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Holbein, Hans (the Younger)

(235 words)

Author(s): Hüttel, Richard
[German Version] (1497, Augsburg – 1543, London), son of the important Augsburg altar painter Hans Holbein (the Elder; 1465–1524), moved in 1515 to Basel, where some of his masterpieces were produced, such as the portrait of Mayor Jakob Meyer and his wife (1516), Christ in the grave (1521), and the so-called Solothurn Madonna (1522). Already in his Basel period Holbein's paintings stood out because of their unusual precision and artistic objectivity. Especially the portraits of Erasmus of Rotterda…

Bosch, Hieronymus

(265 words)

Author(s): Hüttel, Richard
[German Version] (Jeroen Anthoniszoon van Aken; c. 1450, 's Hertogenbosch – Aug 9, 1516, 's Hertogenbosch), Dutch painter. Bosch may have been apprenticed to his father Antonius van Aken. From the 1480s he is documented as a member of the Brotherhood of Our Dear Lady, to whom he remained deeply committed for the duration of his life. He owed the significant and …

Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da

(218 words)

Author(s): Hüttel, Richard
[German Version] (1572, Caravaggio or Milan – Jul 18, 1610 Porto Ercole) is considered one of the great realists in the history of painting (Realism: IV). In 1672, the Italian art critic Giovanni Pietro Bellori wrote that Caravaggio's unvarnished vision of reality “corrupted the morals of painting.” Besides the realistic objectivity and verisimilitude of his pictures (almost all the models for his female figures were prostitutes), Caravaggio shocked his contemporaries with surprising compositional techniques such as bringing the viewer close in to the scene, as in The Conversion …


(103 words)

Author(s): Hüttel, Richard
[German Version] Originally the designation of a silk cloth from Baghdad, baldachin became a special sign of dignity and honor in the Christian Middle Ages: as throne and altar ciboria (Altar.), but also over shrines and tombs of saints. In addition, stone altar baldachins from the Middle Ages exist in large numbers (e.g. Maria Laach). G.L. Bernini's tabernacle of 1633 over Peter's tomb in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome became a baroque prototype that continued to influence the innumerable chancel baldachins of the 18th century. Richard Hüttel Bibliography J. Braun, “Altarbaldachin,” RD…

Goes, Hugo van der

(164 words)

Author(s): Hüttel, Richard
[German Version] (between 1430 and 1440, Ghent – 1482, Roode Clooster near Brussels) was the leading painter in Ghent before he withdrew as “frater conversus” to a monastery of the Windesheim Congregation in 1477. The winged altar from S. Maria Nuova in Florence, which he created on the commission of Tommaso Portinari (now Florence, Uffizi), is considered his chief work. In his realistic perspective, Goes exceeded the generation that included R.van der Weyden and Robert Campin (c. 1375–4/26/1444),…

Bouts, Dirck

(140 words)

Author(s): Hüttel, Richard
[German Version] (Dieric; born between 1410 and 1420 in Haarlem, died after Apr 17, 1475 in Louvain) was city painter in Louvain from 1468, and produced his most important works in that city, including the Last Supper altarpiece (1464–1467), which is consid¶ ered the first picture in the history of western painting to employ a consistent central perspective, and the two Justice panels for the city chambers in Louvain. As early as the 16th century, Bouts, who …

Blauer Reiter

(224 words)

Author(s): Hüttel, Richard
[German Version] The society of artists such as W. Kandinsky and F. Marc, which was founded in 1911 ¶ and included such members as August Macke, Heinrich Campendonk, and Gabriele Münter, received its name “Blauer Reiter” (Blue Rider) from Kandinsky's famous almanac painting. According to its mission statement the “spiritual in art” should be the center of attention and dissolv…

Cole, Thomas

(164 words)

Author(s): Hüttel, Richard
[German Version] (Feb 1, 1801, Boldon-le-Moors – Feb 11, 1848, Catskill, NY) is considered a pioneer of American landscape painting and the founder of the Hudson River School. Influenced by English Pietism, and especially by J. Bunyan, his thematic series of paintings entitled “The course of the Empire” (1833–1836) portrayed the history of humanity as a sort of pilgrimage from primal state to downfall. Inspired by C. Lorrain, Cole sought to make the spiritual quality of…

Alberti, Leon Battista

(136 words)

Author(s): Hüttel, Richard
[German Version] (Feb 14, 1404, Genoa – Apr 25, 1472, Rome), humanist and architect. From 1432 to 1464, Alberti was a secretary in the papal chancery; he lived in Florence until his death. His reconstruction of the churches of S. Franceso in Rimini (1446–1455), S. Sebastiano in Mantua (1459–1463), and S. Andrea in Mantua (starting in 1472) provided concrete illustrations of his theoretical maxim that architecture must above all follow the canons of solidity ( firmitas), functionality ( utilitas), and beauty ( venustas). His treatise De re aedificatoria, begun in 1450, appeared pos…

Brueg(h)el, Peter, the Elder

(207 words)

Author(s): Hüttel, Richard
[German Version] (between 1525 and 1530, probably Breda – Sep 5, 1569, Brussels) was an apprentice of Pieter Coecke van Aelst. The engraving prototypes he created for Hieronymus Cock's Antwerp printing house contributed significantly to the fame of this, the most important publishing house of the period. In addition, there is a rich body of Brueghel's painting, …

Cornelius, Peter von

(181 words)

Author(s): Hüttel, Richard
[German Version] (Sep 29, 1783, Düsseldorf – Mar 6, 1867, Berlin), from 1795 a student at the Academy in Düsseldorf, became known to a larger public through his illustrations for Goethe's Faust (published 1816), which are regarded as the key work of Nazarene art. In Rome (after 1811), Cornelius, along with J.F. Overbeck, was one of the dominant figures in the Nazarene Lucas Brotherhood (Lukasbund). In Munich, where he was director of the Academy from 1824, on the commission of King Ludwig I he crea…


(6,748 words)

Author(s): Sparn, Walter | Hüttel, Richard | Mikuda-Hüttel, Barbara | Kühlmann, Wilhelm | Hagel, Doris
[German Version] I. Use and History of the Term – II. Architecture and Landscaping – III. Painting and Sculpture – IV. Literature – V. Music I. Use and History of the Term Initially a pejorative designation for irregular and un-natural elements of architecture following the Renaissance, the term “Baroque” has, since J. Burckhardt (1855) and Heinrich Wölfflin (1888), been revaluated into a term describing an artistic,…