I, who was to be impaled for the violation of the daughter of Zopyrus. He was released upon the intercession of his mother, and as atonement he was given the task of circumnavigating Libya (Africa). He started from Egypt and left the Mediterranean through the 'Pillars of Heracles' (i.e. the Straits of Gibraltar), but turned back without having fulfilled his task; as a result Xerxes I had the originally imposed punishment carried out. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography F. Colin, Le récit…

Parthia

(382 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Παρθία/ Parthía Plut. Antonius 55; Παρθυαία/ Parthyaía Pol. 5,44,4; Str. 11,9,1; Παρθυηνή/ Parthyēnḗ, distinct from the Parthian Empire Pol. 10,28,7; Str. 11,9,1; Ancient Persian Par θ ava-). Territory south east of the Caspian Sea, bonded to the west by Media, in the north west by Hyrcania, in the east by Margiana (by the Parthian territory of Apauarktikene/Apavortene) and Areia [1]. P.'s geography is dictated by two chains of mountains, the Kopet Dag to the north (along the modern frontier between Iran and Turkmenistan) and the Bīnālū…

Tiribazus

(186 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Τιρίβαζος/ Tiríbazos), Achaemenid satrap in Armenia, who rescued Artaxerxes [2] II at Cunaxa (in 401 BC) and allowed the Greek mercenaries free passage (Xen. Anab. 4,4,4 f.; 18; Plut. Artaxerxes 7 and 10; Diod. Sic. 14,27,7). As káranos (governor-general of the western satrapies) in Asia Minor (and probably also satrap in Sardeis), in 392 BC he referred Athenian and Spartan envoys to the great king, helped Antalcidas construct a fleet and captured Conon [1] (Xen. Hell. 4,8,12 ff.; Diod. Sic. 14,85,4). Temporari…

Pnytagoras

(250 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Πνυταγόρας; Pnytagóras). [German version] [1] Greek politician from Cyprus Son of Evagoras [1] of Salamis in Cyprus. P. helped his father in the rebellion against the Persians and after the sea battle of  Citium (381 BC) defended Salamis (Isoc. or. 9,62; Diod. 15,4), which was under siege. Father and son are supposed to have had relations with the daughter of Nicocreon [1], and both were murdered by the eunuch Thrasydaeus  (Theop. FGrH 115 F 103,12; Aristot. Pol. 5,1311b 4ff.). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography F.G. Maier, Cyprus and Phoenicia, in: CAH 6, 21994, 297-336. …

G(a)eli

(98 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Γῆλαι / Gēlai, Str. 11,5,1, cf. 11,7,1; 11,8,1; Γηλύς / Gēlýs, Steph. Byz. s.v. Γ.; Γηλοί / Gēloí, Dionys. Per. 1019 [GGM II, 167]). Median tribe of Scythian origins, first mentioned by Strabo (according to Theophanes of Mytilene), who inhabited the south-western shores of the Caspian Sea. Some ancient authors (Plin. HN 6,48; Ptol. 6,2,5) identified them with the  Cadusii. The tribe's name lives on in the region's (or rather the Sassanid province's) modern name of Gı̄lān (middle Persian Gēlān). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography R. Gyselen, La géographie a…

Masistius

(60 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Μασίστιος; Masístios). According to Hdt. 7,79, son of Siromitres, a Persian cavalry commander killed at Plataeae in 479 BC (Hdt. 9,20-22; Plut. Aristides 14; Diod. Sic. 11,30,4). The Athenians dedicated the armour of the ‘Persian most highly regarded after Mardonius by king and people’ (Hdt. 9,24) to Athena Polias (Paus. 1,27,1). Persian Wars Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)

Megabyzus

(137 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(also Μεγάβυξος/ Megábyxos, Hdt. Μεγάβυζος/ Megábyzos < Old Persian Bagabuxša, Elamite Ba-ka-bu-uk-šá). [German version] [1] Distinguished Persian, conspirator against Gaumata Distinguished Persian, son of Dātūvahya (according to Hdt. 3,153 father of Zopyrus), He conspired with Darius [1] I against Gaumāta/Smerdis ([2. DB IV 85], Hdt. 3,70 passim). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Zopyrus, commander under Xerxes According to Hdt. son of Zopyrus (and hence grandson of M. [1]). Commander under Xerxes in his Greek campaign (Hdt. 7,82; 1…

Istachr

(154 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] ( Iṣṭaxr, modern Taxt-i Ṭāʾūs). Site of ancient ruins located in Persis (Fārs) on the road from Iṣfahān to Shīrāz, at  Naqš-e Rostam; having been populated since prehistoric times, a fire sanctuary for  Anāhitā - according to Arabic tradition - was subsequently located there (archaeological investigations cannot prove this); Sāsān, the eponym of the  Sassanid Dynasty, is supposed to have been its priest. Inscriptions, finds of coins, seal legends, and literary accounts clearly show th…

Qaṣr-e Abū Naṣr

(195 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] ('Old Šīrāz', modern Mādar-e Sulaimān), 7 km south-east of Šīrāz (Fars); essentially a late Sāssānid and early Islamic complex (5th-9th cents.). Three Achaemenid stone portals, which aroused great attention from travellers as early as the 19th cent., proved to be parts of the palace of Darius in Persepolis which had been brought to Q. to decorate much later buildings (they have since been returned to their original place). In the Achaemenid era, Q. is probably to be identified with th…

Phraaspa

(83 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states (Φράασπα/ Phráaspa: Steph. Byz.; Φράατα/ Phráata: Plut. Antonius 38,2; Πράασπα/ Práaspa: Cass. Dio 49, 25,3; identical to Οὐέρα/ Ouéra = Vera: Str. 11,13,3). Probably a citadel in the city of Gaza(ka) in Media Atropatene (near modern Laylān on Lake Urmia?), Antony's [I 9] base in the Parthian campaign in 36 BC; not identical to Šīs. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography 1 M. Schottky, Media Atropatene und Groß-Armenien in hellenistischer Zeit, 1989, Index s.v.

Oreitae

(94 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὠρεῖται/ Ōreîtai, also Ὦροι/ Ôroi). Not an Indian ethnic group (cf. Arr. Ind. 21,8; 22,10; 25,2; incorrectly  Arr. Anab. 6,21,3) but probably an Iranian ethnic group with the centre at Rhambakeia (Arr. Anab. 6,21,5; probably close to modern Las Bela) in the modern Pakistani province of Baluchistan. According to Arr. Anab. 6,21,3, the O. lived fully autonomously before Alexander [4] the Great subjugated them in 325 BC and placed them under the control of the satrap Apollophanes. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography P.H.L. Eggermont, Alexander's Campaigns in Si…

Qaṣr-e Šīrīn

(126 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] A place in the Iranian province of Īlām near the Iraqi border, named after Šīrīn (Shirin), the Christian wife of the Sassanid Ḫusrau II (Chosroes [6]; 591-628). In the Islamic period, Q. was an important town on the trading and pilgrimage route from Hamadān to Baghdad. On the eastern edge of the city a large fire sanctuary (?) (Çahār Tāq) is located, and north of it, on an 8 m high terrace, a palace complex attributed to Ḫusrau II (Imārat-e Ḫusrau), 370 × 190 m in size. The entire complex should be pictured as part of a park ( parádeisos ) in Antiquity. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) B…

Paraetacene

(52 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Παραιτακηνή/ Paraitakēnḗ; inhabitants: Παρητακηνοί/ Par ētakēnoí, among others Hdt. 1,101 and Παραιτάκαι/ Paraitálai, Arr. Anab. 3,19,2). Mountainous area in western Iran, enclosed in the north and east by Media, Areia [1] and Carmania and in the south-west by Susiana. Str. describes the Paraitakēnoí as marauding mountain people (15,3,12). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)

Carduchi

(175 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Καρδοῦχοι; Kardoûchoi). First mentioned by Xenophon (Xen. An. 3,5,15 and passim), a mountain people living in the northernmost foothills of the  Zagrus, the Καρδούχεια ὄρη (Diod. Sic. 14,27,4). Xenophon describes the C. as living in villages and cultivating the fields, growing wine and raising cattle, as well as doing craftwork. He particularly emphasizes their military significance as archers and catapult shooters. Whilst in the Greek reports it is mainly the (‘natural’) aggression of the…
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