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War Scroll

(543 words)

Author(s): Lichtenberger, Hermann
[German Version] What may have been the scroll’s original title may appear in 1QM, the complete manuscript: “For the Maskil: The Book/Rule of the War” (1QM 1). The manuscript dates from the Herodian period; its 19 columns (1Q33: 20) include the beginning of the text but not its end. The bottom edge is heavily damaged throughout; estimates of textual loss range between two and ten lines per column. Six manuscripts were found in Cave 4 (4Q491–496), four of which (4Q492, 494, 495, 496) represent the text type of 1QM, in addition to the War Scroll-Like Fragment (4Q497, 4Q471, and 4Q285). 4Q491 (Ma)…

Habakkuk Commentary

(548 words)

Author(s): Lichtenberger, Hermann
[German Version] The Habakkuk Commentary from Qumran, 1QpHab, belongs to the genre of continuous pesharim (thus also “Habakkuk Pesher”), i.e. those exegeses of a prophetic or psalm text which in Qumran interpret entire biblical books or parts of them in terms of the history of the Qumran-Essene (Essenes) community (the yaḥad). The manuscript of 1QpHab is unique, but certainly not an autography as copy errors and mistakes in the configuration of the columns indicate (II 5); it was copied in the last decades of the 1st century bce in Qumran – as can be deduced from the (typical) Ess…

Genesis Apocryphon

(340 words)

Author(s): Lichtenberger, Hermann
[German Version] Fragments of 22 text columns (the most complete being II, XII, XIX–XXII) have been preserved of an Aramaic retelling of Genesis, of which the extant text encompasses Gen 5:28–15:4. The manuscript dates from the decades around the beginning of the common era; a Qumran-Essene authorship cannot be corroborated. In terms of literary genre, the text may be characterized as an embellishing paraphrase containing Targum-type translation passages (Bible translations: I, 4) and midrashic se…


(418 words)

Author(s): Lichtenberger, Hermann
[German Version] Hodayot, “songs of praise,” a Qumran-Essene (Qumran, Essenes) song collection (2nd half of the 2nd cent. bce), preserved in eight manuscripts (1QHa, 1QHb, 4Q427–432), the most extensive of which Sukenik & Avigad published in 1954 in 18 columns and 66 fragments. Stegemann reconstructed the original order (28 columns, some in a new sequence, inclusion of ¶ almost all the fragments), which Puech independently confirmed. Columns 1–12 of Sukenik correspond to IX–XX of Stegemann, 13–16 to V–VIII, 17 to IV, 18 to XXIII and XXI, 19 to XXIV and XXII. 1QHa is Herodian, written …

Essenes and Therapeutae

(1,121 words)

Author(s): Lichtenberger, Hermann
[German Version] The term Essenes refers to one of the three or four Jewish groups mentioned by Flavius Josephus ( Bell. II 119–166; Ant. XIII 171–173; XV 371f.; XVIII 11–25) that have been known since antiquity through the reports of Philo of Alexandria ( Prob. 72–91; Apology in Eusebius of Caesarea Praep. 8.11.1–18), Pliny the Elder ( Naturalis historia 5.73) and Josephus. Individual Essenes appear in Bell. I 78–80 (Judas, Ant. XIII 311); Bell. II 111–113 (Simon, Ant. XVII 345–348); Bell. II 566–568; III 11 (John, Ant. XV 373–379). According to a broad c…

Damascus Document

(856 words)

Author(s): Lichtenberger, Hermann
[German Version] The Damascus Document has been known since its discovery in 1896/97 in the Genizah of the Ezra Synagogue in Cairo and its publication in 1910 by Schechter. Although it has also been called Fragments of a Zadokite Work because of the special role played by the Zadokites (Zadok/Zadokites) in it, the designation Damascus Document (Cairo Damascus Document = CD [Qumran]) has generally established itself because of the mention of the “new covenant in the l…


(3,670 words)

Author(s): Hanhart, Robert | Lichtenberger, Hermann
1. OT Apocrypha 1.1. Concept In common parlance, the term “Apocrypha” is used for the books or parts of books that appear in the Alexandrian canon of the LXX translation but are not found in the Masoretic canon. On the basis of the former tradition the Roman Catholic Church recognized these books as canonical from the Third Council of Carthage (397) and today ranks them as deuterocanonical. The designation of these books as Apocrypha in the churches of the Reformation goes back to 1520 to Carlstadt (ca. 1480–1541). When M. Luther included the books (apart from 1 Esdras, 3 Macca…


(3,500 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen | Lichtenberger, Hermann | Meßner, Reinhard | Gerö, Stephen | Nagel, Tilman | Et al.
[German Version] I. General – II. Jewish Calendar – III. Christian Calendar – IV. Islamic Calendar – V. Liturgical Calendar I. General 1. The term calendar derives from the Roman “calendae,” the day on which a new month was proclaimed. It designates the structuring and hence the consequent mediation of time, i.e. records in pictorial and literary media to communicate structures of time. Calendars are concrete translations of chronologies. The performance of activities to be collectiv…


(6,064 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen | Lichtenberger, Hermann | Jewett, Robert | Mosshammer, Alden A. | Fagg, Lawrence W.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Old Testament and Early Judaism – III. New Testament – IV. Christian Time-Reckoning – V. Chronology in Scholarly Study I. History of Religions Not every culture has a word for what we call time and, if so, then with clearly different nuances of meaning. ¶ From the perspective of the history of religions, therefore, chronology can only refer figuratively to the division, arrangement, and measurement of what modern European languages call time. A distinct division of time is t…

Human Beings

(18,165 words)

Author(s): Gregersen, Niels H. | Grünschloß, Andreas | Figal, Günter | Janowski, Bernd | Lichtenberger, Hermann | Et al.
[German Version] I. Natural Sciences and Psychology – II. Religious Studies – III. Philosophy – IV. Old Testament – V. New Testament – VI. Church History – VII. Dogmatics and Ethics – VIII. Judaism – IX. Islam I. Natural Sciences and Psychology 1. Evolution From the perspective of the natural sciences, the theory of evolution offers the most comprehensive framework for understanding human beings. It views the human species as a late product of a biogenetic process that began with the origin of life (VI) on earth some 3.8 billion …


(10,627 words)

Author(s): Heller, Birgit | Gerstenberger, Erhard S. | Lichtenberger, Hermann | Greschat, Katharina | Markschies, Christoph | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. Primitive Christianity – IV. Church History – V. Judaism – VI. Islam – VII. Asia, Africa, and Latin America – VIII. Social Sciences – IX. Psychology – X. Philosophy of Religion – XI. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies To date there have been hardly any works devoted to men from the perspective of religious studies. Given the androcentrism of traditional scholarship, the category of homo religiosus has usually yielded knowledge of the religious male, but this work must …