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Blume, Clemens Ferdinand Anton

(159 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] (Jan 31, 1862, Billerbeck – Apr 8, 1932, Königstein), Jesuit hymnologist and liturgist. After graduating from Stella Matutina, the Jesuit gymnasium in Feldkirch (A) (1878), he entered the Jesuit order. From 1886 to 1897 he was professor of classical languages at Stella Matutina. While in Munich from 1903 to 1909, he engaged in extensive studies of Latin hymnology; in 1909 he became professor of liturgics at the Jesuit seminary of Sankt Georgen in Frankfurt. Besides many major and minor studies on theological and hymnological topics, his primary work is the edition of Ana…


(621 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] The term psalmody denotes the recital manner (cantillation) of the psalms and canticles of the Old and New Testaments (psalm tones). In its basic structure and function it resembles the reading tones and oration tones. Psalm tones follow the literary structure of the psalms and serve to make their acoustic quality clear (one verse consists of two half-verses: parallelismus membrorum). In the cantillation system of the Latin West, a psalm tone consists of three elements: recitation tone (tenor, tuba), intonation formula ( initium or reintonation at the start of …


(8,787 words)

Author(s): Zimmerman, Joyce Ann | Neijenhuis, Jörg | Praßl, Franz Karl | Felmy, Karl Christian | Ebenbauer, Peter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Phenomenology – II. History – III. Dogmatics – IV. Practical Theology – V. Ethics – VI. Orthodox Church – VII. Judaism – VIII. Art History – IX. Asia, Africa, Latin America I. Phenomenology The term liturgy has been used for Christian worship since the end of the 16th century; by the end of the 18th century, it had gained general acceptance. In secular usage, Gk λειτουργία/ leitourgía means work done in public service (from λαός/ laós, “people” [Laity] and ἔργον/ érgon, “work”); the LXX used it for the temple cult. It appears only 15 times in the N…

Semiology, Gregorian

(402 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] Gregorian semiology (from Gk sēmeíon, “symbol, sign” and lógos, “meaning”) is the scholarly research required for an interpretation of Gregorian chant based on the performance practices recorded in the earliest notated manuscripts. In a culture of oral tradition, the purpose of representing the chants by lineless (adiastematic) neumes in the 10th and early 11th centuries was not primarily to record the melody but to convey broader interpretive instructions regarding rhetoric, rhythm, agog…


(8,094 words)

Author(s): Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Meßner, Reinhard | Schattauer, Thomas H. | Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Historical Development – II. The Roman Mass – III. The Mass and Protestant Worship – IV. Music I. Historical Development The roots of the mass go back to Jewish communal meals and New Testament accounts of Jesus' table fellowship (Eucharist/Communion) with his followers from different backgrounds, including sinners and outsiders. Finally his instruction to “do this in remembrance of me” points to future consummation beyond death. The structure of remembrance ( zakar) means more than just recollection; it brings the salvation wrought through Chr…

Gallican Chant

(307 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] Even after the establishment of the “Gregorian” chant (Gregorian chant) around the year 900, samples of Gallican chant were preserved by a tradition-conscious oral transmission, and later transcribed. This repertoire is found in the Gregorian Codices, intermixed with the new chants. Gallican chants entered the Roman-Frankish liturgy where no Roman parallels were available (e.g. Introitus “Omnes gentes” for the 13th week of the year). They also serve as alternatives to standard ¶ chants (Greek/Latin Cherubic Hymn [Cherubikon] as Offertorium on Trinitatis) or r…


(378 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Liturgics A tract is a psalmodically structured solo chant before the Gospel; it replaces the Alleluia during Lent and on the Ember Days. The name derives either from tractim (sung continuously) or from tractus in the sense of “extended,” or as a translation of εἰρμός/ eirmós, in the sense of a melodic type. The tract was chanted by a cantor in directum, i.e. without a respond by the congregation – as an additional lection rather than as a response. It has often been suggested that the tract is among the earliest mass chants, a remnant of…

International Fellowship for Research in Hymnology

(155 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] (Internationale Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Hymnologie, IAH). The IAH promotes and studies church singing (Singing: III). Church song, open forms of singing and the hymnal are the subjects of international, ecumenical, and interdisciplinary (theology, musicology, linguistics and literature, bibliography, folklore) scholarly study, primarily at conferences and through the promotion of hymnological projects (Hymnology) – often in cooperation with academic institutions – and also in rela…

Reading Tone

(206 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] The reading tone is the model for musical recitation of liturgical lessons (cantillation). The speaking of lessons was unknown in the Early Church; recitation with “raised voice” denotes the special nature and standing of the Word of God and promotes better understanding. Elements of the reading tone are: recitation tone ( tenor); intonation; and¶ cadences ( flexa for short phrases, metrum for half-verse or long phrases, punctum for the end of the verse). These clarify the grammatical structure of a sentence acoustically, as also in the oration …

Gallican Liturgy

(308 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Old Gallican Liturgy – II. New Gallican Liturgy I. Old Gallican Liturgy First attested in 416 in the letter of Pope Innocent I to Bishop Decentius of Gubbio, this liturgy was replaced by the Roman-Frankish rite after 750. It was employed throughout Gaul and in parts of Italy and had many local variants whose dissemination by and large conformed to the provincial division of the Roman Empire. Numerous influences from Spain, Syria, and Constantinople enriched its literature and theology. As…

Puccini, Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria

(179 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] (Dec 22, 1858, Lucca – Nov 29, 1924, Brussels), was expected to follow in the footsteps of his father Michele as a church musician, but in 1880 he began studying with Amilcare Ponchielli in Milan and became an opera composer. Following his first operas, Le Villi, Edgar, and Manon Lescaut, he achieved international fame as a master of verismo with La Bohème (1896), Tosca (1900), and Madame Butterfly (four versions, 1904–1906). After his “horse opera” La Fanciulla del West and the operetta La Rondine, Puccini wrote three one-acters: Il Tabarro, Suor Angelica (for women’s ¶ vo…

Rite for the Christian Initiation of Adults (RCIA)

(76 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] is the English version of the Roman Catholic Ordo initiationis christianae adultorum (1972) for the admission of adults into the Church by catechumenate and initiation (baptism, confirmation, first communion), published in 1985 by the International Committee on English in the Liturgy (subsequently dissolved by Rome). Franz Karl Praßl Bibliography The Rites of the Catholic Church, publ. International Committee on English in the Liturgy, vol. I, 1990.

Ordinary Time

(200 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] Outside the cycle of Easter and Christmas festivals, the Roman liturgy had three formulas, each depending on the date of Easter, for measuring six possible Sundays after Epiphany (Epiphany: V), and 23 for 28 possible Sundays after Pentecost. In the Middle Ages they were numbered both “after Pentecost” (until 1970, Cath. use) and “after Trinity” (Trinity Sunday, Protestant use). All these ordinary (“ferial”) Sundays had the liturgical color (II) green and could be displaced by high…


(2,107 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz | Hossfeld, Frank-Lothar | Lattke, Michael | Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Term and Genre – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Liturgical Studies I. Term and Genre The Greek word ὕμνος/ hýmnos, whose etymology is obscure, originally meant, quite unspecifically, simply “song” (the verb ὑμνεῖν/ hymneín, “ to sing”; cf. Hes. Theog. 11.33; Hom. Hym. 3.178, etc.). Yet, from the ¶ 5th/4th century bce at the latest, it meant “song for a god” (cf. Plato, Leges 700 b 1–2; Xenophanes 21 B 1.13 DK; Xenophon, Cyrupaideia 18.1.23) and thence became the general term for “religious song,” and finally for “festival song,” “song o…

Rite for the Christian Initiation of Children (RCIC)

(82 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] is the English version of the Roman Catholic Ordo Initiationis Puerorum qui aetatem catecheticam adepti sunt, published in 1985 by the International Committee on English in the Liturgy. This special section of the Rite for the Christian Initiation of Adults must not be confused with the rite of baptism for children. Franz Karl Praßl Bibliography The Rites of the Catholic Church, publ. International Committee on English in the Liturgy, vol. I, 1990.


(201 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] ( Officium tenebrarum) is the special form combining Matins and Lauds (Liturgy of the hours) on the Thursday, Friday, and Saturday of Passion Week which was in use until 1970. One of the 15 candles burning on a special candelabra was extinguished after each psalm (three times three in Matins and five in Lauds) or after the Benedictus, so that the end of the service took place in tenebris, in the dark. In the Middle Ages, the Tenebrae had special concluding prayers and songs, including congregational hymns; according to the Roman use Ps 51(50), the Miserere, was sung again. …


(194 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] Neumes (from Gk νεῦμα/ neúma, “nod, sign”), first attested in the early 9th century, are the earliest forms of musical notation. Neumes represented all the sound for a single syllable, either a single pitch or a group of pitches; in the 11th century, neumes were set down in tabular form, along with their names. The original neumes were lineless (adiastematic, in campo aperto) and intended primarily to guide interpretation (rhythm, segmentation, dynamics, rhetoric, etc.) of a choral repertoire learned by rote. Neumed manuscripts were meant fo…

New Year Festival

(992 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen | Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In societies that must adapt and respond to an environment dominated by marked seasonal variations (Seasons), the rhythms of the year are fundamental to the economic and social life of the community. Each New Year festival reflects a specific social structure, which is characterized in turn by a specific perception and assessment of the natural environment. Therefore a phenomenological listing of the various religious elements of the festival does not do justice …

Liturgical Books

(1,664 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl | Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] I. Catholic – II. Orthodox I. Catholic 1. General Introduction and History The binding nature of its basic elements (Scripture reading, the breaking of bread [Eucharist/Communion]) notwithstanding, the liturgy was initially celebrated quite freely with improvised prayers by the presiding priest (Just. 1 Apol. 67). Later on, model texts (Hipp., Traditio Apostolica ) served as points of reference. From the 4th century onwards, the major ecclesiastical centers (Antioch, Alexandria, Rome, Jerusalem, Byzantium…

Celebrant's Prayer/Chant

(352 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E. | Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Music I. Liturgy Historically, the German term Altargesang relates to texts that are sung only by the priest during the mass (celebrant's prayer), and in a broader sense to all sung parts of the liturgy that are led by a celebrant: collects, verses, litanies, Gospel and Epistle readings, responses between choir and congregation, blessings as well as the intoning of the Kyrie, the Gloria and the Creed. The churches of ¶ the Reformation added new compositions for the choir and the congregation. Luther's Deutsche Messe (1526) as a psalm or a hymn as I…

Oratio Tone

(177 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] The oratio tone is the model for the chant of the priest’s prayers in the name of the congregation, or liturgies, especially oratios (collects/prayer of the day, super oblata/prayer over the gifts, post communionem/concluding prayer/prayer of thanksgiving), in the broader sense also cantillation formulas for eucharistic prayers (esp. the preface, verba testamenti), the Paternoster etc. with the same structure and significance as reading tones. Cantillated prayers are the oldest form of liturgical communication in words; some autho…

Church Music Scholarship

(3,563 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl | Ruff, Anthony William
[German Version] I. History of the Discipline – II. Current State of Research The study of church music is a relatively new scholarly field that endeavors comprehensively to collect, investigate, interpret, transmit, and also make usable in practice our knowledge about the practical and theoretical aspects of church music. The multifaceted contexts of church music must thereby be incorporated, including liturgy and liturgical theology, similarities and differences with re…

Gregorian Chant

(1,196 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Music I. Liturgy 1. Catholic The Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy of Vatican II treats Gregorian chant as specially suited to the Roman liturgy; other things being equal, it should have pride of place (art. 116). This status, which does not judge other forms of church music, is based on the timelessly valid manner in which Gregorian chant is part of the liturgy itself; it is a musical expression of the biblical word in the context of liturgical theology and its primary…

Chorale Book

(398 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. ( Choralbuch) is a collective term for collections of Gregorian chant. Since the 10th century, these have included the gradual, cantatorium, troper, sequentiarium, kyriale, antiphonary (Antiphon), hymnary, processional, tonary, and directory/breviary/ordinary. Since 1905, the Editio Vaticana has published new editions for practical use. The formerly common Liber usualis (Antiphonary) has been made obsolete by liturgical reform. The collections in use today are the Graduale Romanum (1974) or Graduale triplex (1979), the Graduale simplex (21975), and …

Marian Antiphons

(545 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] conclude the daily Catholic liturgy of the hours (III); they are sung after Compline and in the German Stundenbuch also after Vespers (III). Although they were originally antiphons to psalms (IV) or the Magnificat , since the 12th/13th century they have been independent chants without psalmody – possibly resulting from the practice of commemoration – sung in praise of Mary at the time in the evening when, according to medieval belief, the archangel Gabriel spoke his χαῖρε/ chaíre (Luke 1:28): a daily memorial of the incarnation and a reference to the chris…


(518 words)

Author(s): Lienhardt, Conrad | Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Architecture – II. Liturgy and Practice I. Architecture A simple or throne-like, originally open, seat in the church as seating for the father confessor and the person making confession, the place for individual confession (Confession). Beginning in the 16th century, especially after the Council of Trent and the Instructiones of ¶ C. Borromeo, the originally simple wooden armchair underwent rich development. In general, from the early 17th century on, one finds the symmetrical three-part confessional, the central…


(830 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Liturgics A sequence is a non-biblical hymn sung during mass between the Alleluia and the Gospel (in the 1975 Ger. missal sung before the Alleluia); it has been an element of festal liturgies since the 9th century. The Roman Missal of 1570 included Victimae paschali laudes (Easter), Veni, Sancte Spiritus (Pentecost), Lauda Sion, Salvatorem (Corpus Christi), and the late medieval rhyming poem Dies irae, introduced as a sequence for requiems. In 1727 the Stabat mater was added for the feast of the Seven Sorrows of Mary. In the 1970 Missale Romanum (Ger. missal 1975), t…


(839 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. In Catholic usage, German Choral is a collective term for the genuine liturgical music of the Western Latin liturgies (Liturgy). The music for the Gallo-Roman liturgy, which developed c. 750 in France (Metz), was initially called cantus romanus (Charlemagne) or cantilena romana (Paul the Deacon); later, on the basis of a legend concerning its origin, it came to be called Gregorian (the trope Gregorius praesul, c. 800; John the Deacon, 878). After the 12th century, other synonymous terms were used, primarily to distinguish it from polyphony. Since the 13th century, ca…

Wagner, Peter Josef

(218 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] (Aug 19, 1865, Kürenz, near Trier – Oct 17, 1931, Fribourg), musicologist. After training with Michael Hermesdorff at the cathedral in Trier, he studied in Straßburg (Strasbourg) with Gustav Jacobsthal and in Berlin with Heinrich Bellermann and P. Spitta. In 1893 he received his habilitation from Fribourg and taught there as a lecturer; he was appointed associate professor in 1897 and full professor in 1902. In 1920/1921 he served as rector. In 1901 he founded the Gregorian Academ…


(301 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[English Version] I. Liturgisch Ein psalmodisch strukturierter Sologesang vor dem Evangelium, der in der Fastenzeit und an Quatembertagen das Halleluja ersetzt. Der Name wird erklärt mit tractim (in einem Zug durchgesungen) oder mit tractus im Sinne von lange »ausgedehnt« oder als Übers. des Begriffs ει᾿ρμο´ς/eirmós, der als »Typusmelodie« zu deuten ist. Der T. wurde von einem Kantor »in directum«, d.h. ohne Kehrvers der Gemeinde, vorgetragen – als eine weitere Lesung und nicht als »Antwortgesang«. Vielfach wird angenommen, daß der T. zu…

Rite for the Christian Initiation of Adults

(89 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[English Version] (RCIA) ist die vom inzw. durch Rom aufgelösten »International Committee on English in the Liturgy« (ICEL) 1985 publizierte engl. Version des röm. kath. »Ordo initiationis christianae adultorum« (1972), der Eingliederung von Erwachsenen in die Kirche durch Katechumenat und Initiation (Taufe, Firmung, erste Eucharistie), zu dt.: »Die Feier der Eingliederung Erwachsener in die Kirche« (21991). Franz Karl Praßl Bibliography The Rites of the Catholic Church, prepared by the ICEL, Bd.1, 1990.


(821 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen | Praßl, Franz Karl
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich Die Jahresrhythmen sind grundlegende wirtschaftliche und sozial einschneidende Ereignisse in Gesellschaften, die sich in einer von markanten Wechseln der Jahreszeiten geprägten Umwelt orientieren und behaupten müssen. Jedes N. ist auf eine konkrete gesellschaftliche Gruppenstruktur bezogen, die wiederum durch eine spezifische Wahrnehmung und Bewertung der natürlichen Umwelt gekennzeichnet ist. Aus diesem Grund ist eine religionsphänomenologische Auflis…


(177 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[English Version] (Tenebrae, Officium tenebrarum), die bis 1970 in bes. Gestalt kombinierte Matutin und Laudes (Stundengebet) vom Donnerstag, Freitag und Samstag in der Karwoche. Jeweils eine der auf einem eigenen Leuchter brennenden 15 Kerzen wurde nach jedem Psalm (drei×drei in Matutin und fünf in Laudes) bzw. nach dem Benedictus gelöscht, so daß der Schluß der Feier »in tenebris« – im Finstern – stattfand. Die T. hatte im MA bes. Schlußgebete und -gesänge, auch mit Gemeindeliedern, nach röm. Br…


(166 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[English Version] Wagner, Peter Josef (19.8.1865 Kürenz bei Trier – 17.10.1931 Fribourg), Choralwissenschaftler. Nach Ausbildung bei Michael Hermesdorff am Trierer Dom Studium in Straßburg (Gustav Jacobsthal) und Berlin (Heinrich Bellermann und Ph. Spitta). 1893 Habil. in Fribourg, dort PD, 1897 a.o. Prof., 1902 o. Prof., 1920/21 Rektor. 1901 Gründung der gregorianischen Akademie an der Universität Fribourg, welche prominente Schüler und wichtige Studien hervorbrachte. 1904 Mitglied der päpstl. Kom…

Tempus per annum/Grüne Sonntage

(177 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[English Version] . Außerhalb des Oster- und Weihnachtsfestkreises gab es in der röm. Liturgie drei Meßformulare für – je nach Ostertermin – sechs mögliche Sonntage nach Epiphanias (Epiphanie: V.) und 23 für 28 mögliche Sonntage nach dem Pfingstfest, die im MA sowohl »nach Pfingsten« (bis 1970 kath. Usus) als auch »nach Trinitatis« (Trinitatisfest; ev. Usus) gezählt worden sind. Alle diese gewöhnlichen (»ferialen«) Sonntage hatten die liturgische Farbe (: II.) grün und konnten von höheren Festen v…


(357 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[English Version] Semiologie, gregorianische (von griech. sēmeíon, »Zeichen«, und lógos, »Sinn, Bedeutung«), ist die wiss. Grundlagenforschung für eine Interpretation des gregorianischen Gesangs, die sich an den aufführungspraktischen Angaben der ältesten notierten Hsn. orientiert. Eingebettet in eine Kultur mündlicher Überlieferung, liegt das Interesse bei der Aufzeichnung der Gesänge durch linienlose (adiastematische) Neumen im 10. und teilweise 11.Jh. nicht primär bei der Melodieüberlieferung, s…


(90 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[English Version] ist ein lat. Amt oder eine stille Messe (mit dt. Meßliedern) vor dem in der Monstranz ausgesetzten Allerheiligsten (: II.), an deren Ende mit der Monstranz gesegnet wird, mancherorts auch am Anfang. Die in Süddeutschland und Österreich volkstümliche S. wurde wegen ihrer theol. Problematik kirchenamtlich nur mit Restriktionen geduldet, seit 1973 ist sie ausdrücklich verboten. Franz Karl Praßl Bibliography Ph.Hartmann, Repertorium Rituum, 101904, 400–404 J.A. Jungmann, Missarum sollemnia, 41958 H. Hollerweger, Die Reform des Gottesdienstes z.Z. des…


(153 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[English Version] Puccini, Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria (22.12.1858 Lucca – 29.11.1924 Brüssel). Wie sein Vater Michele P. sollte Giacomo Kirchenmusiker werden, er studierte jedoch ab 1880 bei Amilcare Ponchielli in Mailand und wurde Opernkomponist. Nach den ersten Opern »Le Villi«, »Edgar« und »Manon Lescaut« gelang der internationale Durchbruch als Großmeister des Verismo mit »La Bohe`me« (1896), »Tosca« (1900) und »Madame Butterfly« (vier Fassungen 1904–1906). Nach dem Opernwes…


(152 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[English Version] Orationston, Modell für den musikalischen Vortrag der im Namen der Gemeinde vollzogenen Gebete des Priesters bzw. Liturgen, bes. der Orationen (Collecta/Tagesgebet, Super oblata/Gabengebet, Post communionem/Schlußgebet/Dankgebet), im weiteren Sinne auch Kantillationsformeln für das Hochgebet (bes. Präfation, Verba Testamenti), das Vaterunser usw. mit gleicher Struktur und Bedeutung wie Lektionstöne. Kantillierte Gebete sind die Urform sprachlicher liturgischer Kommunikation; dies…


(690 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[English Version] I. Liturgisch S. ist ein nicht bibl. poetischer Meßgesang nach dem Halleluja und vor dem Evangelium (dt. Meßbuch 1975: vor dem Halleluja), seit dem 9.Jh. Teil einer Festliturgie. Das röm. Missale 1570 kannte »Victimae paschali laudes« (Ostern), »Veni, Sancte Spiritus« (Pfingsten), »Lauda, Sion, Salvatorem« (Fronleichnam) und das zur Totensequenz mutierte spätma. Reimgedicht »Dies irae«. 1727 wurde »Stabat mater« (Fest: Sieben Schmerzen Mariä) hinzugefügt. Im Missale 1970 (Meßbuch …

Rite for the Christian Initiation of Children

(106 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[English Version] Who have reached Catechetical Age (RCIC) ist die vom International Committee on English in the Liturgy (ICEL) 1985 publizierte engl. Version des röm. kath. »Ordo Initiationis Puerorum qui aetatem catecheticam adepti sunt«, zu dt.: »Die Eingliederung von Kindern im Schulalter in die Kirche« (1986). Dieser spezielle Teil des Rite for the Christian Initiation of Adults (RCIA) darf nicht verwechselt werden mit der Feier der Kindertaufe (Taufe), dem Rite of Baptism for Children. Franz Karl Praßl Bibliography The Rites of the Catholic Church, prepared by the I…


(518 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[English Version] bez. die musikalischen Vortragsweisen (Kantillation) der Psalmen und Cantica des AT und NT (Psalmtöne). In Grundstruktur und Funktionsweise gleicht sie den Lektionstönen und Orationstönen. Psalmtöne sind nach der lit. Struktur der Psalmen als deren akustische Verdeutlichung gebaut (ein Vers besteht aus zwei Halbversen: parallelismus membrorum). Im Kantillationssystem des lat. Westens enthält ein Psalmton drei Elemente: Rezitationston (Tenor, Tuba), Intonationsformel (Initium …


(165 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[English Version] (von n̆ευ˜μα/neu´ma, »Wink«) sind seit Beginn des 9.Jh. die ältesten Formen der Niederschrift von Musik. Als N. bez. man alle Töne über einer Textsilbe (Einzeltonneumen, Gruppenneumen), die verwendeten Zeichen wurden im 11.Jh. mit ihren Namen tabellarisch überliefert. Die urspr. linienlosen N. (adiastematisch, in campo aperto) sind primär Interpretationsanleitungen (Rhythmus, Gliederung, Dynamik, Rhetorik usw.) für mündlich-auswendig tradiertes Choralrepertoire. Neumierte Hsn. die…
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