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Troezen inscription

(242 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] An inscription discovered in Troezen in 1959 ([1; 2]; translation in [3. 20 f.]) with the text of a decree of the Athenian People's Assembly proposed by Themistocles (the 'Decree of Themistocles'), which decreed the evacuation of the inhabitants of Attica to Salamis and the repatriation of exiles before the naval battle of Cape Artemisium (Persian Wars) in 480 BC; in its present form, it can be dated to the 3rd cent. BC [4. 2; 2. 48]. Its authenticity was soon doubted and the TI w…

Zenis

(113 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
(Ζῆνις/ Zênis). [German version] [1] Sub-satrap of Pharnabazus [2], 5th cent. BC Z. from Dardanus [4], sub-satrap of Pharnabazus [2] in the Troad (in Xen. Hell. 3,1,10: Aeolis); after his death, his wife Mania [3], with the assent of Pharnabazus, took over power and ruled successfully until her assassination shortly before the arrival of Dercylidas in 411 BC (Xen. Hell. 3,1,14; 3,1,16). Eder, Walter (Berlin) [German version] [2] From Chios, author of a work on his homeland, 4th cent. BC? (also Ζηνεύς/ Zēneús). Writer from Chios, possibly 4th cent. BC; he wrote 'about his hom…

Envoys

(181 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (Greek ἄγγελοι/ ángeloi, πρέσβεις/ présbeis, ἀπόστολοι/ apóstoloi; Lat. missi, nuntii). Despite a lively inter-state exchange, antiquity had no fixed institution for maintaining contact with foreign states through envoys in the sense of constant representation. Envoys were mostly appointed for a certain period, for certain duties and with set competencies. The importance of the work is shown from the fact that they were never appointed by  lot but in Greece as a rule were selected by the p…

Latin Wars

(582 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] is the term for the military conflicts between Rome and the Latin League ( Latini D.) - of which Rome was not a member - and between Rome and individual Latin towns that sporadically occurred from the beginning of the Republic (about 510 BC) to the dissolution of the League by Rome in 338 BC. The first Latin War can be considered as an attempt of the Latins to end Rome's dominant position. Rome had become the dominant power among the Latins under its kings Servius Tullius [I 4] and Tarquinius [12] Superbus (cf. Liv. 1,52) and made it …

Late Antiquity

(3,268 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Effenberger, Arne (Berlin)
[German version] I. The historical period In modern historical research, Late Antiquity (LA) is the period following the crisis of the Roman Empire in the 3rd cent. AD from the reigns of Diocletian (284-305) and Constantine [1] (307-337) to the end of the Empire in the West (deposition of Romulus [2] Augustulus 476) or the dissolution of the Western Empire into several Germanic successor states during the 5th cent. or even to Justinian's [1] (527-565) standardization of Roman law and failed attempt t…

Snake Column

(142 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Votive gift of the Greek states that were taking part in the Persian Wars against Xerxes to Apollo of Delphi in the form of a bronze column of three snake bodies intertwined like a rope, with their heads bearing a gold tripod-type cauldron. On their coils are inscribed in the Doric dialect the names of 31 Greek states, beginning with the Spartans ( Laked[ aimónioi]). The gold cauldron was stolen in the third of the Sacred Wars (356-346 BC) by the Phocians (Paus. 10,13-19), the column was taken by the emperor Constantinus [1] to Constantinople,…

Hellenistic states

(1,445 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] A. Historical development Hellenistic states (HS) evolved from the collapse of  Alexander [4] the Great's empire in the eastern Mediterranean and Near Asia, and from the imitation by individual rulers in Sicily and southern Italy ( Agathocles [2],  Hieron [2] II) of Hellenistic government and administrative institutions. After the death of the 32-year old Alexander, who left behind no heirs competent to govern nor any solid imperial administration, the empire's unity was at risk: its…

Struggle of the orders

(1,082 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Modern term for the confrontation between the patricians ( patricii ) and plebeians ( plebs ) at Rome, which began in 494 BC with the foundation of the people's tribunate and ended in 287 BC with the recognition of the decisions of the plebs ( plebiscitum ) as generally binding laws ( lex, leges ) (but s. [1], who puts the end only as late as 217/6). Only the relatively homogenous patriciate should here be understood as an 'order'. The plebs was highly fragmented both socially and economically, and moreover the plebeian clientes of the patricians were …

Colonization

(5,996 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Deger-Jalkotzy, Sigrid (Salzburg) | Briese, Christoph (Randers) | Bieg, Gebhard (Tübingen)
I. General information [German version] A. Definition The term colonization is used to refer to several waves of settlement movements in the area around the Mediterranean in the period from the 11th cent. BC up to the Roman imperial era, which significantly alter the settlement geography of the Mediterranean world and have a decisive and lasting effect on the course of ancient history. In general the term colonization is not used to refer to the immigration in the 3rd and 2nd millenia of Indo-European …

Potter's oracle

(234 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Prophetic oracle, fragments transmitted in three Greek papyri of the 2nd and 3rd cents. AD (texts in [1. 195-209]; partly translated in [4. 412-415]; on Imperial Period interest in the PO see [3. 194-199]). On the 'Island of the Sun' a potter sent by Thot unfolds, in the presence of a (fictional) king Amenophis (as spokesman of Chmun the god of pottery? [1. 184 f.]), a terrible portrayal of the physical and moral decline of Egypt and its inhabitants [2. 168-170] in a period of foreign ru…

Merismos

(80 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (μερισμός; merismós from μερίζειν; merízein = ‘to divide, distribute’) in Athens the name for the ‘distribution’ of funds from tax incomes by the apodéktai to the appropriate officials ( archaí ). The sums allocated were determined by the council of the polis ( boulḗ ) and had to be struck off immediately after distribution ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 48,1-2). Merismos is not attested before the 4th century BC ( Taxes III. B.). Eder, Walter (Berlin) Bibliography Rhodes, 557-560.

Bessas

(101 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Goth of Thracian origin (born around AD 480), whose family did not accompany Theoderic to Italy in AD 488. He served as an officer in Justinian's army against the Persians, under  Belisarius in the reconquest of Italy, as also against the Goths and in his old age in Syrian territory. He achieved high rank ( dux Mesopotamiae 531; mag. mil. vacans in Italy 535-546; mag. mil. per Armeniam 550-554), was even patricius, but was finally banished for having a too nonchalant attitude towards his duty as a consequence of excessive financial dealings. PLRE 2, 226-229. Eder, Walter (B…

Spartocids

(83 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Ruling dynasty in the Regnum Bosporanum, named after its founder Spartocus [1] I, who took over the power from the Archaeanactids of Panticapaeum in 438/7 BC. The dynasty, which distinguished itself in the Classical and early Hellenistic periods with a brisk trade in corn in the Aegaean (primarily with Athens), came to an end in 109 BC with the handing over of power by its last ruler, Paerisades [6] V, to Mithridates [6] VI of Pontus. Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Prothytes

(69 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (Προθύτης; Prothýtēs). Theban, leading anti-Macedonian politician who, relying on Athenian help, in 335 BC advocated the secession of Thebes from Macedonia. Swiftly advancing on Thebes, Alexander [4]  the Great (Diod. 17,8,2) demanded in vain his surrender (Plut. Alexandros 11,7). He was probably killed in the defence of the city, which involved heavy losses (Arr. Anab. 1,8,1-8; Diod.  Sic. 17,14,1; Plut. Alexandros 11,12). Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Rulership

(2,483 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Kahl, Jochem (Münster) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] I. General Rulership is here understood as political rulership, i.e. a reciprocal social relationship serving to create and permanently preserve the social order through political organization. Rulership is based on fixed rules applying both to the ruler(s) and the ruled; thus those ruled generally assent blindly to the authority of the ruler(s), or are at least so minded as to tolerate it. As a system of order, rulership appears in different forms: in the ancient Near East and Egyp…

Areobindus

(290 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius A. Cos. 434 AD Father of Dagalaifus, grandfather of A. [2], in AD 434 consul together with Aspar Ardabur. As magister militum ( comes foederatorum?) he defeated a Persian officer in single combat in 422, in 441 Theodosius II sent him as magister militum against the Vandals to Africa but he missed his opportunity because he stayed too long in Sicily. He was defeated by Attila in 443 (as was Aspar). In 447 patricius; died in 449 (PLRE 2, 145 f., A. 2). Eder, Walter (Berlin) [German version] [2] Flavius Areobindus Dagalaifus Areobindus Cos. 506 AD Son of Dagalaifus,…

Rulers

(2,915 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Kahl, Jochem (Münster) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
I. Ancient Orient [German version] A. Terminology Designations for rulers include: (1) descriptive terms like the Sumerian LUGAL (literally 'big man'), equated in vocabularies with the Akkadian šarru ('shining one(?)'), malku ('adviser', Hebrew melek), Hittite ḥaššu- ('well-born one'); furthermore, Sumerian NUN and Akkadian rubāum ('most excellent one'), and Sumerian EN, Akkadian bēlu, Hittite išḫa- ('lord'); these apply regardless of the size and structure of the area of rule. Feminine forms are recorded. (2) Culture and epoch specific titles (a…

Year of four emperors

(516 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Modern term for the year AD 69, in which four emperors – some at the same time, some in swift succession – ruled the Roman Empire (Galba, Otho, Vitellius and Vespasian), and in the broader sense for the period between Iulius [II 150] Vindex's revolt against Nero (beginning of AD 68) in Gaul and the elevation to emperor of  Vespasian (1 July 69 in Egypt, 3 July 69 in Syria) or its recognition by the Senate in Rome (21/22 December 69). Galba [2], from an ancient patrician family, sided with Iulius Vindex's rebellion, was proclaimed empe…

A. A.

(52 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation of the blanket name A(ulus) A(gerius), which, in Roman juristic writing, serves as the designation for the plaintiff (  actio ). N(umerius) N(egidius) stands for the defendant. In addition, the names Titius, Gaius or Sempronius are used for the designation of a third party. Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Toparches

(29 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (τοπάρχης; topárchēs). 'Leader (ἄρχειν/ árchein = rule) of a district ( tópos)'; in the Hellenistic period the highest civil administrative official in a tópos (q.v.). Eder, Walter (Berlin)
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