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Rebaptism Controversy

(483 words)

Author(s): Wendebourg, Dorothea
[German Version] Cyprian of Carthage and Stephen II of Rome, over whether baptism (III) performed in a heretical or schismatic body should be recognized and whether a convert from such a body should be treated as already baptized. Following longstanding North African tradition (Tert. Bapt. 15; Council of Carthage under Agrippinus c. 200: Cyp. Ep. 71.4; 73.3; Eus. Hist. eccl. VII 7) and the practice of other regions such as Asia Minor (Cyp. Ep. 75; Eus. Hist. eccl. VII 5.7), Cyprian answered negatively and was supported by African councils in 255 and 256 (Cyp. Ep. 70 and 72; Sententiae episco…

Ecumenical Movement

(10,763 words)

Author(s): Wendebourg, Dorothea | Koschorke, Klaus | Sattler, Dorothea | Lippy, Charleas H. | Geldbach, Erich | Et al.
[German Version] I. 1st to 19th Century – II. 20th and 21st Centuries I. 1st to 19th Century 1. Early Church The concerns of the first centuries of the church were less with the establishing of fellowship than with its preservation – focused in the fellowship of the Lord's Supper – among Christians and congregations (Paul, Saint, Apostolic Council, Clement I (Romanus), Ignatius [Ignatian …

Cappadocian Fathers

(936 words)

Author(s): Wendebourg, Dorothea
The term “the three great Cappadocian Fathers” refers collectively to the three Eastern church fathers (all from the region of Cappadocia in central Asia Minor) who completed the development of the early doctrine of the Trinity and also provided decisive initiatives for the theology and practice at least of the Eastern church: Basil the Great of Caesarea (d. 379), his brother Gregory of Nyssa (d. ca. 395), and their friend Gregory of Nazianzus (d. 389/90). Amphilochius of Iconium (d. 395) is sometimes included in this group. The Trinitarian teaching of the Cappadocian Father…


(5,390 words)

Author(s): Wendebourg, Dorothea
1. Definition, Range In the history and sociology of religion (History of Religion; Sociology of Religion), the term “monasticism” is used to refer to the form of life involving separation from most of the members of a religion for asceticism and prayer, with a view to achieving religious perfection. We find it in almost all the higher religions—that is, besides Christianity, in Jainism; all forms of Buddhism, including Lamaism (Tibetan Religions) ¶ and Zen Buddhism; Taoism; and Islam (among the dervishes)—though not in Judaism except for a short period with the Ess…

Ökumenische Bewegung

(9,339 words)

Author(s): Wendebourg, Dorothea | Wendebourg, Dorothea, | Koschorke, Klaus | Sattler, Dorothea | Lipp, Charles H. | Et al.
[English Version] I. 1. bis 19. Jahrhundert 1.Alte Kirche Die Sorge der ersten Jh. der Kirche galt weniger der Herstellung als der Bewahrung der – zentral in der Abendmahlsgemeinschaft gegebenen – Gemeinschaft unter Christen und Gemeinden (Paulus, Apostelkonzil, Clemens I. [Romanus], Ignatius [Ignatiusbriefe], Irenaeus von Lyon, Cyprian von Karthago u.a.) und der Ausscheidung falsche Lehre oder Praxis vertretender Theologen und Gruppen. Dabei führten meist erst diese Ausscheidungsprozesse zur Klärung …