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Calovius, Abraham

(668 words)

Author(s): Baur, Jörg
[German Version] (Kalau; Apr 16, 1612, Mohrungen – Feb 25, 1686, Wittenberg) began his philosophical and theological studies in Königsberg in 1626, and continued them in Rostock from 1634 to 1637. In 1640 he became professor extraordinarius in Königsberg, and in 1643 rector and pastor in Danzig. In 1650 he became professor ordinarius in Wittenberg. He was married six times and fathered 13 children (who all died before 1685). Funeral sermon by J.F. Mayer. As the “second Athanasius” (Mayer), Calovius stood for the integrity of the Lutheran church and theology. He…

Formula of Concord

(1,918 words)

Author(s): Baur, Jörg | Wengert, Timothy J.
1. Background The Book of Concord (1580), as a collection of the most important 16th-century Lutheran confessional writings (Confessions and Creeds), has formal validity to this day in most Lutheran churches. The final text in that collection, the Formula of Concord (1577), by claiming to repeat and explain the Augsburg Confession, using both affirmation (“we believe, teach, and confess …”) and negation (“we reject and condemn …”), defines afresh the main articles of the Christian religion as M. Luther (1483–1546), P. Melanchthon (1497–1560), and other Reformers expounded them. Alr…


(6,002 words)

Author(s): Baur, Jörg | Sparn, Walter | Muller, Richard A.
1. Lutheran Orthodoxy 1.1. Epoch The term “Lutheran orthodoxy” (sometimes “old Lutheran orthodoxy” or “old Protestant orthodoxy”) is ill adapted to describe this specific form of Reformation Christianity, which extended between the Reformation and the Enlightenment. Radical Pietism called the period orthodox because of (1) its interest in pure doctrine alone and not also in a holy life in devout fellowship and (2) the alliance between ecclesiastical and secular government. But this summary was a cari…


(26,590 words)

Author(s): Hahn, Ferdinand | Markschies, Christoph | Angenendt, Arnold | Kaufmann, Thomas | Koch, Ernst | Et al.
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics – IV. Liturgical History – V. Practical Theology – VI. Missiology I. New Testament 1. Background Sacred meals are common to all religions. Before examining them in the context of the NT, it is necessary first to inquire into their background in the OT and in Judaism, whereupon it becomes evident that sacrificial meals play no role in them. Only the dai…