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(236 words)

Author(s): Aune, David E.
[German Version] The Greek word διατριβή/ diatribḗ has a range of meanings including “conversation,” “discourse,” “lecture,” and even “school.” The diatribe is distinguished by its dialogical character, including the use of imaginary opponents, hyphothetical objections, and false conclusions. It reflects the Socratic use of ἐλεγκτικὸς λόγος/ elenktikós lógos, “censure,” and προτρεπτικὸς λόγος/ protreptikós lógos, “persuasion.” Recent discussion of the diatribe focuses on three issues: 1. Is the diatr…


(184 words)

Author(s): Aune, David E.
[German Version] modern Izmir, was located on a peninsula in western Anatolia where the Hermus river entered the Aegean sea. Aeolian Greeks settled there c. 1000 bce and soon joined the Ionian League (Strabo XIV 1.4). Mud brick defense walls and a temple of Athena indicate that Smyrna was then a city state. In 333 bce Smyrna, which had in the meantime been under Persian rule, was captured and was re-founded by Alexander the Great (Pausanias VII 5.1–3). It was subject to Pergamum in 288 bce, and in 133 bce was willed to Rome by Attalos III. Twice mentioned in the New Testament (Rev 1…

John, Apocalypse of/Book of Revelation

(5,137 words)

Author(s): Aune, David E. | Arnulf, Arwed
[German Version] I. Exegesis – II. Art History I. Exegesis 1. Historical issues a. Authorship The author of Revelation or the Apocalypse repeatedly tells us in the framework of his book that his name is John (1:1, 4, 9; 22:8). This, together ¶ with the frequent use of first-person verb forms that regularly punctuate the vision narratives, underscores the author's role as witness to the revelatory visions he narrates, a strategy typical of early Jewish apocalypses (Apocalypse). The pseudonymous character of all early Jewish apocalypses …

Prophets and Prophecy

(8,753 words)

Author(s): Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel | Jeremias, Jörg | Gray, Rebecca | Hayoun, Maurice-Ruben | Aune, David E. | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. The term. In the significance ascribed to religious phenomena, prophecy surpasses individual experiences of mysticism, ecstasy, and inspiration, as well as the situational activities of established functionaries such as priests (Priesthood), shamans (Shamanism), or diviners (Divination). Revelations ascribed by prophets to the deity they serve give ethical guidance to a community. The term προφήτης/ prophḗ tēs derives from ancient Greek religion, where it referred initially to local specialists, who are hard to …


(4,324 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Aune, David E. | Fitschen, Klaus | Leppin, Volker | Boyer, Paul S | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. New Testament – III. Church History – IV. North America – V. Systematic Theology – VI. Islam – VII. China I. Religious Studies Millenarianism (chiliasm) refers to the notion of a 1,000-year (Lat. millenarius, Gk χίλια/ chília) period ¶ immediately preceding the Last Judgment and the end of the world. This conception of world history (see also II) derives from Jewish apocalypticism (III) and became widespread over time, being interpreted in various ways depending on the age and cultural envi…


(8,622 words)

Author(s): Felber, Annelies | Hutter, Manfred | Achenbach, Reinhard | Aune, David E. | Lang, Bernhard | Et al.
[German Version] I. Names and Terms – II. Religious Studies – III. Ancient Near East and Old Testament – IV. New Testament – V. Church History – VI. Philosophy of Religion – VII. Fundamental Theology – VIII. Dogmatics – IX. Judaism – X. Islam – XI. History of Art and Literature I. Names and Terms 1. Devil The secular Greek noun διάβολος/ diabolos comes from one of the meanings of the verb διαβάλλω/ diaballō, “separate, sever,” which led to meanings such as “accuse, slander, deceive.” From the Greek noun came Latin diabolus, from which the English …