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Disputations, Religious

(2,700 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard | Koschorke, Klaus
[German Version] I. Europe – II. Asia, Africa, Latin America I. Europe 1. Concept The term “religious disputations” (or “[inter-]-religious conversations,” Ger.: Religionsgespräche) encompasses discussions concerning religion, in particular Christianity, both between representatives of different religions and between Christians of different confessions (see also dialogue). They may involve the …

Spina, Bartolomeo de

(152 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[German Version] (c. 1475, Pisa – Apr 3, 1547, Rome). After joining the Dominicans in 1493, Spina taught in Modena, Bologna, and Padua. He had contacts with S.M. Prierias but nevertheless harshly attacked T. de Vio Cajetan for not correctly teaching the immortality of the soul. He served as an inquisitor and also considered the prosecution of witches essential. He did not agree with the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. In 1542 Paul III appointed him Magister Sacri Palatii, an office that ena…

Morone, Giovanni

(187 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[German Version] (Jan 25, 1509, Milan – Dec 1, 1580, Rome); 1529–1550 and 1564–1571 bishop of Modena, 1553–1560 bishop of Novara, 1542 cardinal; one of the most important 16th-century diplomats of the Roman curia; served several times in Germany, also in Italy and France. At the Disputation of Regensburg (Ratisbon Conference) in 1542, Morone worked for a rapprochement. Under the influence of G. Contarini and R. Pole he worked for reform of the church. Suspected of supporting the Reformation, under Paul IV he was charged and incarcerated. Rehabilitated…

Wittenberg Concord

(425 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[German Version] The debate over the Lord’s Supper (Eucharist: II, 3) between Luther, Zwingli, and others weakened the political influence of German Protestantism. Beginning with the Marburg Colloquy (Disputations, Religious) in 1529, therefore, there were efforts to reach an understanding. Among the theologians, M. Bucer played a leading role. The introduction of the Reformation in Württemberg required an accommodation between Lutheran theology and the South German theology that had been develope…

Roman Catechism

(297 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[German Version] ( Catechismus Romanus). At the end of the Council of Trent in 1563, the fathers of the Council transferred to Pius IV work not yet concluded, including material for a catechism (II). The pope had the text revised. Pius V set up a new working group, and in 1566 published its results under the title Catechismus, ex decreto Concilii Tridentini, ad parochos. As early as 1567, the title was expanded by the addition of Romanus. In four sections (faith, sacraments, precepts, and prayer), those responsible for pastoral care ¶ were provided with guidelines for instruction and …

Communion of Saints

(1,296 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard Ludwig | Track, Joachim
[German Version] I. Catholic Understanding – II. Protestant Understanding I. Catholic Understanding The expression “communion of saints” ( Communio sanctorum ) is attested in the writings of Nicetas of Remesiana ( Explanatio symboli 10) as an addendum to the Apostles' Creed (DH 19) and signifies an interpretation of the concept of the church. In its very essence, the “Holy Catholic Church” is to be seen in three interwoven ¶ levels of meaning: the common participation of all the baptized in Christ's gifts of salvation; the personal unity of all in faith,…

Seripando, Girolamo (Hieronymus)

(327 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[German Version] (c. Oct 16, 1492, Naples – Mar 17, 1563, Trent). After a good Humanistic education, Seripando joined the Augustinian Hermits in 1507. After studying philosophy and theology, he was ordained to the priesthood in 1512 and advanced rapidly within his order. He was influenced by Platonism and Neoplatonism but also by Thomas Aquinas and Giles of Rome. In response to the Reformers’ theology, he dealt with the doctrine of justification, supporting himself primarily on Augustine of Hippo.…

Saints/Veneration of the Saints

(4,185 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael | Köpf, Ulrich | Müller, Gerhard Ludwig | Ivanov, Vladimir | Barth, Hans-Martin | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In comparative religious studies, veneration of saints generally refers to the posthumous cultic veneration of a holy person more or less identifiable as a historical individual; it is centered at the place that preserves the saint’s mortal remains, thought to have miraculous powers. Occasionally veneration of living individuals is subsumed under the same category, but this extension results in a dubious diminution of terminological precision, since to this day no one …


(1,338 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[German Version] I. Definition – II. History – III. Present I. Definition Henry the Lion (1129/1130–1188) made the town of Braunschweig (Brunswick) the center of his Saxon duchy. He promoted its improvement, chartered it as a city in 1166, and saw to the building of the church in which he was buried. When his heirs partitioned the duchy in 1267, the city remained t…


(1,253 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard | Ehmer, Hermann | Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] 1. Andreas (Dec 14 or 19, 1496 or 1498, Gunzhausen – Oct 17, 1552, Königsberg [today Kaliningrad, Russia]), Reformer of Nuremberg (Nürnberg) and center of a violent controversy over his doctrine of justification. Osiander matriculated at Ingolstadt in 1515, where he learned Greek and Hebrew and was influenced by Humanism and especially by J. Reuchlin and the Kabbalah. In 1520 he was ordained to the priesthood; in the same year, he was employed to teach Hebrew by the Augustinian Herm…

Aleander, Girolamo

(301 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard L.
[German Version] (Feb 13, 1480, Motta di Livenza, Friaul – Feb 1, 1542, Rome), the son of a physician, was educated in Motta, Prodenone, Venice, and Padua; early on he learned Greek in addition to Latin; he also studied Aramaic and Syriac. In humanistic circles, Aleander was well-known and respected. Erasmus paved the way to France for him in 1508. In 1514, he…

Bugenhagen, Johannes

(601 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[German Version] (Jun 24, 1485, Wollin, Pomerania – Apr 20, 1558, Wittenberg), a notable exegete and influential church organizer. He began his studies in Greifswald in 1502 and became rector of the school in Treptow in 1504. In 1509, he was ordained to the priesthood. His humanistic interests and disinclination toward scholasticism soon became evident. On the…

Paul III, Pope

(435 words)

Author(s): Muller, Gerhard
[German Version] (Alessandro Farnese, born Feb, 1468, probably in Canino; pope Oct 13, 1534 – Nov 10, 1549). Paul III initiated the reform of the Roman Catholic Church and the Counter-Reformation. Although made a cardinal at the age of 25 by Alexander VI, despite ties to Julius II and Leo X he was not elected pope until he was 66, being considered politically neutral and qualified to put an end to the vacillating policies of his predecessor, Clement VII. He endeavored to achieve an understanding b…

Lambert, Franz

(411 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[German Version] (1487, Avignon – Apr 18, 1530, Frankenberg an der Eder), Reformer in Hessen, author of numerous works in which he demonstrated independence, but repudiated Humanism and finally Lutheranism. After becoming a Franciscan in 1501, he became an itinerant preacher expounding biblical texts. In 1522 he went to Switzerland and discussed theology with Zwingli. Their conversation led him to go to Wittenberg to work at the center of the Reformation. Though initially hesitant, Luther accepted…


(1,422 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard Ludwig | Felmy, Karl Christian | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Germann, Michael
[German Version] I. Catholic Church – II. Orthodox Church – III. Protestantism – IV. Canon Law I. Catholic Church The term consecration is used to render various liturgical and canon law terms: ordinatio, dedicatio, consecratio, benedictio. This demonstrates that the content of the notion of consecration extends broadly. Common is the conviction of faith that an object of earthly reality is connected in a particular way with God and the saving work in Christ. This connection is related to the theology of …

Julius III, Pope

(200 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[German Version] Feb 8, 1550 – Mar 23, 1555 (Giovanni Maria del Monte, b. Sep 10, 1487, Rome). After studying jurisprudence, Julius became chamberlain to Julius II, archbishop of Siponto (1513), and cardinal (1536). From 1545 to 1548, he was one of the presidents of the Council of Trent. Elected pope after a difficult conclave, he struggled to find his way between the political parties. In 1551, under pressure from Charles V of Germany, he reconvened the council. In 1552, he founded the Collegium …

Philip of Hesse

(873 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[German Version] (landgrave of Hesse; Nov 13, 1504, Marburg – May 31, 1567, Kassel), most politically active German Protestant prince of the 16th century. Having been declared of age in 1518, he attended the Diet of Worms (Imperial Reform) in 1520/1521, and spoke there with Luther. During the uprising of F. v. Sickingen he supported the princes who were under attack. In 1523 he married Christine, a daughter of George the Bearded of Saxony. In the Peasants’ War (1524–1525) he supported his father-i…

Clement VII, Pope

(325 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[German Version] (Nov 19, 1523 – Sep 25, 1534; Guilio de' Medici, born May 26, 1478, Florence). As a member of the most distinguished Florentine family, Clement was eminently qualified for advancement, although his illegitimate birth did represent a drawback. He nonetheless became archbishop of Florence in 1513. His cousin Leo X made him cardinal in 1513 and vice-¶ chancellor in 1517. He was soon reckoned among the partisans of Charles V, but also sought contact with Francis I of France at an early date, thereafter oscillating between the …


(1,315 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin | Müller, Gerhard L.
[German Version] I. History – II. Modern Catholicism I. History Indulgences ( indulgentia as a fixed technical term since the early 13th cent.; previously also remissio, relaxatio, or absolutio generalis) are rooted in the early medieval system of scheduled penances (Repentance: IV), which allowed fixed forms of satisfaction to be replaced by other acts (“commutation”) or payment of a monetary sum (“redemption”), all meant to be equivalent. The new element in indulgences was the discontinuation of this required equivalenc…

Augsburg Interim

(531 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard L.
[German Version] is the designation for a decree by Charles V of Germany that provided a preliminary solution to the religion issue in Germany between (“interim”) the Augsburg Reichstag (Imperial Diet) of 1547/48 and the Council of Trent. Despite his victory over the Schmalkaldic League, the …

Soto, Pedro de

(169 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[German Version] (c. 1495, Alcalá – Apr 20, 1563, Trent), Catholic controversialist. He joined the Dominicans in 1518 and supported the reform of his order. In 1542 he was appointed confessor to Charles V, an office from which he resigned in 1548 because he thought the imperial court was not attacking the Reformation vigorously enough. He played a role in founding the University of Dillingen, where he lectured in theology from 1549 to 1555. In 1555 he accepted a posting to England but remained onl…

Trinity/Doctrine of the Trinity

(11,509 words)

Author(s): Oberdorfer, Bernd | Theobald, Michael | Müller, Gerhard Ludwig | Plank, Peter | Küster, Volker | Et al.
[German Version] ¶ I. Terminology To an unusual degree, the theology of the Trinity is characterized by a strained combination of narrative biblical language and speculative philosophical language. The word trinitas was first used by Tertullian ( Prax. 2.1–4), as a translation of Greek τριάς/ triás (orig. “threeness”). To denote the divine unity (God: V, 1), the 4th-century debates showed that the term οὐσία/ ousí (“Essence”; see also Divine essence) borrowed from Greek philosophy was theologically legitimate. The term ὑπόστασις/ hypóstasis (Hypostasis) was sometimes used i…


(324 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[German Version] 1. Lorenzo (1474, Milan – Jul 20, 1539, Rome) became professor of law at Bologna in 1500, was ordained priest in 1511, made bishop in 1512 and cardinal in 1517. He achieved fame through his positions as nuncio: in 1511, Julius II sent him to Emperor Maximilian I; Leo X gave him the same assignment (1513–1517). Campeggio established cordial relations with Maximilian and Charles V, as well as with Henry VIII of England. In 1524/1525, Clement VII com…

Contarini, Gasparo

(430 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[German Version] (Oct 16, 1483, Venice – Aug 24, 1542, Bologna). Born into a patrician family in Venice, the diplomat and church reformer Gasparo Contarini began studying law in Padua in 1501. His interest in religious matters was awakened by friends. In 1511, he came to realize that his salvation depended on Christ alone, and not on his own merits (Jedin: Contarini's “tower experience”). Contarini remained a layman, but devoted himself to theology as an autodida…

Confessions and Creeds

(5,234 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard | Rohls, Jan
In one of its meanings, “confession” refers to a declaration of religious belief. It can be as simple as “Jesus is Lord” (1 Cor. 12:3) or as detailed as the Augsburg Confession (1530) or similar Protestant expressions of faith in the 16th and 17th centuries. “Creed” refers to a concise statement of Christian doctrine, typically produced by a council of the early church. The Apostles’ Creed and Nicene Creed are perhaps the most famous of such statements. 1. Confessions as Statements of Faith Christian confessions serve the purposes of acknowledgment, praise, and delimitation. A…

Römischer Katechismus

(280 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[English Version] (Catechismus Romanus). Beim Abschluß des Tridentinums 1563 überwiesen die Konzilsväter noch nicht abgeschlossene Arbeiten, darunter Material für einen Katechismus (: II.), an Pius IV. Dieser ließ den Text überarbeiten. Pius V. setzte eine neue Arbeitsgruppe ein und publizierte 1566 deren Ergebnis unter dem Titel »Catechismus, ex decreto Concilii Tridentini, ad parochos«. Bereits 1567 wurde der Titel durch »Romanus« erweitert. In vier Abschnitten (Glaube, Sakramente, Gebote und Ge…


(2,396 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard | Koschorke, Klaus
[English Version] I. Europa 1.Zum Begriff Mit dem Begriff R. werden sowohl Diskussionen zw. Vertretern verschiedener Rel. als auch zw. Christen unterschiedlicher Konfessionen über die Rel., nämlich das Christentum, zusammengefaßt (s.a. Dialog). Dabei kann es um den Versuch gehen, die Menschen, die andere Überzeugungen vertreten, für die eigene Auffassung zu gewinnen; aber es kann auch die Bemühung vorherrschen, das Fremde zu verstehen und die allen gemeinsame Wahrheit herauszufinden. Neben ungezählt…


(10,088 words)

Author(s): Oberdorfer, Bernd | Theobald, Michael | Müller, Gerhard Ludwig | Plank, Peter | Küster, Volker | Et al.
[English Version] I. Begrifflichkeit In bes. Maße ist die Trinitätstheol. gekennzeichnet durch ein spannungsvolles Ineinander von bibl.-narrativer und philos.-spekulativer Sprache. Der Ausdruck trinitas begegnet erstmals bei Tertullian (Prax. 2,1–4) als Übers. des griech. τρια´ς/triás (urspr. »Dreiheit«). Im Dt. haben sich neben dem Fremdwort »T.« die Begriffe »Dreieinigkeit« und »Dreifaltigkeit« etabliert. Für die Benennung der göttlichen Einheit (Gott: V.,1.) haben die Auseinandersetzungen des 4.Jh. den aus der antiken Philos. stammenden Terminus ου᾿σι´α/ousía …


(155 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[English Version] Soto, Pedro de (ca.1495 Alcalá – 20.4.1563 Trient), kath. Kontroverstheologe. 1518 wurde S. Dominikaner und setzte sich für Reformen seines Ordens ein. 1542 wurde er Beichtvater Karls V. 1548 gab er dieses Amt auf, weil der Kaiserhof seiner Meinung nach nicht energisch genug gegen die Reformation vorging. An der Gründung der Universität Dillingen, an der er 1549–1555 theol. Vorlesungen hielt, war S. beteiligt. 1555 folgte er einem Ruf nach England, wo er aber nur etwa ein Jahr blie…


(145 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[English Version] Spina, Bartolomeo de (ca.1475 Pisa – 3.4.1547 Rom), 1493 Dominikaner, lehrte in Modena, Bologna und Padua. S. hatte Kontakte zu S.M. Prierias, jedoch griff er Th. de Vio  Cajetan scharf an, der die Unsterblichkeit der Seele nicht korrekt lehre. Er arbeitete als Inquisitor und hielt auch die Verfolgung der Hexen für erforderlich. Die Lehre von der Unbefleckten Empfängnis Mariens teilte er nicht. 1542 wurde er von Paul III. zum Magister Sacri Palatii ernannt. Dieses Amt ermöglichte e…


(1,256 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard Ludwig | Felmy, Karl Christian | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Germann, Michael
[English Version] I. Katholisch Mit dem Begriff Weihe (W.) werden unterschiedliche liturgische und kirchenrechtliche Termini wiedergegeben: ordinatio, dedicatio, consecratio, benedictio. Dies zeigt, daß der Inhalt des Weiheverständnisses weit gespannt ist. Gemeinsam ist die Glaubensüberzeugung, daß ein Objekt der irdischen Wirklichkeit in bes. Weise mit Gott und dem Heilswirken in Christus in Verbindung steht. Diese Verbindung ist schöpfungstheol. angelegt, sie wird durch eine Weihehandlung (Wh.) s…


(1,075 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard | Ehmer, Hermann | Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] 1.Andreas (14. oder 19.12.1496 [1498?] Gunzenhausen – 17.10.1552 Königsberg), Reformator Nürnbergs und Auslöser des nach ihm benannten Streits über die Rechtfertigungslehre (Rechtfertigung). O. wurde 1515 in Ingolstadt immatrikuliert, erlernte Griechisch und Hebräisch und war vom Humanismus und bes. von J. Reuchlin und der Kabbala beeinflußt. 1520 zum Priester geweiht, wurde er im gleichen Jahr als Hebräischlehrer von den Nürnberger Augustiner-Eremiten angestellt. Spätestens hier…


(282 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[English Version] Seripando, Hieronymus (Girolamo; ca.16.10.1492 Neapel – 17.3.1563 Trient), genoß eine gute humanistische Ausbildung, bevor er 1507 Augustiner-Eremit wurde. Nach philos. und theol. Studien wurde er 1512 zum Priester geweiht und machte rasch Karriere in seinem Orden. Platonismus und Neuplatonismus beeinflußten ihn, aber auch Thomas von Aquin und Aegidius von Rom. Aufgrund der reformatorischen Theol. befaßte er sich mit der Rechtfertigungslehre und stützte sich dabei v.a. auf Augusti…


(759 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[English Version] Philipp, Landgraf von Hessen (13.11.1504 Marburg – 31.3.1567 Kassel), der polit. tatkräftigste dt. ev. Fürst im 16.Jh. 1518 als mündig erklärt, besuchte er den Wormser Reichstag (Reichsreform) 1520/21 und sprach dort auch mit Luther. Während des Aufstandes des F.v. Sickingen unterstützte er die angegriffenen Fürsten. 1523 heiratete er Christine, eine Tochter Georgs des Bärtigen von Sachsen. Im Bauernkrieg 1524/25 stand er seinem Schwiegervater bei. Ph.s Hinwendung zur Reformation 15…

Wittenberger Konkordie

(364 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[English Version] . Der Streit über das Abendmahl (: II., 3.) zw. Luther, Zwingli u.a. schwächte den polit. Einfluß des dt. Protestantismus. Deswegen gab es ab 1529 (Marburger Religionsgespräch) Verständigungsbemühungen. Unter den Theologen tat sich dabei M. Bucer hervor. Auch die Einführung der Reformation in Württemberg 1534 erforderte eine Annäherung zw. luth. und oberdt. Theol., die in süddt. Reichsstädten entwickelt worden war. Luther schlug am 5.10.1535 den oberdt. Städten mündliche Verhandl…

Paul III.

(386 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[English Version] Paul III., Papst 13.10.1534–10.11.1549 (Alessandro Farnese, geb. im Februar 1468 wohl in Canino), leitete die Reform der röm.-kath. Kirche und die Gegenreformation ein. P. wurde durch Alexander VI. mit 25 Jahren Kardinal. Trotz guter Kontakte auch zu Julius II. und Leo X. wurde er erst mit 66 Jahren zum Papst gewählt: Er galt als polit. neutral und schien geeignet, die schwankende Politik seines Vorgängers Clemens VII. zu beenden. P. bemühte sich um eine Verständigung zw. Karl V. …
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